Read by QxMD icon Read

lung AND physiology

Guizhu Wu, Chuanjia Jiang, Tong Zhang
Humans are likely exposed to cadmium sulfide nanomaterials (CdS NMs) due to the increasing environmental release and in vivo application of these materials, which tend to accumulate and cause toxic effects in human lungs, particularly by interrupting the physiological functions of macrophage cells. Here, we showed that protein corona played an essential role in determining cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of CdS NMs in macrophages. Protein-coated CdS NMs enhanced the expression of FcγRIIB receptors on the cell surface, and the interaction between this receptors and proteins inhibited cellular uptake of CdS NMs while triggering cell apoptosis via the AKT/Caspase 3 signaling pathway...
August 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Hashini M Batugedara, Donovan Argueta, Jessica C Jang, Dihong Lu, Marissa Macchietto, Jaspreet Kaur, Shaokui Ge, Adler R Dillman, Nicholas V DiPatrizio, Meera G Nair
Helminths have co-evolved with their hosts resulting in the development of specialized host immune mechanisms and parasite-specific regulatory products. Identification of new pathways that regulate helminth infection could provide a better understanding of host-helminth interaction and may identify new therapeutic targets for helminth infection. Here we identify the endocannabinoid system as a new mechanism that influences host immunity to helminths. Endocannabinoids are lipid-derived signaling molecules that control important physiologic processes such as feeding behavior and metabolism...
August 13, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Chin-Mao Hung, Chung-Kan Peng, Chin-Pyng Wu, Kun-Lun Huang
Bumetanide is a potent loop diuretic that acts as an inhibitor of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) and its isoform NKCC1. Although the expression of NKCC2 is limited to the kidney, NKCC1 is widely expressed in various cells, where it participates in a variety of physiological functions including ion transport, alveolar fluid secretion, and cell volume regulation. We investigated the role of NKCC1 in modulation of host immunity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated the expression and phosphorylation of NKCC1 in RAW264...
August 10, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Eva Dohle, Smriti Singh, Akihiro Nishiguchi, Thorsten Fischer, Matthias Wessling, Martin Möller, Robert Sader, Jennifer Yvonne Kasper, Shahram Ghanaati, C James Kirkpatrick
The development of an in vitro model resembling the alveolar-capillary barrier might be a highly beneficial tool to study lung physiology as well as the immune response of the lung to infection or after exposure to nanoparticles. This study is based on an in vitro alveolar barrier developed on a basement membrane mimic, composed of ultrathin nanofiber meshes generated via electrospinning using bioresorbable poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). As cellular components, NCI H441, resembling the alveolar epithelial cells, and ISO-HAS-1, an endothelial cell line, were used to perform bipolar co-culture experiments for a total cultivation period of 14 days...
August 13, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Ciprian B Anea, Ana M Merloiu, David J R Fulton, Vijay Patel, R Dan Rudic
Aim: The circadian clock is a molecular network that controls the body physiological rhythms. In blood vessels, the circadian clock components modulate vascular remodeling, blood pressure, and signaling. The goal in this study was to determine the pattern of expression of circadian clock proteins in the endothelium, smooth muscle, and adventitia of the vasculature of human and mouse tissues. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed in frozen sections of mouse aorta, common carotid artery, femoral artery, lung, and heart at 12 AM and 12 PM for Bmal1, Clock, Npas2, Per and other clock components...
2018: Vessel plus
Hao Zheng, Yuan Yang, Chen Ye, Peng-Peng Li, Zhen-Guang Wang, Hao Xing, Hao Ren, Wei-Ping Zhou
Lysosomal associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp2) influences a broad range of physiological and pathological processes. However, little is known about the role of Lamp2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis. This study found that Lamp2 expression was significantly lower in HCC tissues than in adjacent nontumor tissues (ANTs), and its expression level correlated with HCC metastasis. Low Lamp2 expression was significantly correlated with the AFP serum level (> 20 ng/Ml, P = 0.024), capsular formation (absent, P = 0...
