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Bowel Cancer

V Papastergiou, N Mathou, K Manes, P Maniatis, K Paraskeva, A Evgenidi, A Giannakopoulos, J A Karagiannis
Colonoscopy is generally safe, although expansion of colorectal cancer prevention programs is likely to increase the number of post-colonoscopy complications. We report the case of a 42-year old woman with a prior history of 2 cesarean section deliveries who developed abdominal pain after an otherwise uneventful screening colonoscopy. Urgent exploration revealed closed-loop obstruction involving the terminal ileum, caused by an adhesive band close to the site of her previous Pfannenstiel incision. A systematic review of the literature revealed 11 reports (1985-2008) describing a total of 13 cases of mechanical small bowel obstruction (MSBO) after colonoscopy, 9 of which were confirmed by laparotomy...
January 2018: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
E Macken, S Van Dongen, S Francque, G Van Hal
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: In relation to recent implementation of colorectal cancer screening programs at the regional level, quality assessment of colonoscopy gains more interest in Belgium. In order to evaluate quality indicators of colonoscopies in Belgium, we retrospectively analysed data about colonoscopies performed between 2002-2010. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Coded data concerning number of medical procedures and polypectomy were provided by the Intermutualistic Agency (IMA)...
January 2018: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Hubert Y Pan, Jing Jiang, Karen E Hoffman, Chad Tang, Seungtaek L Choi, Quynh-Nhu Nguyen, Steven J Frank, Mitchell S Anscher, Ya-Chen Tina Shih, Benjamin D Smith
Purpose To compare the toxicities and cost of proton radiation and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer among men younger than 65 years of age with private insurance. Methods Using the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database, we identified men who received radiation for prostate cancer between 2008 and 2015. Patients undergoing proton therapy and SBRT were propensity score-matched to IMRT patients on the basis of clinical and sociodemographic factors...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
A Driessen, E Macken, T Moreels, A Jouret-Mourin
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's diseases are relapsing longstanding inflammatory bowel diseases, associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Continuous surveillance is necessary to detect the preneoplastic lesions in an early stage. New endoscopic techniques have improved the diagnostic accuracy and have resulted in a new and more simplified classification system of the dysplastic lesions in the bowel. Histopathologically these lesions are very heterogenous, consisting of adenomatous, villous and the more recently discovered serrated dysplasia...
April 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Chang Hyun Lee, Jong Kyu Kim, Hyun Jung Jun, Duk-Joo Lee, Wook Namkoong, Jae Ho Oh
Objective: To evaluate the compliance and satisfaction of rehabilitation recommendations for advanced cancer patients hospitalized in the palliative care unit. Methods: Advanced cancer patients admitted to a hospice palliative care unit were recruited. Patients with advanced cancer and a life expectancy of less than 6 months, as assumed by the oncologist were included. Patients who were expected to die within 3 days were excluded. ECOG and Karnofsky performance scales, function ambulatory category, level of ambulation, and survival days were evaluated under the perspective of comprehensive rehabilitation...
February 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Steven A Signs, Robert C Fisher, Uyen Tran, Susmita Chakrabarti, Samaneh K Sarvestani, Shao Xiang, David Liska, Veronique Roche, Wei Lai, Haley R Gittleman, Oliver Wessely, Emina H Huang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects one million people in the US. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a subtype of IBD that can lead to colitis-associated cancer (CAC). In UC, the rate of CAC is 3-5-fold greater than the rate of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). The pathogenesis of UC and CAC are due to aberrant interactions between host immune system and microenvironment, but precise mechanisms are still unknown. In colitis and CAC, microenvironmental fibroblasts exhibit an activated, inflammatory phenotype that contributes to tumorigenesis accompanied by excessive secretion of the chemokine CXCL8...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Hideaki Nishigori, Masayuki Ishii, Yujiro Kokado, Kouji Fujimoto, Hiroshi Higashiyama
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pelvic floor rehabilitation (PFR) for patients with bowel dysfunction after intersphincteric resection (ISR) and to compare the treatment response to that of patients after low anterior resection (LAR). METHODS: Thirty patients with postoperative bowel dysfunction for more than 6 months were enrolled and treated with PFR for 6 months. RESULTS: In the ISR group, significant improvements in the number of bowel movements and the use of antidiarrheal medications were observed, but no significant improvement was observed in the Wexner score (WS) and the fecal incontinence severity index (FISI)...
