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mitochondrial biogenesis

Carlos Rp Dechandt, Tatiane M Vicentini, Guilherme Pauperio Lanfredi, Rui M P da Silva, Enilza Maria Espreafico, José A C de Oliveira, Vitor Marcel Faça, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Luciane C Alberici
The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) is an animal model of tonic-clonic epileptic seizures, developed after genetic selection by sister x brother inbreeding of Wistar rats susceptible to sound stimuli. Although metabolic changes have been described in this strain, nothing, however, is known about its mitochondrial metabolism. Here, we addressed mitochondrial aspects of OXPHOS, oxidative stress, biogenesis and dynamics in liver, skeletal muscle and heart of male WAR, correlating then to physiological aspects of body metabolism...
December 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Neringa Jurkute, Joshua Harvey, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the most common primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disorder in the population and it carries a poor visual prognosis. In this article, we review the development of treatment strategies for LHON, the evidence base and the areas of unmet clinical need. RECENT FINDINGS: There is accumulating evidence that increasing mitochondrial biogenesis could be an effective strategy for protecting retinal ganglion cells in LHON...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Angela T S Wyse, Mateus Grings, Moacir Wajner, Guilhian Leipnitz
Sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency is an autosomal recessive inherited neurometabolic disease caused by deficient activity of SO. It is biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation and high urinary excretion of sulfite, thiosulfate, and S-sulfocysteine. Severe neurological symptoms, including neonatal seizures, encephalopathy, and psychomotor retardation, are commonly observed in the affected patients, but the pathogenesis of the neurologic dysfunction is still poorly understood. In this minireview, we will briefly summarize the knowledge obtained from in vivo and in vitro findings from animal studies indicating that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are involved in the pathophysiology of the brain damage in this disease...
December 5, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Yuka Sudo, Hiroki Otsuka, Ryota Miyakawa, Akifumi Goto, Yohei Kashiwase, Kiyoshi Terawaki, Kanako Miyano, Yuto Hirao, Kanari Taki, Ryoma Tagawa, Masaki Kobayashi, Naoyuki Okita, Yasuhito Uezono, Yoshikazu Higami
Despite the similar phenotypes, including weight loss, reduction of food intake, and lower adiposity, associated with caloric restriction (CR) and cancer cachexia (CC), CC is a progressive wasting syndrome, while mild CR improves whole body metabolism. In the present study, we compared adipose metabolic changes in a novel rat model of CC, mild CR (70% of the food intake of control rats, which is similar to the food consumption of CC rats), and severe CR (30% of the food intake of controls). We show that CC and severe CR are associated with much smaller adipocytes with significantly lower mitochondrial DNA content; but, that mild CR is not...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hongsuk Park, Anyuan He, Min Tan, Jordan M Johnson, John M Dean, Terri A Pietka, Yali Chen, Xiangyu Zhang, Fong-Fu Hsu, Babak Razani, Katsuhiko Funai, Irfan J Lodhi
Peroxisomes perform essential functions in lipid metabolism, including fatty acid oxidation and plasmalogen synthesis. Here, we describe a role for peroxisomal lipid metabolism in mitochondrial dynamics in brown and beige adipocytes. Adipose tissue peroxisomal biogenesis was induced in response to cold exposure through activation of the thermogenic co-regulator PRDM16. Adipose-specific knockout of the peroxisomal biogenesis factor Pex16 (Pex16-AKO) in mice impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and increased diet-induced obesity...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
François Singh, Joffrey Zoll, Urs Duthaler, Anne-Laure Charles, Miljenko V Panajatovic, Gilles Laverny, Thomas G McWilliams, Daniel Metzger, Bernard Geny, Stephan Krähenbühl, Jamal Bouitbir
Statins inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and lower serum LDL-cholesterol levels. Statins are generally well tolerated, but can be associated with potentially life-threatening myopathy of unknown mechanism. We have shown previously that statins impair PGC-1β expression in human and rat skeletal muscle, suggesting that PGC-1β may play a role in statin-induced myopathy. PGC-1β is a transcriptional co-regulator controlling the expression of important genes in mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidative capacity and energy metabolism...