July 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Ning Xu, Shaomu Chen, Yufeng Liu, Wei Li, Zeyi Liu, Xiaojie Bian, Chunhua Ling, Min Jiang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) act as microRNA (miRNA) sponges that regulate gene expression and are involved in physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we evaluated the roles of circRNAs in the chemoresistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to taxol. METHODS: High-throughput circRNA microarrays were employed to investigate the circRNA profiles of parental A549 and taxol-resistant A549/Taxol cells. We predicted the miRNA targets of differentially expressed circRNAs via miRNA prediction software and then constructed a circRNA/miRNA network using Cytoscape...
August 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Lars Knudsen, Elena Lopez-Rodriguez, Lennart Berndt, Lilian Steffen, Clemens Ruppert, Jason H T Bates, Matthias Ochs, Bradford J Smith
RATIONALE: Lung injury results in intra-tidal alveolar recruitment and derecruitment (R/D) and alveolar collapse, creating stress concentrators that increase strain and aggravate injury. OBJECTIVE: To describe alveolar micromechanics during mechanical ventilation in bleomycin-induced lung injury and surfactant replacement therapy. METHODS: Structure and function were assessed in rats one (D1) and three (D3) days after intratracheal bleomycin instillation and subsequent to surfactant replacement therapy (SRT)...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Lucy Perrem, Jonathan H Rayment, Felix Ratjen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In cystic fibrosis, (CF) there is an urgent need for objective tests that can capture and track preclinical lung disease. The lung clearance index (LCI), the primary outcome measure of the multiple breath washout test, is an established endpoint in clinical trials but the clinical utility of the test remains poorly defined. The purpose of this review is to examine the key studies over the past years that have advanced our understanding of the role of the LCI in clinical practice...
August 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Christopher John Joyce, Kiran Shekar, David Andrew Cook
BACKGROUND: Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO) is an effective treatment for severe respiratory failure. The interaction between the cardiorespiratory system and the oxygenator can be explored with mathematical models. Understanding the physiology will help the clinician optimise therapy. As others have examined O2 exchange, the main focus of this study was on CO2 exchange. METHODS: A model of the cardiorespiratory system during vv-ECMO was developed, incorporating O2 , CO2 and N2 exchange in both the lung and the oxygenator...
August 9, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Robert P Jankov, Kathrine Louise Daniel, Shira Iny, Crystal Kantores, Julijana Ivanovska, Naya Ben Fadel, Amish Jain
Deficient nitric oxide (NO) signaling plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic neonatal pulmonary hypertension (PHT). Physiological NO signaling is regulated by S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), which act both as a reservoir for NO and as a reversible modulator of protein function. We have previously reported that therapy with inhaled NO (iNO) increased peroxynitrite-mediated nitration in the juvenile rat lung, while having minimal reversing effects on vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that sodium nitrite (NaNO2) would be superior to iNO in enhancing lung SNOs, thereby contributing to reversal of chronic hypoxic PHT...
August 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Paola Rouge Elton, Michel Golay, Yvan Fournier
During physiological pregnancy, changes in lung functions, ventilatory patterns and gas exchanges happen. Therefore, the dyspnea experienced by a majority of women is usually due to pregnancy itself and is very difficult to differentiate from a pathophysiological state. Anamnesis and clinical examination alone do not rule out dyspnea of ​​thromboembolic origin. Therefore, a structured approach, based on a thromboembolic risk assessment, the application of a specific management algorithm and the use of imaging exams is required for emergency management of dyspnea occurring during the pregnancy and in the postpartum...
August 8, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
André Dagenais, Julie Desjardins, Waheed Shabbir, Antoine Roy, Dominic Filion, Rémy Sauvé, Yves Berthiaume
The epithelial Na channel (ENaC) plays an essential role in lung physiology by modulating the amount of liquid lining the respiratory epithelium. Here, we tested the effect of breaking alveolar epithelial cell barrier integrity on ENaC expression and function. We found that either mechanical wounding by scratching the monolayer or disruption of tight junction with EDTA induced a ~ 50% decrease of α,β and γENaC mRNA expression and an 80% reduction of ENaC short-circuit current (Isc ) at 6 h. Scratching the cell monolayer generated a Ca2+ wave that spread from the margin of the scratch to distant cells...
