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perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances

Laura Gobelius, Caroline Persson, Karin Wiberg, Lutz Ahrens
The aim of this study was to calibrate and apply polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) to examine 26 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). As a first step, the sampling rates (Rs ) of 14 PFASs were determined in a laboratory calibration study for POCIS-WAX (weak-anion exchange) and POCIS-HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance) (each with a surface area per mass of sorbent ratio of 227 cm2  g-1 ). While most PFASs were still in the linear uptake phase during the 28-day calibration study, Rs ranged from 0...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Rui Li, Gabriel Munoz, Yanan Liu, Sébastien Sauvé, Subhasis Ghoshal, Jinxia Liu
Aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) containing perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are commonly deployed to extinguish hydrocarbon fuel fires, resulting in petroleum hydrocarbons coexisting with PFASs in contaminated soil. Nutrient-amended and aerated biopiles used for petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation could cause unintended transformation of polyfluorinated substances into perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs). The study sought to examine environmental behaviors of PFASs in engineered treatment facilities by monitoring AFFF-derived PFASs under three nutrient conditions...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Amélie Ritscher, Zhanyun Wang, Martin Scheringer, Justin M Boucher, Lutz Ahrens, Urs Berger, Sylvain Bintein, Stephanie K Bopp, Daniel Borg, Andreas M Buser, Ian Cousins, Jamie DeWitt, Tony Fletcher, Christopher Green, Dorte Herzke, Christopher Higgins, Jun Huang, Hayley Hung, Thomas Knepper, Christopher S Lau, Eeva Leinala, Andrew B Lindstrom, Jinxia Liu, Mark Miller, Koichi Ohno, Noora Perkola, Yali Shi, Line Småstuen Haug, Xenia Trier, Sara Valsecchi, Katinka van der Jagt, Lena Vierke
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are man-made chemicals that contain at least one perfluoroalkyl moiety, [Formula: see text]. To date, over 4,000 unique PFASs have been used in technical applications and consumer products, and some of them have been detected globally in human and wildlife biomonitoring studies. Because of their extraordinary persistence, human and environmental exposure to PFASs will be a long-term source of concern. Some PFASs such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) have been investigated extensively and thus regulated, but for many other PFASs, knowledge about their current uses and hazards is still very limited or missing entirely...
August 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Bilal Abada, Theodore E G Alivio, Yiru Shao, Thomas E O'Loughlin, Cory Klemashevich, Sarbajit Banerjee, Arul Jayaraman, Kung-Hui Chu
Occurrence of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the environment and biota has raised a great concern to public health because these compounds are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. Biodegradation of polyfluoroalkyl substances, particularly long-chain fluorotelomer-based products, can lead to production of various short-chain PFASs, with 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (referred as 5:3 FTCA hereafter) as a dominant polyfluoroalkyl metabolite. Perfluoroalkyl acids, particularly perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are toxic and current removal methods are not cost-effective...
December 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yi Wang, Nanyang Yu, Xiaobin Zhu, Huiwei Guo, Jianguo Jiang, Xuebing Wang, Wei Shi, Jichun Wu, Hongxia Yu, Si Wei
Although per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have always been a key issue in the global environmental field, there are still a lot of undiscovered PFASs in the environment due to new PFAS alternatives developed by manufacturers. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as one of the sources for PFASs, are an important part of the process of releasing new PFASs into the environment. In this study, suspect screening and PFAS homologue analysis with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry were used to discover PFASs in wastewater from a WWTP near Yangtze River...
October 2, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Gabriel Munoz, Prisca Ray, Sandra Mejia-Avendaño, Sung Vo Duy, Dat Tien Do, Jinxia Liu, Sébastien Sauvé
The comprehensive analysis of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) formulations has led in recent years to the discovery of novel classes of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Whether the pre-existing analytical methods for historically monitored PFASs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), could be transferable to a large breadth of newly identified PFASs remains, however, an open question. Data from various lines of evidence indicate that current extraction procedures previously validated with anionic and neutral PFASs may seriously underperform for many cationic and zwitterionic PFASs...