December 3, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Anup Ramachandran, Luqi Duan, Jephte Y Akakpo, Hartmut Jaeschke
Mitochondria are critical cellular organelles for energy generation and are now also recognized as playing important roles in cellular signaling. Their central role in energy metabolism, as well as their high abundance in hepatocytes, make them important targets for drug-induced hepatotoxicity. This review summarizes the current mechanistic understanding of the role of mitochondria in drug-induced hepatotoxicity caused by acetaminophen, diclofenac, anti-tuberculosis drugs such as rifampin and isoniazid, anti-epileptic drugs such as valproic acid and constituents of herbal supplements such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids...
2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Research
Lichan Tao, Long Wang, Xiaoyu Yang, Xiaohong Jiang, Fei Hua
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a chronic disease associated with intermittent hypoxia (IH) and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) is a naturally occurring incretin used as a promising therapeutic agent in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, and advanced heart failure. However, whether GLP-1 can protect against IH-induced cardiac injury is still unclear. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the effects of recombinant human GLP-1 (rhGLP-1) on cardiac health in mice...
November 29, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Blanca Hernando-Rodríguez, Marta Artal-Sanz
Mitochondrial functions are essential for life, critical for development, maintenance of stem cells, adaptation to physiological changes, responses to stress, and aging. The complexity of mitochondrial biogenesis requires coordinated nuclear and mitochondrial gene expression, owing to the need of stoichiometrically assemble the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system for ATP production. It requires, in addition, the import of a large number of proteins from the cytosol to keep optimal mitochondrial function and metabolism...
November 29, 2018: Cells
Alberto Pérez-López, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Alfredo Santana, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Cecilia Dorado, Jose A L Calbet, David Morales-Alamo
Interleukin (IL)-15 stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, fat oxidation, glucose uptake and myogenesis in skeletal muscle. However, the mechanisms by which exercise triggers IL-15 expression remain to be elucidated in humans. This study aimed at determining whether high-intensity exercise and exercise-induced RONS stimulate IL-15/IL-15Rα expression and its signaling pathway (STAT3) in human skeletal muscle. Nine volunteers performed a 30-s Wingate test in normoxia and hypoxia (PI O2 =75 mmHg), 2 h after placebo or antioxidant administration (α-lipoic acid, vitamin C and E) in a randomized double-blind design...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Renuka Kolli, Jürgen Soll, Christopher Carrie
The evolutionarily conserved YidC/Oxa1/Alb3 proteins are involved in the insertion of membrane proteins in all domains of life. In plant mitochondria, individual knockouts of OXA1a, OXA2a and OXA2b are embryo-lethal. In contrast to other members of the protein family, OXA2a and OXA2b contain a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain at the C-terminus. Here, the role of Arabidopsis thaliana OXA2b was determined by using viable mutant plants that were generated by complementing homozygous lethal OXA2b T-DNA insertional mutants with a C-terminally truncated OXA2b lacking the TPR domain...
November 28, 2018: Plant Physiology
Azam Shakery, Katayoun Pourvali, Arman Ghorbani, Samira Sadat Fereidani, Hamid Zand
Background: Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as a ketone body is the metabolic fuel in oxidative phosphorylation pathway. So far the effects of BHB on the biology of tumor cells is contradictory. Therefore, we investigated the effect of BHB on viability, metabolism, proliferation and migration of 5FU treated SW480 colon cancer cell line. Methods: we treated the SW480 cells with IC50 dose of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) for 72 h to isolate a subpopulation of 5FU treated cells that were resistant to it. Effects of BHB on cell viability was investigated by MTT assay...
November 29, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Zhen Luo, Xue Xu, Takami Sho, Jing Zhang, Weina Xu, Jianbo Yao, Jianxiong Xu
Significant embryo loss remains a serious problem in pig production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in embryonic implantation and placentation. However, the potential mechanism of ROS on porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cell fate during peri-implantation period has not been investigated. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of ROS on pTr cell phenotypes and the regulatory role in cell attachment and differentiation. Herein, results showed that exogenous H2 O2 inhibited pTr cell viability, arrested cell cycle at S and G2/M phase, increased cell apoptosis and autophagy protein light chain 3B (LC3B) and Beclin-1, while these effects were reversed by different concentrations of N-acety-l-cysteine (NAC) post-treatment...
