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perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances

Xiaowei Song, Robin Vestergren, Yali Shi, Jun Huang, Yaqi Cai
Fluoropolymer manufacturing is a major historical source of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on a global scale, but little is known about the emissions, transport, and fate of emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Here, we performed a comprehensive spatial trend and interyear comparison of surface water and sediment samples from the Xiaoqing River, which receives water discharge from one of the major fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities in China. A suspect screening identified 42 chemical formulas, including the tetramer acid of hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO-TeA) and numerous tentatively detected isomers of C9-C14 per- or polyfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs)...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kerstin Winkens, Georgios Giovanoulis, Jani Koponen, Robin Vestergren, Urs Berger, Anne M Karvonen, Juha Pekkanen, Hannu Kiviranta, Ian T Cousins
We analysed floor dust samples from 65 children's bedrooms in Finland collected in 2014/2015 for 62 different per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with a simple and highly efficient method. Validation results from the analysis of standard reference material (SRM) 2585 were in good agreement with literature data, while 24 PFASs were quantified for the first time. In the dust samples from children's bedrooms, five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were detected in more than half of the samples with the highest median concentration of 5...
July 24, 2018: Environment International
Nanyang Yu, Huiwei Guo, Jingping Yang, Ling Jin, Xuebing Wang, Wei Shi, Xiaowei Zhang, Hongxia Yu, Si Wei
Airborne particulate matter (APM) has an important role in inhalation exposure, especially in China. The environmental occurrence of conventional and unknown per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in APM remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, a two-stage experiment was designed to identify potential PFASs and to investigate their distribution in APM. Indoor and outdoor APM samples were collected from five selected cities in China. Through PFAS homologue analysis and suspect screening, 50 peaks were identified with different confidence levels (levels 1-3)...
August 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Suyun Zhang, Rongrong Tan, Rui Pan, Jianwei Xiong, Ying Tian, Jie Wu, Ling Chen
Context: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), a group of ubiquitous environmental chemicals with properties of endocrine disruption, are often detectable in humans. Objective: The current study investigated the association between exposure to PFAS and primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Design, Patients, Interventions, and Main Outcome Measures: Levels of plasma PFAS were measured in 120 Chinese women with overt POI and 120 healthy control subjects from 2013 to 2016...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Youping Tian, Yan Zhou, Maohua Miao, Ziliang Wang, Wei Yuan, Xiao Liu, Xin Wang, Zhikai Wang, Sheng Wen, Hong Liang
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widely used in commercial applications and have been commonly detected in pregnant women in Europe and North America. However, data on PFAS concentrations in pregnant women in China are limited. Additionally, the determinants of maternal PFAS concentrations with respect to diet habits have been less extensively described, especially in Asian countries. In the present study, we aimed to measure PFAS concentrations in pregnant women and evaluate sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors as potential determinants of PFAS concentrations...
June 26, 2018: Environment International
Hao Chen, Yiming Yao, Zhen Zhao, Yu Wang, Qi Wang, Chao Ren, Bin Wang, Hongwen Sun, Alfredo C Alder, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Industrial facilities can be point sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) emission to the surrounding environment. In this study, 25 neutral and ionizable PFASs were analyzed in 94 multimedia samples including air, rain, outdoor settled dust, soil, plant leaves, river water, surface sediment, and shallow groundwater from two fluorochemical manufacturing parks (FMPs) in Fuxin, China, to elucidate the multimedia distribution and transfer pattern of PFASs from a point source. The concentrations of individual PFASs in air, outdoor settled dust, and surface river water decreased exponentially as the distance increases from the FMPs, whereas the concentrations of short-chain (C2-C4) perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) remained high (3000 ng/L) in the surface water 38 km away...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kayoko Kato, Akil A Kalathil, Ayesha M Patel, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M Calafat
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), man-made chemicals with variable length carbon chains containing the perfluoroalkyl moiety (Cn F2n+1 -), are used in many commercial applications. Since 1999-2000, several long-chain PFAS, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), have been detected at trace levels in the blood of most participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-representative samples of the U.S. general population-while short-chain PFAS have not...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Andrea Gredelj, Alberto Barausse, Laura Grechi, Luca Palmeri
Over the past decades, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) found in environmental matrices worldwide have raised concerns due to their toxicity, ubiquity and persistence. A widespread pollution of groundwater and surface waters caused by PFASs in Northern Italy has been recently discovered, becoming a major environmental issue, also because the exact risk for humans and nature posed by this contamination is unclear. Here, the Po River in Northern Italy was selected as a study area to assess the ecological risk posed by perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), a class of PFASs, considering the noticeable concentration of various PFAAs detected in the Po waters over the past years...
