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lung AND physiology

Xiangrong Geng, Liu Liu, Kan-Jen Tsai, Zijuan Liu
ZIP8 is a membrane transporter that facilitates the uptake of divalent metals (e.g., Zn, Mn, Fe, Cd) and the mineral selenite in anionic form. ZIP8 functionality has been recently reported to regulate cell proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton arrangement, exhibiting an essential role for normal physiology. In this study, we report a ZIP8 role in chemotherapy response. We show ZIP8 regulates cell sensitivity to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin. Overexpression of ZIP8 in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells induces cisplatin sensitivity, while knockout of ZIP8 in leukemia HAP1 cells leads to cisplatin resistance...
October 17, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Wei Zhu, Lanfen Li, Mingjing Deng, Bo Wang, Mengfei Li, Guofang Ding, Zuisu Yang, Dan Medynski, Xiaotao Lin, Ying Ouyang, Jirui Lin, Luyuan Li, Xinli Lin
Native α1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a 52-kDa glycoprotein that acts as an antiprotease and is the physiological inhibitor of neutrophil serine proteases. The main function of AAT is to protect the lung from proteolytic damage induced by inflammation. AAT deficiency (AATD) is a codominant autosomal disorder caused by pathogenic mutations in SERPINA1 gene, leading to reduced levels of serum AAT. The deficiency is known to increase the risk of pulmonary emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a consequence of proteolytic imbalance induced by inflammation, associated in many instances with cigarette smoking and other environmental hazards...
October 2018: FEBS Open Bio
S E Morton, J Dickson, J G Chase, P Docherty, T Desaive, S L Howe, G M Shaw, M Tawhai
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a primary therapy for patients with acute respiratory failure. However, poorly selected ventilator settings can cause further lung damage due to heterogeneity of healthy and damaged alveoli. Varying positive-end-expiratory-pressure (PEEP) to a point of minimum elastance is a lung protective ventilator strategy. However, even low levels of PEEP can lead to ventilator induced lung injury for individuals with highly inflamed pulmonary tissue...
October 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Giulia Buizza, Iuliana Toma-Dasu, Marta Lazzeroni, Chiara Paganelli, Marco Riboldi, Yongjun Chang, Örjan Smedby, Chunliang Wang
PURPOSE: A new set of quantitative features that capture intensity changes in PET/CT images over time and space is proposed for assessing the tumor response early during chemoradiotherapy. The hypothesis whether the new features, combined with machine learning, improve outcome prediction is tested. METHODS: The proposed method is based on dividing the tumor volume into successive zones depending on the distance to the tumor border. Mean intensity changes are computed within each zone, for CT and PET scans separately, and used as image features for tumor response assessment...
October 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Dan Predescu, Shanshan Qin, Monal Patel, Cristina Bardita, Rabia Bhalli, Sanda Predescu
Intersectin-1s (ITSN) deficiency and expression of a biologically active ITSN fragment, result of granzyme B cleavage under inflammatory conditions associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), are characteristics of lung tissue of human and animal models of PAH. Recently, we have shown that this ITSN fragment comprising two Epsin15 homology domains (EHITSN ) triggers endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and the plexiform arteriopathy in PAH. Limited evidence also indicates that the EH domains of endocytic proteins such as ITSN, upregulate compensatory endocytic pathways in cells with impaired vesicular trafficking...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jeffrey D Brand, Ahmed Lazrak, John E Trombley, Ren-Jay Shei, A Timothy Adewale, Jennifer L Tipper, Zhihong Yu, Amit R Ashtekar, Steven M Rowe, Sadis Matalon, Kevin S Harrod
Severe influenza (IAV) infection can develop into bronchopneumonia and edema, leading to acquired respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pathophysiology. Underlying causes for pulmonary edema and aberrant fluid regulation largely remain unknown, particularly regarding the role of viral-mediated mechanisms. Herein, we show that distinct IAV strains reduced the functions of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) in murine respiratory and alveolar epithelia in vivo, as assessed by measurements of nasal potential differences and single-cell electrophysiology...