November 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Hongliang Zhang, Ute Krämer
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are evolutionarily ancient ubiquitous protein cofactors which have mostly catalytic functions but can also have structural roles. In Arabidopsis thaliana , we presently know a total of 124 Fe-S metalloproteins that are encoded in the genome. Fe-S clusters are highly sensitive to oxidation. Therefore, we hypothesized that Fe-S cluster protein biogenesis is adjusted following the daily rhythms in metabolism driven by photosynthesis at the whole-plant, organ, cellular and sub-cellular levels...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Richard G Melvin, Nicole Lamichane, Essi Havula, Krista Kokki, Charles Soeder, Corbin D Jones, Ville Hietakangas
How dietary selection impacts genome evolution to define the optimal range of nutrient intake is a poorly understood question with medical relevance. We have addressed this question by analyzing Drosophila simulans and sechellia , recently diverged species with differential diet choice. D. sechellia larvae, specialized to a nutrient scarce diet, did not survive on sugar rich conditions, while the generalist species D. simulans was sugar tolerant. Sugar tolerance in D. simulans was a tradeoff for performance on low energy diet and was associated with global reprogramming of metabolic gene expression...
November 27, 2018: ELife
Shi-Kun Yang, Hao-Ran Zhang, Shu-Peng Shi, Ying-Qiu Zhu, Na Song, Qing Dai, Wei Zhang, Ming Gui, Hao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a polysystem autoimmune disease that adversely affects human health. Various organ can be affected, including the kidney or brain. Traditional treatment methods for SLE primarily rely on glucocorticoids and immunosuppressors. Unfortunately, these therapeutic agents cannot prevent a high recurrence rate after SLE remission. Therefore, novel therapeutic targets are urgently required. METHODS: A systematic search of the published literature regarding the abnormal structure and function of mitochondria in SLE and therapies targeting mitochondria was performed in several databases...
November 26, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Hui Zhang, Yong-Wen Feng, Yong-Ming Yao
Recently, the definition of sepsis was concluded to be a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Severe patients always present with uncorrectable hypotension or hyperlactacidemia, which is defined as septic shock. The new definition emphasizes dysregulation of the host response and multiple organ dysfunction, which is partially attributed to metabolic disorders induced by energy crisis and oxidative stress. Mitochondria are a cellular organelle that are well known as the center of energy production, and mitochondrial damage or dysfunction is commonly induced in septic settings and is a predominant factor leading to a worse prognosis...
November 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
Rudi Stinkens, Bram Brouwers, Johan W Jocken, Ellen E Blaak, Karianna F Teunissen-Beekman, Matthijs K Hesselink, Marleen A van Baak, Patrick Schrauwen, Gijs H Goossens
Rodent studies have indicated that physical exercise may improve adipose tissue function. We investigated the effects of a 12-wk supervised, progressive exercise training program on adipocyte morphology and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue function in metabolically well-phenotyped subjects with obesity. Men with obesity ( n = 21) participated in a 12-wk supervised, progressive, combined exercise training program consisting of aerobic exercise (30 min at 70% of maximal power output 2 times/wk) and resistance exercise (3 × 10 repetitions at 60% of 1 repeated maximum 1 time/wk), with adjustment of exercise intensity every 4 wk...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
C Andreani, C Bartolacci, M Guescini, M Battistelli, V Stocchi, F Orlando, M Provinciali, A Amici, C Marchini, L Tiano, P Orlando, S Silvestri
Aging skeletal muscles are characterized by a progressive decline in muscle mass and muscular strength. Such muscular dysfunctions are usually associated with structural and functional alterations of skeletal muscle mitochondria. The senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) model, characterized by premature aging and high degree of oxidative stress, was used to investigate whether a combined intervention with mild physical exercise and ubiquinol supplementation was able to improve mitochondrial function and preserve skeletal muscle health during aging...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Alireza Saeidi, Keivan Zandi, Yi Ying Cheok, Hamidreza Saeidi, Won Fen Wong, Chalystha Yie Qin Lee, Heng Choon Cheong, Yean Kong Yong, Marie Larsson, Esaki Muthu Shankar
T-cell exhaustion is a phenomenon of dysfunction or physical elimination of antigen-specific T cells reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections as well as cancer. Exhaustion appears to be often restricted to CD8+ T cells responses in the literature, although CD4+ T cells have also been reported to be functionally exhausted in certain chronic infections. Although our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the transcriptional regulation of T-cell exhaustion is advancing, it is imperative to also explore the central mechanisms that control the altered expression patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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