June 20, 2018: Environment International
Shawn A Milley, Iris Koch, Patricia Fortin, Jeremy Archer, David Reynolds, Kela P Weber
Assessing the extent to which emerging contaminants (ECs) such as perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been released into the environment is one of the foundations for developing effective management and remediation strategies for impacted sites. PFAS are known to have caused the contamination of soil, groundwater, and surface water as a result of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) being accidentally or intentionally released into the environment. To date, the scope of the issue has not been evaluated in Canada...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jøran Solnes Skaar, Erik Magnus Ræder, Jan Ludvig Lyche, Lutz Ahrens, Roland Kallenborn
A combination of local (i.e. firefighting training facilities) and remote sources (i.e. long-range transport) is assumed to be responsible for the occurrence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic). However, no systematic elucidation of local PFASs sources has been conducted yet. Therefore, a survey was performed aiming at identifying local PFAS pollution sources on the island of Spitsbergen (Svalbard, Norway). Soil, freshwater (lake, draining rivers), seawater, meltwater run-off, surface snow and coastal sediment samples were collected from Longyearbyen (Norwegian mining town), Ny-Ålesund (research facility) and the Lake Linnévatnet area (background site) during several campaigns (2014-2016) and analysed for 14 individual target PFASs...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yitao Pan, Hongxia Zhang, Qianqian Cui, Nan Sheng, Leo W Y Yeung, Yan Sun, Yong Guo, Jiayin Dai
Driven by increasingly stringent restrictions on long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), novel fluorinated compounds have emerged on the market. Here we report on the occurrences of several perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic and sulfonic acids (PFECAs and PFESAs), including hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer and trimer acids (HFPO-DA and HFPO-TA), ammonium 4,8-dioxa-3 H-perfluorononanoate (ADONA), chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA), and its hydrogen-substituted analogue (6:2 H-PFESA) in surface waters from China ( n = 106), the United States ( n = 12), the United Kingdom ( n = 6), Sweden ( n = 10), Germany ( n = 14), The Netherlands ( n = 6), and Korea ( n = 6)...
July 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Wenchao Han, Yu Gao, Qian Yao, Tao Yuan, Yiwen Wang, Shasha Zhao, Rong Shi, Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Xiaoming Shen, Ying Tian
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been widely detected in different populations. However, limited data is available about exposure among family members. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the PFASs levels in parents and their newborns and to understand their correlation and health implications of in utero exposure to PFASs. METHODS: Ten PFASs were measured in matched parental and cord serum (N = 369 families) from a birth cohort in Shandong, one of the regions seriously polluted by PFASs in China...