March 19, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Mohamed Salla, Rodrigo Aguayo-Ortiz, Danmaliki Gaddafi Ibrahim, Alaa Zare, Ahmed Said, Jack Moore, Vrajeshkumar Pandya, Robin Manaloor, Sunny Fong, Anna R Blankstein, Spencer Gibson, Laura Ramos Garcia, Pascal Meier, Khushwant S Bhullar, Basil P Hubbard, Yahya Fiteh, Harissios Vliagoftis, Ing Swie Goping, Dion Brocks, Peter Hwang, Jose Carlos A Martinez Velazquez, Shairaz Baksh
Receptor interacting protein kinase 2 (RIP2 or RICK herein referred to as RIPK2) is linked to the pathogen pathway that activates NFkB and autophagic activation. Using molecular modeling (docking) and chemoinformatics analyses we utilized the RIPK2/ponatinib crystal structure and searched in chemical databases for small molecules exerting binding interactions similar to those exerted by ponatinib. The identified RIPK2 inhibitors potently inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells by > 70% as well as inhibition of NFkB activity...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Andrew K Fuller, Benjamin D Bice, Ashlee R Venancio, Olivia M Crowley, Ambur M Staab, Stephanie J Georges, Julio R Hidalgo, Annika V Warncke, Melinda L Angus-Hill
Several recent studies have illustrated the beneficial effects of living in an enriched environment on improving human disease. In mice, environmental enrichment (EE) reduces tumorigenesis by activating the mouse immune system, or affects tumor bearing animal survival by stimulating the wound repair response, including improved microbiome diversity, in the tumor microenvironment. Provided here is a detailed procedure to assess the effects of environmental enrichment on the biodiversity of the microbiome in a mouse colon tumor model...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Harvey C Quon, Aldrich Ong, Patrick Cheung, William Chu, Hans T Chung, Danny Vesprini, Amit Chowdhury, Dilip Panjwani, Geordi Pang, Renee Korol, Melanie Davidson, Ananth Ravi, Boyd McCurdy, Liying Zhang, Alexandre Mamedov, Andrea Deabreu, Andrew Loblaw
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) regimens differ in time, dose, and fractionation. We completed a multicentre, randomized phase II study to investigate the impact of overall treatment time on quality of life (QOL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Men with low and intermediate-risk prostate cancer were randomly assigned to 40 Gy in 5 fractions delivered once per week (QW) vs. every other day (EOD). QOL was assessed using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite...
March 15, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Mitchell E Menezes, Praveen Bhoopathi, Anjan K Pradhan, Luni Emdad, Swadesh K Das, Chunqing Guo, Xiang-Yang Wang, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher
Subtraction hybridization identified genes displaying differential expression as metastatic human melanoma cells terminally differentiated and lost tumorigenic properties by treatment with recombinant fibroblast interferon and mezerein. This approach permitted cloning of multiple genes displaying enhanced expression when melanoma cells terminally differentiated, called melanoma differentiation associated (mda) genes. One mda gene, mda-7, has risen to the top of the list based on its relevance to cancer and now inflammation and other pathological states, which based on presence of a secretory sequence, chromosomal location, and an IL-10 signature motif has been named interleukin-24 (MDA-7/IL-24)...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Ji Hoon Lee, Kyoung Doo Song, Dong Ik Cha, Seung Hyup Hyun
PURPOSE: To identify differential clinical and imaging findings between intra-abdominal desmoid tumors and peritoneal seeding that developed after surgery for colorectal cancer. METHODS: 8 patients (9 desmoid tumors) and 11 patients (13 peritoneal seeding masses) were enrolled in our retrospective study. Patients with three or more tumors were excluded. Clinical findings including location of initial tumors, type of surgery, T- and N-stages of initial tumors, time interval between initial surgery and development of intra-abdominal tumors, and level of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were evaluated...
