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perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances

Xavier Dauchy, Virginie Boiteux, Adeline Colin, Cristina Bach, Christophe Rosin, Jean-François Munoz
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are key ingredients of firefighting foams designed to suppress fires involving flammable and combustible liquids. Such foams are used by firefighters during fire training at dedicated sites. Because PFASs are very persistent chemicals, substantial soil and groundwater contamination has been observed in the vicinity of firefighter training areas. However, very few data are available on PFAS contamination of wastewater and runoff water on such sites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of more than 50 PFASs in 43 water samples (effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), lagoon, runoff water, and wastewater drained from firefighter training areas) collected from a large firefighter training site, using target and suspect screening...
December 4, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Rossella Ghisi, Teofilo Vamerali, Sergio Manzetti
PFASs are a class of compounds that include perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances, some of the most persistent pollutants still allowed - or only partially restricted - in several product fabrications and industrial applications worldwide. PFASs have been shown to interact with blood proteins and are suspected of causing a number of pathological responses, including cancer. Given this threat to living organisms, we carried out a broad review of possible sources of PFASs and their potential accumulation in agricultural plants, from where they can transfer to humans through the food chain...
October 30, 2018: Environmental Research
Yiwen Wang, Wenchao Han, Caifeng Wang, Yijun Zhou, Rong Shi, Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Qian Yao, Tao Yuan, Yu Gao, Jun Zhang, Ying Tian
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can be transferred from a mother to her fetus during pregnancy and adversely affect fetal development. However, the efficiency and influencing factors of PFASs maternal-fetal transfer remain unclear. We measured the levels of six perfluoroalkylcarboxylates, three perfluoroalkylsulfonates, and one sulfonamide in 369 pairs of maternal and umbilical cord serum and examined the transplacental transfer efficiency (TTE) of PFASs by the functional group and carbon chain length in a prospective birth cohort in Shandong, China...
November 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sook-Jin Kim, Eun-Jeong Choi, Go-Wun Choi, Yong-Bok Lee, Hea-Young Cho
Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), which are classified as perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), have been widely used in industrial applications as a surface protectant. PFASs have been detected in wildlife and in humans around the globe. The purposes of this study are to develop and validate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for detecting PFNA and PFDA in male and female rats, and to apply the model to a human health risk assessment regarding the sex difference...
November 27, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
David Costantini, Pierre Blévin, Dorte Herzke, Børge Moe, Geir Wing Gabrielsen, Jan Ove Bustnes, Olivier Chastel
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may cause detrimental effects on physiological function and reproduction of Arctic animals. However, there is a paucity of information on the link between PFASs and oxidative stress, which can have potential detrimental effects on key fitness traits, such as cellular homeostasis or reproduction. We have examined the correlations between multiple blood-based markers of oxidative status and several perfluoroalkyl acids (i.e., with 8 or more carbons) in male Arctic black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) during the pre-laying period...
October 12, 2018: Environmental Research
Jinghua Wang, Yitao Pan, Qianqian Cui, Bing Yao, Jianshe Wang, Jiayin Dai
Laboratory studies indicate that exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can induce neurobehavioral effects in animals. However, the penetration of PFASs across the brain barrier and its determining factors are yet to be clarified in humans. We studied PFAS levels in 223 matched-pair serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from hospital in-patients using UPLC/MS/MS. Among the 21 target analytes, PFOA, PFOS, and 6:2 Cl-PFESA were dominant in serum, with mean concentrations of 7...
November 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Matthew D Taylor
Per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging contaminants that have potential implications for human health. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) are perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that commonly bioaccumulate in aquatic species exposed to PFAS contaminant sources. Sampling programs aimed at measuring PFAA concentrations in free ranging aquatic animals to assess human health risk are not yet supported by any quantitative analyses to refine sampling effort required to provide a reasonable estimate of summary statistics for a species in a particular area...