August 7, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Kun Qing, Nicholas J Tustison, John P Mugler, Jaime F Mata, Zixuan Lin, Li Zhao, Da Wang, Xue Feng, Ji Young Shin, Sean J Callahan, Michael P Bergman, Kai Ruppert, Talissa A Altes, Joanne M Cassani, Y Michael Shim
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is highly heterogeneous and not well understood. Hyperpolarized xenon-129 (Xe129) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a unique way to assess important lung functions such as gas uptake. In this pilot study, we exploited multiple imaging modalities, including computed tomography (CT), gadolinium-enhanced perfusion MRI, and Xe129 MRI, to perform a detailed investigation of changes in lung morphology and functions in COPD...
August 4, 2018: Academic Radiology
Lu Sun, Zhixian Guo, Jihong Sun, Jingjing Li, Zihui Dong, Yize Zhang, Jianan Chen, Quancheng Kan, Zujiang Yu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most common maligant cancers in the world, is difficult to diagnose in the early time. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, perform vital functions in cellular differentiation, metabolism and physiological processes. MiR-133a acts as a tumor suppressor in breast, lung and gastric cancer, while the molecular circadian mechanism has not been clear in HCC. In the present study, we certified that the expression of miR-133a decreased in HCC tissues and cell lines and that miR-133a inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells...
August 4, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Elin Boger, Oskar Wigström
The heterogeneous nature of the lung and the range of processes af-fecting pulmonary drug disposition make prediction of inhaled drugs chal-lenging. These predictions are critical, as the local exposure cannot be measured and current inhalation physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models do not capture all necessary features. Utilizing partial differential equations, we present an inhalation PBPK model to describe the heterogeneity in both lung physiology and particle size. The model mechanistically describes important processes such as deposition, mucocil-iary clearance and dissolution...
August 7, 2018: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Yugo Okabe, Takehiko Asaga, Sayuri Bekku, Hiromi Suzuki, Kanae Kanda, Takeshi Yoda, Tomohiro Hirao, Gotaro Shirakami
Background: Extubation failure is associated with mortality and morbidity in the intensive care unit. Ventilator weaning protocols have been introduced, and extubation is conducted based on the results of a spontaneous breathing trial. Room for improvement still exists in extubation management, and additional objective indices may improve the safety of the weaning and extubation process. Static lung-thorax compliance reflects lung expansion difficulty that is caused by several conditions, such as atelectasis, fibrosis, and pleural effusion...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
Kitti Rusznák, Kata Csekő, Zsófia Varga, Dávid Csabai, Ágnes Bóna, Mátyás Mayer, Zsolt Kozma, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Boldizsár Czéh
Marijuana is a widely used recreational drug with increasing legalization worldwide for medical purposes. Most experimental studies use either synthetic or plant-derived cannabinoids to investigate the effect of cannabinoids on anxiety and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to mimic real life situations where young people smoke cannabis regularly to relax from everyday stress. Therefore, we exposed young adult male NMRI mice to daily stress and concomitant marijuana smoke for 2 months and investigated the consequences on physiology, behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
José Alberto Rodríguez-Castillo, David Bravo Pérez, Aglaia Ntokou, Werner Seeger, Rory E Morty, Katrin Ahlbrecht
BACKGROUND: Gas exchange represents the key physiological function of the lung, and is dependent upon proper formation of the delicate alveolar structure. Malformation or destruction of the alveolar gas-exchange regions are key histopathological hallmarks of diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary fibrosis; all of which are characterized by perturbations to the alveolo-capillary barrier structure. Impaired gas-exchange is the primary initial consequence of these perturbations, resulting in severe clinical symptoms, reduced quality of life, and death...
August 6, 2018: Respiratory Research
Jaroslav Horáček, Václav Koucký, Milan Hladík
BACKGROUND: Breath detection, i.e. its precise delineation in time is a crucial step in lung function data analysis as obtaining any clinically relevant index is based on the proper localization of breath ends. Current threshold or smoothing algorithms suffer from severe inaccuracy in cases of suboptimal data quality. Especially in infants, the precise analysis is of utmost importance. The key objective of our work is to design an algorithm for accurate breath detection in severely distorted data...
August 2, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"