July 2018: Environment International
Matthias Kotthoff, Mark Bücking
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) represent a versatile group of ubiquitously occurring chemicals of increasing regulatory concern. The past years lead to an ever expanding portfolio of detected anthropogenic PFAS in numerous products encountered in daily life. Yet no clear picture of the full range of individual substance that comprise PFAS is available and this challenges analytical and engineering sciences. Authorities struggle to cope with uncertainties in managing risk of harm posed by PFAS. This is a result of an incomplete understanding of the range of compounds that they comprise in differing products...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Meng Chen, Qiang Wang, Guoqiang Shan, Lingyan Zhu, Liping Yang, Menglin Liu
There are many studies about the occurrence of legacy perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in fresh water ecosystem, but related information about emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is limited. In this study, along with ten legacy PFAAs, twelve non-PFAAs, including precursors of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and emerging PFASs in the water, sediment and organisms in Taihu Lake, China, were investigated. As one replacement product of PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) (mean: 69.3ng/L) was the predominant PFAA in the water samples...
September 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ingrid Mobacke, Lars Lind, Linda Dunder, Samira Salihovic, P Monica Lind
AIMS: Some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to interfere with myocardial function and geometry. We therefore investigated if also another group of POPs: per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were associated with alterations in left ventricular geometry. METHODS: 801 subjects aged 70 years were investigated in a cross-sectional study within the scope of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study...
June 2018: Environment International
Yali Shi, Robin Vestergren, Therese Haugdahl Nost, Zhen Zhou, Yaqi Cai
Understanding the bioaccumulation mechanisms of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) across different chain-lengths, isomers and functional groups represents a monumental scientific challenge with implications for chemical regulation. Here, we investigate how the differential tissue distribution and bioaccumulation behavior of 25 PFASs in crucian carp from two field sites impacted by point sources can provide information about the processes governing uptake, distribution and elimination of PFASs. Median tissue/blood ratios (TBRs) were consistently <1 for all PFASs and tissues except bile which displayed a distinct distribution pattern and enrichment of several perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Laura Gobelius, Johanna Hedlund, Wiebke Dürig, Rikard Tröger, Karl Lilja, Karin Wiberg, Lutz Ahrens
The aim of this study was to assess per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the Swedish aquatic environment, identify emission sources, and compare measured concentrations with environmental quality standards (EQS) and (drinking) water guideline values. In total, 493 samples were analyzed in 2015 for 26 PFASs (∑26 PFASs) in surface water, groundwater, landfill leachate, sewage treatment plant effluents and reference lakes, focusing on hot spots and drinking water sources. Highest ∑26 PFAS concentrations were detected in surface water (13 000 ng L-1 ) and groundwater (6400 ng L-1 )...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Stephan Brendel, Éva Fetter, Claudia Staude, Lena Vierke, Annegret Biegel-Engler
Background: Short-chain PFASs (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) are widely used as alternatives to long-chain PFASs. Long-chain PFASs become gradually regulated under REACH (EC No. 1907/2006) and other international regulations, due to having persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties and/or being toxic for reproduction. The increasingly used short-chain PFASs are assumed to have a lower bioaccumulation potential. Nonetheless, they have other properties of concern and are already widely distributed in the environment, also in remote regions...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Emily S Larson, Jason M Conder, Jennifer A Arblaster
Releases of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) associated with Aqueous Film Forming Foams (AFFFs) have the potential to impact on-site and downgradient aquatic habitats. Dietary exposures of aquatic-dependent birds were modeled for seven PFASs (PFHxA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFHxS, PFOS, and PFDS) using five different scenarios based on measurements of PFASs obtained from five investigations of sites historically-impacted by AFFF. Exposure modeling was conducted for four avian receptors representing various avian feeding guilds: lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularia), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and osprey (Pandion haliaetus)...
June 2018: Chemosphere
Jennifer L Guelfo, David T Adamson
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) completed nationwide screening of six perfluoroalkyl substances in U.S. drinking water from 2013 to 2015 under the Third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR3). UCMR3 efforts yielded a dataset of 36,139 samples containing analytical results from >5000 public water systems (PWSs). This study used UCMR3 data to investigate three aspects of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water: the occurrence of PFAS and co-contaminant mixtures, trends in PFAS detections relative to PWS characteristics and potential release types, and temporal trends in PFAS occurrence...
May 2018: Environmental Pollution
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