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lung AND physiology

Xuebin Qi, Qu Zhang, Yaoxi He, Lixin Yang, Xiaoming Zhang, Peng Shi, Linping Yang, Zhengheng Liu, Fuheng Zhang, Fengyun Liu, Shiming Liu, Tianyi Wu, Chaoying Cui, Ouzhuluobu, Caijuan Bai, Baimakangzhuo, Jianlin Han, Shengguo Zhao, Chunnian Liang, Bing Su
Yak is one of the largest native mammalian species at the Himalayas, the highest plateau area in the world with an average elevation of more than 4,000 meters above the sea level. Yak is well adapted to high altitude environment with a set of physiological features for a more efficient blood flow for oxygen delivery under hypobaric hypoxia. Yet, the genetic mechanism underlying its adaptation remains elusive. We conducted a cross-tissue, cross-altitude and cross-species study to characterize the transcriptomic landscape of domestic yaks...
December 4, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Mark A Underwood, Stephen Wedgwood, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Robin H Steinhorn
In the premature infant, poor growth in utero (fetal growth restriction) and in the first weeks of life (postnatal growth restriction) are associated with increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension. In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic data supporting these associations, present a novel rodent model of postnatal growth restriction and review five promising mechanisms by which poor nutrition may affect the developing lung. These observations support the hypothesis that nutritional and/or pharmacologic interventions early in life may be able to decrease risk of the pulmonary complications of extreme prematurity...
December 4, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Dan-Dan Zhang, Gan Lu, Xuan-Feng Zhu, Ling-Ling Zhang, Jia Gao, Li-Cheng Shi, Jian-Hua Gu, Jian-Nan Liu
Background: Neural respiratory drive (NRD) using diaphragm electromyography through an invasive transesophageal multi-electrode catheter can be used as a feasible clinical physiological parameter in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to provide useful information on the treatment response. However, it remains unknown whether the surface diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi) could be used to identify the deterioration of clinical symptoms and to predict the necessity of hospitalization in acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) patients...
December 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Behrouz Mostafavi, Sandra Diaz, Eeva Piitulainen, Berend C Stoel, Per Wollmer, Hanan A Tanash
Background: Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder that predisposes to emphysema. A cohort of severe (PiZZ) and moderate (PiSZ) AAT-deficient newborn infants was identified by the Swedish national neonatal AAT screening program in 1972-1974 and has been followed-up since birth. Our aim was to study whether the cohort has signs of emphysema in pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and computed tomography (CT) densitometry at 38 years of age in comparison with an age-matched control group, randomly selected from the population registry...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
John P Leach, Edward E Morrisey
Tissue regeneration involves various types of cellular and molecular responses depending on the type of tissue and the injury or disease that is inflicted. While many tissues contain dedicated stem/progenitor cell lineages, many others contain cells that, during homeostasis, are considered physiologically functional and fully differentiated but, after injury or in disease states, exhibit stem/progenitor-like activity. Recent identification of subsets of defined cell types as facultative stem/progenitor cells has led to a re-examination of how certain tissues respond to injury to mount a regenerative response...
December 1, 2018: Genes & Development
Takanori Asakura, Yoshitake Yamada, Shoji Suzuki, Ho Namkoong, Satoshi Okamori, Tatsuya Kusumoto, Yuki Niijima, Akihiko Ozaki, Masahiro Hashimoto, Kazuma Yagi, Hirofumi Kamata, Yohei Funatsu, Makoto Ishii, Masahiro Jinzaki, Tomoko Betsuyaku, Naoki Hasegawa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: No reports exist regarding skeletal muscle involvement in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD). The cross-sectional area of the erector spinae muscles (ESMCSA ) reflects physical activity and can be assessed by computed tomography (CT). We investigated the relationship between ESMCSA and physiological parameters and prognosis in MAC-LD patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, the ESMCSA was measured on single-slice axial CT images...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Christopher Kelly, Mark Carlberg, Troy Madsen
Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) is a relatively common pathology in emergency medicine; however, scant information is published regarding SPs developing tension physiology in the literature. Risk factors for spontaneous pneumothorax include smoking, family history, and underlying lung disease such as chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis, among others. Treatment often involves conservative management, needle aspiration, catheter placement, or tube thoracostomy. Tension pneumothorax, however, is a life threatening condition requiring emergent intervention...