October 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Erika Houtz, Miaomiao Wang, June-Soo Park
The fate of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) derived from aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) was investigated within a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) receiving large AFFF inputs from a foam refractory testing event. Targeted analysis, the Total Oxidizable Precursor Assay (TOP Assay), and nontargeted analysis with quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) were used to characterize the samples. Over the duration of foam testing, approximately 10.8 kg of total PFASs was measured by TOP Assay in the influent, and 6...
October 31, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Esra Emerce, Özge Çetin
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are synthetic chemicals that have been used in industry and consumer products. Because the presence of PFAS has been identified in humans and the environment in the last decade, human exposure to PFAS is a current public health concern. It has been shown that some PFAS lead to adverse health effects in the male reproductive system. However, there is no information about probable genotoxic effects of these chemicals on sperm cells. This study aimed to investigate the possible genotoxic damage on human sperm cells exposed to certain major PFAS compounds that were selected considering their extensive usage, high persistence in the environment, and high bioaccumulation in humans...
October 16, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Jacqueline T Bangma, Jared M Ragland, Thomas R Rainwater, John A Bowden, J Whitfield Gibbons, Jessica L Reiner
This study focused on an estuarine wildlife species exhibiting high site fidelity and ubiquitous distribution in coastal environments along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States to monitor per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). A total of 75 diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) plasma samples were collected from five creeks associated with Kiawah (Oyster Creek, Fiddler Creek, Sandy Creek, Gnat Creek) and Edisto (Townsend Creek) islands in Charleston County, South Carolina and investigated for 15 legacy PFAS...
January 2019: Chemosphere
Laura Gobelius, Caroline Persson, Karin Wiberg, Lutz Ahrens
The aim of this study was to calibrate and apply polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) to examine 26 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). As a first step, the sampling rates (Rs ) of 14 PFASs were determined in a laboratory calibration study for POCIS-WAX (weak-anion exchange) and POCIS-HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance) (each with a surface area per mass of sorbent ratio of 227 cm2  g-1 ). While most PFASs were still in the linear uptake phase during the 28-day calibration study, Rs ranged from 0...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Rui Li, Gabriel Munoz, Yanan Liu, Sébastien Sauvé, Subhasis Ghoshal, Jinxia Liu
Aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) containing perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are commonly deployed to extinguish hydrocarbon fuel fires, resulting in petroleum hydrocarbons coexisting with PFASs in contaminated soil. Nutrient-amended and aerated biopiles used for petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation could cause unintended transformation of polyfluorinated substances into perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs). The study sought to examine environmental behaviors of PFASs in engineered treatment facilities by monitoring AFFF-derived PFASs under three nutrient conditions...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Amélie Ritscher, Zhanyun Wang, Martin Scheringer, Justin M Boucher, Lutz Ahrens, Urs Berger, Sylvain Bintein, Stephanie K Bopp, Daniel Borg, Andreas M Buser, Ian Cousins, Jamie DeWitt, Tony Fletcher, Christopher Green, Dorte Herzke, Christopher Higgins, Jun Huang, Hayley Hung, Thomas Knepper, Christopher S Lau, Eeva Leinala, Andrew B Lindstrom, Jinxia Liu, Mark Miller, Koichi Ohno, Noora Perkola, Yali Shi, Line Småstuen Haug, Xenia Trier, Sara Valsecchi, Katinka van der Jagt, Lena Vierke
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are man-made chemicals that contain at least one perfluoroalkyl moiety, [Formula: see text]. To date, over 4,000 unique PFASs have been used in technical applications and consumer products, and some of them have been detected globally in human and wildlife biomonitoring studies. Because of their extraordinary persistence, human and environmental exposure to PFASs will be a long-term source of concern. Some PFASs such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) have been investigated extensively and thus regulated, but for many other PFASs, knowledge about their current uses and hazards is still very limited or missing entirely...