November 30, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Zhonghui Lan, Meng Zhou, Yiming Yao, Hongwen Sun
Application of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is shifting to short-chain analogs (C ≤ 6) that raises concerns for their potential ecotoxicological risks. In the present study, pot experiments were carried out to study the effects of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs), with different carbon chain lengths (C4, C6, and C8) on the growth of wheat seedlings and their plant uptake and transfer at two spiking levels (200 and 2000 μg/kg soil)...
November 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Vanisree Mulabagal, Lan Liu, Jingyi Qi, Caleb Wilson, Joel S Hayworth
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) represent a large group of synthetic organic compounds which, as a result of their unique chemical properties, render them extremely recalcitrant to environmental degradation. Research concerning the environmental, ecological, and human health effects of PFAS has focused on long aliphatic chain (> C7) compounds having no ether bonds. For new, less studied, or previously unknown PFAS (≤ C7 with ether bonds), there is little to no information about their environmental behavior, transport, fate, exposure, and toxicological effects...
December 1, 2018: Talanta
Xiaowei Song, Robin Vestergren, Yali Shi, Jun Huang, Yaqi Cai
Fluoropolymer manufacturing is a major historical source of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on a global scale, but little is known about the emissions, transport, and fate of emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Here, we performed a comprehensive spatial trend and interyear comparison of surface water and sediment samples from the Xiaoqing River, which receives water discharge from one of the major fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities in China. A suspect screening identified 42 chemical formulas, including the tetramer acid of hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO-TeA) and numerous tentatively detected isomers of C9-C14 per- or polyfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs)...
September 4, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kerstin Winkens, Georgios Giovanoulis, Jani Koponen, Robin Vestergren, Urs Berger, Anne M Karvonen, Juha Pekkanen, Hannu Kiviranta, Ian T Cousins
We analysed floor dust samples from 65 children's bedrooms in Finland collected in 2014/2015 for 62 different per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with a simple and highly efficient method. Validation results from the analysis of standard reference material (SRM) 2585 were in good agreement with literature data, while 24 PFASs were quantified for the first time. In the dust samples from children's bedrooms, five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were detected in more than half of the samples with the highest median concentration of 5...
October 2018: Environment International
Nanyang Yu, Huiwei Guo, Jingping Yang, Ling Jin, Xuebing Wang, Wei Shi, Xiaowei Zhang, Hongxia Yu, Si Wei
Airborne particulate matter (APM) has an important role in inhalation exposure, especially in China. The environmental occurrence of conventional and unknown per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in APM remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, a two-stage experiment was designed to identify potential PFASs and to investigate their distribution in APM. Indoor and outdoor APM samples were collected from five selected cities in China. Through PFAS homologue analysis and suspect screening, 50 peaks were identified with different confidence levels (levels 1-3)...
August 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Suyun Zhang, Rongrong Tan, Rui Pan, Jianwei Xiong, Ying Tian, Jie Wu, Ling Chen
Context: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), a group of ubiquitous environmental chemicals with properties of endocrine disruption, are often detectable in humans. Objective: The current study investigated the association between exposure to PFAS and primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Design, Patients, Interventions, and Main Outcome Measures: Levels of plasma PFAS were measured in 120 Chinese women with overt POI and 120 healthy control subjects from 2013 to 2016...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Youping Tian, Yan Zhou, Maohua Miao, Ziliang Wang, Wei Yuan, Xiao Liu, Xin Wang, Zhikai Wang, Sheng Wen, Hong Liang
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widely used in commercial applications and have been commonly detected in pregnant women in Europe and North America. However, data on PFAS concentrations in pregnant women in China are limited. Additionally, the determinants of maternal PFAS concentrations with respect to diet habits have been less extensively described, especially in Asian countries. In the present study, we aimed to measure PFAS concentrations in pregnant women and evaluate sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors as potential determinants of PFAS concentrations...