January 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Nathalie Fuentes, Patricia Silveyra
Sex-differences in the incidence and severity of inflammatory lung diseases have been recognized for years. Women of reproductive age are more likely to suffer from chronic lung disease, with higher mortality rates than men. Physiological changes in hormone levels such as those occurring during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause have been associated with lung function changes and asthma symptoms. Despite this, the roles of sex hormones in the mechanisms associated with lung diseases have not been fully elucidated...
December 3, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Albert van den Berg, Christine L Mummery, Robert Passier, Andries D van der Meer
Organs-on-chips are microfluidic systems with controlled, dynamic microenvironments in which cultured cells exhibit functions that emulate organ-level physiology. They can in principle be 'personalised' to reflect individual physiology, for example by including blood samples, primary human tissue, and cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cells, as well as by tuning key physico-chemical parameters of the cell culture microenvironment based on personal health data. The personalised nature of such systems, combined with physiologically relevant read-outs, provides new opportunities for person-specific assessment of drug efficacy and safety, as well as personalised strategies for disease prevention and treatment; together, this is known as 'precision medicine'...
December 3, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Cheng-Che Lee, Yun-Ching Cheng, Chi-Yen Chang, Chi-Min Lin, Jang-Yang Chang
MEC-17, a newly identified alpha-tubulin-N-acetyltransferase 1, serves as the major α-tubulin acetyltransferase to promote α-tubulin acetylation in vitro and in vivo. Alteration of α-tubulin acetylation may be involved in morphology regulation, cell migration, and tumour metastasis. However, MEC-17's role in cell physiology and its effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell polarity remain elusive. In the present study, we characterized the overexpressed or downregulated cell models through gene targeting as MEC-17 gain- or loss-of-function...
November 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Minoru Inoue, Ryota Nakashima, Masahiro Enomoto, Yuhki Koike, Xiao Zhao, Kenneth Yip, Shao Hui Huang, John N Waldron, Mitsuhiko Ikura, Fei-Fei Liu, Scott V Bratman
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) promote cancer metastasis in preclinical models following massive exogenous inflammatory stimuli. It remains unknown whether cancer hosts under physiologic conditions experience NETosis and consequent metastasis. Here we show that plasma redox imbalance caused by albumin oxidation promotes inflammation-independent NETosis. Albumin is the major source of free thiol that maintains redox balance. Oxidation of albumin-derived free thiol is sufficient to trigger NETosis via accumulation of reactive oxygen species within neutrophils...
November 30, 2018: Nature Communications
Amelie Tsoutsoulopoulos, Markus Siegert, Harald John, Tabea Zubel, Aswin Mangerich, Annette Schmidt, Harald Mückter, Thomas Gudermann, Horst Thiermann, Dirk Steinritz, Tanja Popp
Inhalation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) is associated with severe acute and long-term pulmonary dysfunctions and health effects. The still not completely elucidated molecular toxicology and a missing targeted therapy emphasize the need for further research. However, appropriate human data are extremely rare. In vivo animal experiments are often regarded as gold standard in toxicology but may exhibit significant differences compared to the human pulmonary anatomy and physiology. Thus, alternative in vitro exposure methods, adapted to the human in vivo situation by exposing cells at the air-liquid interface (ALI), are complimentary approaches at a cellular level...
November 28, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Dan-Wei Ren, Wen-Jun Liu
The main physiological function of megakaryocytes is the production of platelets, whose development, maturation and platelet production are a complex regulatory process, and are involved in many factors. In recent years it was found that the lung is also the main site of megakaryocyte-producing platelets in addition to bone marrow. Based on the findings of recent years, this review summarizes the process of megakaryocyte development, maturation and platelet production, with emphasis on the analyzing the regulatory effects of apoptotic factors, miRNA, thrombopoietin and its receptors, interleukins, transcription factors and their corresponding signal pathways on platelet production...