March 17, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Huichen Li, Ye Liang, Xiaofeng Lai, Weidong Wang, Jiang Zhang, Suning Chen
Fbw7 is a type of E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets various proteins for degradation and has been found to have a high expression level in progenitor cells. Deletion of Fbw7 in the intestine results in the accumulation of progenitor cells. Moreover, Fbw7 loss increases the susceptibility of colorectal cancer. However, the involvement of Fbw7 in the progress and development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still controversial. To identify the function of Fbw7 on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colonic inflammation, we generated Fbw7ΔG mice, lacking Fbw7 specifically in intestinal epithelium...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
D Iadicola, P De Marco, S Bonventre, E M Grutta, G Barletta, L Licari, G Gulotta
INTRODUCTION: Bowel wall thickening is not an uncommon finding among patient undergoing abdomen CT scan. It may be caused by neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious or ischaemic conditions but also be a normal variant. Although specific radiologic patterns may direct to a precise diagnosis, occasionally misidentification may occur. Thus, in the absence of guidelines, further and not always needed diagnostic procedures (colonoscopy, esophagogastroduodenoscopy or capsule endoscopy) are performed...
January 2018: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Callum G Fraser
Colonoscopy is a relatively scarce resource in many countries, including Scotland, and a simple investigation which would aid general practitioners in particular in decision-making as to which patients presenting with lower bowel symptoms warranted referral would be of much help. Faecal immunochemical tests for haemoglobin (FIT) have many advantageous characteristics and are now proven to be of considerable value in the timely assessment of patients with symptoms of lower bowel disease. Quantitative FIT provide numerical estimates of faecal haemoglobin concentration (f-Hb) and, at low f-Hb cut-off, FIT have high sensitivity for colorectal cancer (CRC) and could be used as a rule-in test to stimulate rapid referral, especially when symptoms are suggestive of serious bowel disease...
March 13, 2018: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
Edouard Louis
Biologic treatments have revolutionized the way we treat inflammatory bowel disease patients (IBD). Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) antibodies are superior to conventional therapies to achieve sustained remission without steroids and mucosal healing. The objective of IBD treatment has evolved from symptom alleviation to a combination of absence of symptoms and intestinal healing. Nevertheless, biologics are expensive and are associated with an increased risk of infections and possibly skin cancers. Therefore, the duration of these treatments may be questioned, and stopping them may be contemplated by some patients and clinicians, while it is sometimes even imposed by some jurisdictions across the world...
March 14, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Young Dong Yu, Jin Ho Hwang, Young Eun Seo, Byung Do Song, Yeon Soo Jung, Dong Hwan Lee, Sung Kyu Hong, Seok-Soo Byun, Sang Eun Lee, Jong Jin Oh
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ketorolac, a commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) as patient controlled intravenous infusion analgesia (PCIA) for the patients underwent radical cystectomy (RC) due to bladder cancer regarding post-operational indices of recovery. Total seventy patients who underwent radical cystectomy for the treatment of bladder cancer were included in the study. 35 patients received ketorolac as PCIA (NSAIDS group) and 35 patients had morphine infusion as PCIA (morphine group)...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stella Arelaki, Athanasios Arampatzioglou, Konstantinos Kambas, Efthimios Sivridis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Konstantinos Ritis
Inflammation is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC). Neutrophils are well-known mediators in tumor biology but their role in solid tumors, including CRC, was redefined by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Given that it was recently demonstrated that platelet-derived polyP primes neutrophils to release NETs, we examined surgical specimens from CRC to investigate the presence of polyP, as a possible NET inducer. Biopsies with adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory bowel disease and healthy colon tissues were used as controls...
2018: PloS One
S Mashlab, P Large, W Laing, O Ng, M D'Auria, D Thurston, S Thomson, A G Acheson, D J Humes, A Banerjea
Introduction Anaemia is associated with cancer. In 2014 a new form was introduced in our department requesting a haemoglobin (Hb) result on every two-week wait referral for suspected colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to review the impact of this intervention. In particular, the significance of any evidence of anaemia (without additional indices) was investigated. Methods A review was conducted of 1,500 consecutive suspected CRC referrals recorded prospectively over a 10-month period. Data on demographics, referral Hb, referral criteria and outcomes were analysed...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Juliane Kupsch, Thomas Jackisch, Klaus E Matzel, Joerg Zimmer, Andreas Schreiber, Anja Sims, Helmut Witzigmann, Sigmar Stelzner
PURPOSE: Severity of anorectal dysfunction after low anterior resection is associated with various patient- and treatment-related factors. We aimed to quantify anorectal dysfunction after treatment for rectal cancer using the low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) score. METHODS: We retrieved from a prospective database 331 eligible patients on whom anterior resection for rectal cancer had been performed from 2000 to 2014. All patients were sent a LARS score accompanied by a supplementary questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
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