October 18, 2018: JCI Insight
Jung Min Kim, Hyeong Geug Kim, Chang Gue Son
Oxidative stress is a common phenomenon and is linked to a wide range of diseases and pathological processes including aging. Tissue-specific variation in redox signaling and cellular responses to oxidative stress may be associated with vulnerability especially to age-related and chronic diseases. In order to provide a basis for tissue-specific difference, we examined the tissue-specific transcriptional features of 101 oxidative stress-associated genes in 10 different tissues and organs of healthy mice under physiological conditions...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Julia Y Co, Gerardo Cárcamo-Oyarce, Nicole Billings, Kelsey M Wheeler, Scott C Grindy, Niels Holten-Andersen, Katharina Ribbeck
Mucus is a biological gel that lines all wet epithelia in the body, including the mouth, lungs, and digestive tract, and has evolved to protect the body from pathogenic infection. However, microbial pathogenesis is often studied in mucus-free environments that lack the geometric constraints and microbial interactions in physiological three-dimensional mucus gels. We developed fluid-flow and static test systems based on purified mucin polymers, the major gel-forming constituents of the mucus barrier, to understand how the mucus barrier influences bacterial virulence, particularly the integrity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, which can become resistant to immune clearance and antimicrobial agents...
2018: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
Ikenna C Eze, Maria Foraster, Emmanuel Schaffner, Danielle Vienneau, Harris Héritier, Reto Pieren, Laurie Thiesse, Franziska Rudzik, Thomas Rothe, Marco Pons, Robert Bettschart, Christian Schindler, Christian Cajochen, Jean-Marc Wunderli, Mark Brink, Martin Röösli, Nicole Probst-Hensch
Transportation noise leads to sleep disturbance and to psychological and physiological sustained stress reactions, which could impact respiratory health. However, epidemiologic evidence on associations of objective transportation noise exposure and also perceived noise annoyance with respiratory morbidity is limited. We investigated independent associations of transportation noise exposure and noise annoyance with prevalent respiratory symptoms and incident asthma in adults. Using 17,138 observations (from 7049 participants) from three SAPALDIA (Swiss Cohort Study on Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults) surveys, we assessed associations of transportation noise exposure and noise annoyance with prevalent respiratory symptoms, and with incident asthma (in 10,657 nested observations from 6377 participants)...
October 12, 2018: Environment International
Zacharoula Iatridi, Athina Angelopoulou, Efstathia Voulgari, Konstantinos Avgoustakis, Constantinos Tsitsilianis
We report the fabrication of polymersomes, using as building blocks star-graft quarterpolymers, composed of hydrophobic polystyrene and pH-sensitive poly(2-vinylpyridine)- b -poly(acrylic acid) (P2VP- b -PAA) arms, emanated from a common nodule, enriched by thermosensitive poly( N -isopropylacrylamide) grafts covalently bonded on the PAA block-arms. These multicompartmental polymersomes were evaluated as nanocarriers for the encapsulation and controlled co-delivery of doxorubicin (hydrophilic) and paclitaxel (hydrophobic) chemotherapeutic agents...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Seungwon Ryu, Joon Seok Park, Hye Young Kim, Ji Hyung Kim
Regulation of T cell-mediated immunity in the lungs is critical for prevention of immune-related lung disorders and for host protection from pathogens. While the prevalent view of pulmonary T cell responses is based on peptide recognition by antigen receptors, called T cell receptors (TCR), on the T cell surface in the context of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, novel pathways involving the presentation of lipid antigens by cluster of differentiation 1 (CD1) molecules to lipid-reactive T cells are emerging as key players in pulmonary immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Steffen Kunzmann, Barbara Ottensmeier, Christian P Speer, Markus Fehrholz
Pregnant women at risk of preterm labor routinely receive glucocorticoids (GCs) and frequently also progesterone. Administration of GCs accelerates intrauterine surfactant synthesis and lung maturation, thereby reducing the incidence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome; progesterone has the potential to prevent preterm birth. Little is known about possible interactions of GCs and progesterone. Our aim was to clarify whether progesterone can affect dexamethasone (DXM)-regulated expression of surfactant protein A (SP-A), SP-B, and SP-D in lung epithelial cells...