December 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Nicholas S West, Michael J Parkes, Christopher Snowden, James Prentis, Jill McKenna, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Christopher Walker
PURPOSE: Reducing respiratory motion during the delivery of radiotherapy reduces the volume of healthy tissues irradiated and may decrease radiation induced toxicity. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential for rapid shallow non-invasive mechanical ventilation to reduce internal anatomy motion for radiotherapy purposes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers (age 22-54years; mean 38years; 6 female and 4 male) were scanned on an MR scanner during normal breathing and at 2 ventilator induced frequencies; 20 and 25 breaths per minute for 3 minutes...
November 26, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Alexia Dumas, Dan Corral, André Colom, Florence Levillain, Antonio Peixoto, Denis Hudrisier, Yannick Poquet, Olivier Neyrolles
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the airborne bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis , remains a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. So far, the study of host-pathogen interactions in TB has mostly focused on the physiology and virulence of the pathogen, as well as, on the various innate and adaptive immune compartments of the host. Microbial organisms endogenous to our body, the so-called microbiota, interact not only with invading pathogens, but also with our immune system. Yet, the impact of the microbiota on host defense against M...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Claire M Nolan, Matthew Maddocks, Toby M Maher, Winston Banya, Suhani Patel, Ruth E Barker, Sarah E Jones, Peter George, Paul Cullinan, William D-C Man
The four metre gait speed (4 MGS), a simple physical performance measure and surrogate marker of frailty, consistently predicts adverse prognosis in older adults. We hypothesised that 4 MGS could predict all-cause mortality and non-elective hospitalisation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).4 MGS and lung function were measured at baseline in 130 outpatients newly diagnosed with IPF. Survival status and non-elective hospital admissions were recorded over one year. We assessed the predictive value of 4 MGS (as a continuous variable and as a binary variable: slow versus preserved 4 MGS) by calculating hazard ratios (HR) using Cox proportional regression, adjusting for potential confounding variables...
November 28, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Maor Sauler, Isabel S Bazan, Patty J Lee
Regulated cell death is a major mechanism to eliminate damaged, infected, or superfluous cells. Previously, apoptosis was thought to be the only regulated cell death mechanism; however, new modalities of caspase-independent regulated cell death have been identified, including necroptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagic cell death. As an understanding of the cellular mechanisms that mediate regulated cell death continues to grow, there is increasing evidence that these pathways are implicated in the pathogenesis of many pulmonary disorders...
November 28, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
Gang Liu, Ross Summer
The lung is often overlooked as a metabolically active organ, yet biochemical studies have long demonstrated that glucose utilization surpasses that of many other organs, including the heart, kidney, and brain. For most cells in the lung, energy consumption is relegated to performing common cellular tasks, like mRNA transcription and protein translation. However, certain lung cell populations engage in more specialized types of energy-consuming behaviors, such as the beating of cilia or the production of surfactant...
November 28, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
Rebeca Lopes Figueira, Karina Miura da Costa, Ana Laura Marsico, Thamires Melchiades da Silva Milani, Walusa Assad Gonçalves, Marcos de Carvalho Borges, Orlando Castro E Silva, Lourenço Sbragia
PURPOSE: To evaluate the vascular ventilatory response in different stages of lung development and to compare them to the neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) in a rabbit model. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits were divided into 8 groups (n=5): E25, E27, E30, and CDH. All groups were ventilated on a FlexiVent (Scireq, Montreal, QC, Canada), compounding the other 4 groups. The CDH surgery was performed at E25 and the harvest at E30. Dynamic compliance (CRS), dynamic elastance (ERS) and dynamic resistance (RRS) were measured every 4 min/24 min...
October 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Yue Guo, Hong Chang Zhou, Ying Dong, Ting Zhang, Yu Yang Sun, Jian Feng Zhong, Yu Liang Cao, Sheng Wen Shao, Yong Liang Pan, Hai Yan Dong
Background: Pomacea canaliculata ( P.canaliculata ) lung nodules, were commonly caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. Here, we found a new nodule type without any parasites. Methods: Overall, 447 P. canaliculata snails were collected in Ning Bo, Zhe Jiang, China in 2018. In order to exhibit the similarities and differences between two nodules types (2018, Huzhou Zhejiang, China), both types were collected in formalin for tissue pathological sectioning...
July 2018: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
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