October 2018: Environment International
Hao Chen, Yiming Yao, Zhen Zhao, Yu Wang, Qi Wang, Chao Ren, Bin Wang, Hongwen Sun, Alfredo C Alder, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Industrial facilities can be point sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) emission to the surrounding environment. In this study, 25 neutral and ionizable PFASs were analyzed in 94 multimedia samples including air, rain, outdoor settled dust, soil, plant leaves, river water, surface sediment, and shallow groundwater from two fluorochemical manufacturing parks (FMPs) in Fuxin, China, to elucidate the multimedia distribution and transfer pattern of PFASs from a point source. The concentrations of individual PFASs in air, outdoor settled dust, and surface river water decreased exponentially as the distance increases from the FMPs, whereas the concentrations of short-chain (C2-C4) perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) remained high (3000 ng/L) in the surface water 38 km away...
August 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kayoko Kato, Akil A Kalathil, Ayesha M Patel, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M Calafat
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), man-made chemicals with variable length carbon chains containing the perfluoroalkyl moiety (Cn F2n+1 -), are used in many commercial applications. Since 1999-2000, several long-chain PFAS, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), have been detected at trace levels in the blood of most participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-representative samples of the U.S. general population-while short-chain PFAS have not...
October 2018: Chemosphere
Andrea Gredelj, Alberto Barausse, Laura Grechi, Luca Palmeri
Over the past decades, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) found in environmental matrices worldwide have raised concerns due to their toxicity, ubiquity and persistence. A widespread pollution of groundwater and surface waters caused by PFASs in Northern Italy has been recently discovered, becoming a major environmental issue, also because the exact risk for humans and nature posed by this contamination is unclear. Here, the Po River in Northern Italy was selected as a study area to assess the ecological risk posed by perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), a class of PFASs, considering the noticeable concentration of various PFAAs detected in the Po waters over the past years...
October 2018: Environment International
Shawn A Milley, Iris Koch, Patricia Fortin, Jeremy Archer, David Reynolds, Kela P Weber
Assessing the extent to which emerging contaminants (ECs) such as perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been released into the environment is one of the foundations for developing effective management and remediation strategies for impacted sites. PFAS are known to have caused the contamination of soil, groundwater, and surface water as a result of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) being accidentally or intentionally released into the environment. To date, the scope of the issue has not been evaluated in Canada...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jøran Solnes Skaar, Erik Magnus Ræder, Jan Ludvig Lyche, Lutz Ahrens, Roland Kallenborn
A combination of local (i.e. firefighting training facilities) and remote sources (i.e. long-range transport) is assumed to be responsible for the occurrence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic). However, no systematic elucidation of local PFASs sources has been conducted yet. Therefore, a survey was performed aiming at identifying local PFAS pollution sources on the island of Spitsbergen (Svalbard, Norway). Soil, freshwater (lake, draining rivers), seawater, meltwater run-off, surface snow and coastal sediment samples were collected from Longyearbyen (Norwegian mining town), Ny-Ålesund (research facility) and the Lake Linnévatnet area (background site) during several campaigns (2014-2016) and analysed for 14 individual target PFASs...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yitao Pan, Hongxia Zhang, Qianqian Cui, Nan Sheng, Leo W Y Yeung, Yan Sun, Yong Guo, Jiayin Dai
Driven by increasingly stringent restrictions on long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), novel fluorinated compounds have emerged on the market. Here we report on the occurrences of several perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic and sulfonic acids (PFECAs and PFESAs), including hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer and trimer acids (HFPO-DA and HFPO-TA), ammonium 4,8-dioxa-3 H-perfluorononanoate (ADONA), chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA), and its hydrogen-substituted analogue (6:2 H-PFESA) in surface waters from China ( n = 106), the United States ( n = 12), the United Kingdom ( n = 6), Sweden ( n = 10), Germany ( n = 14), The Netherlands ( n = 6), and Korea ( n = 6)...
July 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Wenchao Han, Yu Gao, Qian Yao, Tao Yuan, Yiwen Wang, Shasha Zhao, Rong Shi, Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Xiaoming Shen, Ying Tian
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been widely detected in different populations. However, limited data is available about exposure among family members. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the PFASs levels in parents and their newborns and to understand their correlation and health implications of in utero exposure to PFASs. METHODS: Ten PFASs were measured in matched parental and cord serum (N = 369 families) from a birth cohort in Shandong, one of the regions seriously polluted by PFASs in China...
July 2018: Environment International
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