October 15, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Anastas Krassenov Demirev, Irena Dimitrova Kostadinova, Iliya Rumenov Gabrovski
Objectives: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) can be an adverse complication of radiotherapy (RT) and can limit the application of the already planned radiation dose. It is often associated with RT of lung carcinoma and is occasionally caused by radiation therapy of breast carcinoma and lymphomas located in the mediastinum. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) emerges lately as a prospective modality for early diagnostics of RP. The aim of this study was to summarize the initial data from diagnostic application of PET/CT in patients suspicious of RP and to derive criteria, which can help differentiate RP from early recurrence of the disease and/or residual tumor...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Entesar Ali Saber, Mohammed Mustafa Abd El Aleem, Neven Makram Aziz, Randa Ahmed Ibrahim
In case of a life-threatening, stressful event, the body prepares for an emergency. Indeed, the lung is unique in which alveolar cells are constantly exposed to physical and chemical stresses. This study aimed to study the impact of immobilization stress on the blood-air barrier and how it initiate and maintain an inflammatory response, plus determining the resolution of lung inflammation and repair. There was a significant increase in the plasma levels of stress markers "corticosterone and catecholamines" with a decrease in surfactant protein A (a lung-injury marker)...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Savino Spadaro, Dan Stieper Karbing, Francesca Dalla Corte, Tommaso Mauri, Federico Moro, Antonio Gioia, Carlo Alberto Volta, Stephen Edward Rees
PURPOSE: To assess whether a clinical decision support system (CDSS) suggests PS and FIO2 maintaining appropriate breathing effort, and minimizing FIO2 . MATERIALS: Prospective, cross-over study in PS ventilated ICU patients. Over support (150% baseline) and under support (50% baseline) were applied by changing PS (15 patients) or PEEP (8 patients). CDSS advice was followed. Tension time index of inspiratory muscles (TTies), respiratory and metabolic variables were measured...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Masayoshi Inoue
Mechanical ventilation is a useful treatment option for respiratory insufficiency following thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. Ventilation mode is classified as volume-controlled-ventilation(VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation(PCV). Non-invasive ventilation(NIV) without tracheal intubation has been recently developed and is effective in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation. Several pulmonary complications by mechanical ventilation such as ventilator-induced lung injury(VILI) or ventilator-associated pneumonia(VAP) could be avoided with NIV...
September 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Pengfei Liu, Montserrat Rojo de la Vega, Saad Sammani, Joseph B Mascarenhas, Michael Kerins, Matthew Dodson, Xiaoguang Sun, Ting Wang, Aikseng Ooi, Joe G N Garcia, Donna D Zhang
NRF2 regulates cellular redox homeostasis, metabolic balance, and proteostasis by forming a dimer with small musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma proteins (sMAFs) and binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs) to activate target gene transcription. In contrast, NRF2-ARE-dependent transcriptional repression is unreported. Here, we describe NRF2-mediated gene repression via a specific seven-nucleotide sequence flanking the ARE, which we term the NRF2-replication protein A1 (RPA1) element (NRE). Mechanistically, RPA1 competes with sMAF for NRF2 binding, followed by interaction of NRF2-RPA1 with the ARE-NRE and eduction of promoter activity...
October 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shupeng Wang, Wei Li, Chen Li, Wen Li, Dejing Song, Xiaocong Sun
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is a common method to maintain alveolar patency in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. However, in patients undergoing tracheotomy, alveolar collapse often occurs due to bedridden, aspiration, and other factors. There is currently no effective means to provide PEEP support for such patients. The application of a high-flow oxygen inhalation device with a PEEP valve was designed to provide patients with continuously adjustable PEEP, which helps to improve the patient's oxygenation and maintain the lung's physiological functions...
September 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Ana Teresa Azevedo Sachetto, Jaqueline Gomes Rosa, Marcelo Larami Santoro
Snakebites are a major Collective Health problem worldwide. In Brazil, Bothrops jararaca snake venom (BjV) evokes hemostatic disturbances, bleeding manifestations, and redox status imbalance. Specific antivenom therapy, although efficacious to revert most snakebite-induced manifestations, is incapable of treating secondary manifestations, such as oxidative/nitrosative stress. Searching for new complementary therapies that could attenuate physiological derangements triggered by envenomation, we elected to test quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin) by its potential as both a potent antioxidant and a hemostasis modulatory compound...
October 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mario Naranjo, Kevin Bryan Lo, Kenechukwu Mezue, Janani Rangaswami
Pulmonary hypertension is not uncommon in patients with renal disease and vice versa; therefore, influences treatments and outcomes. There is a large body of literature on pulmonary hypertension in patients with kidney disease, its prognostic implications, economic burden, and management strategies. However, the converse, namely the hemodynamic effects of pulmonary hypertension on kidney function (acute and chronic kidney injury) is less studied and described. There is also increasing interest in the effects of pulmonary hypertension on kidney transplant outcomes...
October 8, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
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