August 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Bilal Abada, Theodore E G Alivio, Yiru Shao, Thomas E O'Loughlin, Cory Klemashevich, Sarbajit Banerjee, Arul Jayaraman, Kung-Hui Chu
Occurrence of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the environment and biota has raised a great concern to public health because these compounds are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. Biodegradation of polyfluoroalkyl substances, particularly long-chain fluorotelomer-based products, can lead to production of various short-chain PFASs, with 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (referred as 5:3 FTCA hereafter) as a dominant polyfluoroalkyl metabolite. Perfluoroalkyl acids, particularly perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are toxic and current removal methods are not cost-effective...
December 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yi Wang, Nanyang Yu, Xiaobin Zhu, Huiwei Guo, Jianguo Jiang, Xuebing Wang, Wei Shi, Jichun Wu, Hongxia Yu, Si Wei
Although per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have always been a key issue in the global environmental field, there are still a lot of undiscovered PFASs in the environment due to new PFAS alternatives developed by manufacturers. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as one of the sources for PFASs, are an important part of the process of releasing new PFASs into the environment. In this study, suspect screening and PFAS homologue analysis with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry were used to discover PFASs in wastewater from a WWTP near Yangtze River...
October 2, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Gabriel Munoz, Prisca Ray, Sandra Mejia-Avendaño, Sung Vo Duy, Dat Tien Do, Jinxia Liu, Sébastien Sauvé
The comprehensive analysis of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) formulations has led in recent years to the discovery of novel classes of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Whether the pre-existing analytical methods for historically monitored PFASs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), could be transferable to a large breadth of newly identified PFASs remains, however, an open question. Data from various lines of evidence indicate that current extraction procedures previously validated with anionic and neutral PFASs may seriously underperform for many cationic and zwitterionic PFASs...
November 30, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Zhonghui Lan, Meng Zhou, Yiming Yao, Hongwen Sun
Application of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is shifting to short-chain analogs (C ≤ 6) that raises concerns for their potential ecotoxicological risks. In the present study, pot experiments were carried out to study the effects of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs), with different carbon chain lengths (C4, C6, and C8) on the growth of wheat seedlings and their plant uptake and transfer at two spiking levels (200 and 2000 μg/kg soil)...
November 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Vanisree Mulabagal, Lan Liu, Jingyi Qi, Caleb Wilson, Joel S Hayworth
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) represent a large group of synthetic organic compounds which, as a result of their unique chemical properties, render them extremely recalcitrant to environmental degradation. Research concerning the environmental, ecological, and human health effects of PFAS has focused on long aliphatic chain (> C7) compounds having no ether bonds. For new, less studied, or previously unknown PFAS (≤ C7 with ether bonds), there is little to no information about their environmental behavior, transport, fate, exposure, and toxicological effects...
December 1, 2018: Talanta
Xiaowei Song, Robin Vestergren, Yali Shi, Jun Huang, Yaqi Cai
Fluoropolymer manufacturing is a major historical source of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on a global scale, but little is known about the emissions, transport, and fate of emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Here, we performed a comprehensive spatial trend and interyear comparison of surface water and sediment samples from the Xiaoqing River, which receives water discharge from one of the major fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities in China. A suspect screening identified 42 chemical formulas, including the tetramer acid of hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO-TeA) and numerous tentatively detected isomers of C9-C14 per- or polyfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs)...
September 4, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kerstin Winkens, Georgios Giovanoulis, Jani Koponen, Robin Vestergren, Urs Berger, Anne M Karvonen, Juha Pekkanen, Hannu Kiviranta, Ian T Cousins
We analysed floor dust samples from 65 children's bedrooms in Finland collected in 2014/2015 for 62 different per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with a simple and highly efficient method. Validation results from the analysis of standard reference material (SRM) 2585 were in good agreement with literature data, while 24 PFASs were quantified for the first time. In the dust samples from children's bedrooms, five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were detected in more than half of the samples with the highest median concentration of 5...
October 2018: Environment International
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