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Bowel Ca

Khaled M El-Asmar, Mohammed Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid A El-Kassaby, Mohamed H Soliman, Mosad M El-Behery
BACKGROUND: Colonic atresia (CA) is a rare form of congenital intestinal atresia. Although CA may be isolated, it is more commonly reported in literature in association with other congenital anomalies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a review of prospectively collected data of all the patients with colonic atresia presented to our center (Ain Shams University) during 2008 to 2016. RESULTS: Twelve patients were enrolled in this study. The atresia was of type I in one case, type II in four cases, type IIIa in six cases, type IV in one case...
October 2016: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
Emily Mackey, Saravanan Ayyadurai, Calvin S Pohl, Susan D' Costa, Yihang Li, Adam J Moeser
BACKGROUND: Biological sex plays a prominent role in the prevalence and severity of a number of important stress-related gastrointestinal and immune-related diseases including IBS and allergy/anaphylaxis. Despite the establishment of sex differences in these diseases, the underlying mechanisms contributing to sex differences remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to define the role of biological sex on mast cells (MCs), an innate immune cell central to the pathophysiology of many GI and allergic disorders...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Chiara Traini, Stefano Evangelista, Vincent Girod, Maria Simonetta Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria Giuliana Vannucchi
Otilonium bromide (OB) is a spasmolytic drug successfully used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Its efficacy has been attributed to the block of L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels and muscarinic and tachykinin receptors in the smooth muscle. Furthermore, in healthy rats, repeated OB administration modified neurotransmitter expression and function suggesting other mechanisms of action. On this basis, we investigated whether repeated OB treatment prevented the functional and neurochemical changes observed in the colon of rats underwent to wrap restrain stress (WRS) a psychosocial stressor considered suitable to reproduce the main IBS signs and symptoms...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Nancy E Epstein
BACKGROUND: Major factors prompted the development of minimally invasive (MIS) extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF; NuVasive Inc., San Diego, CA, USE) for the thoracic/lumbar spine. These include providing interbody stabilization and indirect neural decompression while avoiding major visceral/vessel injury as seen with anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), and to avert trauma to paraspinal muscles/facet joints found with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), and posterior-lateral fusion techniques (PLF)...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
A Lo Vecchio, L Lancella, C Tagliabue, C De Giacomo, S Garazzino, M Mainetti, L Cursi, E Borali, M V De Vita, E Boccuzzi, L Castellazzi, S Esposito, A Guarino
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasingly found in children worldwide, but limited data are available from children living in southern Europe. A 6-year retrospective study was performed to investigate the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and risk of recurrence in Italy. Data of children with community- and hospital-acquired CDI (CA-CDI and HA-CDI, respectively) seen at seven pediatric referral centers in Italy were recorded retrospectively. Annual infection rates/10,000 hospital admissions were calculated...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Kenjiro Matsumoto, Kanako Takagi, Atsumi Kato, Takuya Ishibashi, Yasuo Mori, Kimihito Tashima, Atsushi Mitsumoto, Shinichi Kato, Syunji Horie
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a thermosensitive, Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel. TRPM2 contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, and inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that TRPM2 is important for visceral nociception and the development of visceral hypersensitivity. Therefore, we investigated the expression of TRPM2 channels and their involvement in visceral nociception in normal physiology and under pathological conditions that cause visceral hypersensitivity in rats...
November 2016: Experimental Neurology
Marta Vallejo, Diana P Cuesta, Luz E Flórez, Adriana Correa, Carmen E Llanos, Berenice Isaza, Stella Vanegas, Johanna Osorio, Lucía Casanova, María V Villegas
INTRODUCTION: Complicated community-acquired intra-abdominal infections (CA-cIAI) are a common cause of acute abdomen. OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical and microbiology profile of CA-cIAI in four Colombian hospitals. METHODS: This is a prospective, descriptive study, between 08-2012 and 09-2014, including patients with CA-cIAI > 15 years. Data collected included: socio-demographic, clinical, diagnosis, and isolates of the first culture obtained aseptically during surgery with antimicrobial susceptibility...
June 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Kim E Barrett, Declan F McCole
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) contribute to epithelial damage and ion transport dysfunction (key events in inflammatory diarrhea) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to identify if H2 O2 mediates suppression of colonic ion transport function in the murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model by using the H2 O2 degrading enzyme, catalase. Colitis was induced by administering DSS (4%) in drinking water for 5 days followed by 3 days on normal H2 O...
August 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Monika Pruenster, Thomas Vogl, Johannes Roth, Markus Sperandio
Neutrophils and monocytes belong to the first line of immune defence cells and are recruited to sites of inflammation during infection or sterile injury. Both cells contain huge amounts of the heterodimeric protein S100A8/A9 in their cytoplasm. S100A8/A9 belongs to the Ca(2+) binding S100 protein family and has recently gained a lot of interest as a critical alarm in modulating the inflammatory response after its release (extracellular S100A8/A9) from neutrophils and monocytes. Extracellular S100A8/A9 interacts with the pattern recognition receptors Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE) promoting cell activation and recruitment...
August 1, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yeonmi Lee, Reika Yoshitsugu, Keidai Kikuchi, Ga-Hyun Joe, Misaki Tsuji, Takuma Nose, Hidehisa Shimizu, Hiroshi Hara, Kimiko Minamida, Kazunori Miwa, Satoshi Ishizuka
Intestinal bacteria are involved in bile acid (BA) deconjugation and/or dehydroxylation and are responsible for the production of secondary BA. However, an increase in the production of secondary BA modulates the intestinal microbiota due to the bactericidal effects and promotes cancer risk in the liver and colon. The ingestion of Bacillus coagulans improves constipation via the activation of bowel movement to promote defaecation in humans, which may alter BA metabolism in the intestinal contents. BA secretion is promoted with high-fat diet consumption, and the ratio of cholic acid (CA):chenodeoxycholic acid in primary BA increases with ageing...
August 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Sayaka Suzawa, Kenji Takahashi, Takahisa Shimada, Toshio Ohta
Methylglyoxal (MG), a highly reactive dicarbonyl substance, is known as an endogenous carbonyl stress-inducing substance related to various disease states. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most frequently encountered gastrointestinal disorders and MG is considered to be its causal substance. An increased serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level is related to IBS symptoms and the majority of 5-HT originates from enterochromaffin (EC) cells in the intestine. Here we examine the mechanisms of MG-induced 5-HT secretion using RIN-14B cells derived from a rat pancreatic islet tumor since these cells are used as a model for EC cells...
July 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Andromeda Liñán-Rico, Fabio Turco, Fernando Ochoa-Cortes, Alan Harzman, Bradley J Needleman, Razvan Arsenescu, Mahmoud Abdel-Rasoul, Paolo Fadda, Iveta Grants, Emmett Whitaker, Rosario Cuomo, Fievos L Christofi
BACKGROUND: Clinical observations or animal studies implicate enteric glial cells in motility disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, gastrointestinal (GI) infections, postoperative ileus, and slow transit constipation. Mechanisms underlying glial responses to inflammation in human GI tract are not understood. Our goal was to identify the "reactive human enteric glial cell (rhEGC) phenotype" induced by inflammation, and probe its functional relevance. METHODS: Human enteric glial cells in culture from 15 GI-surgical specimens were used to study gene expression, Ca, and purinergic signaling by Ca/fluo-4 imaging and mechanosensitivity...
August 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Laxmi Sunuwar, Michal Medini, Limor Cohen, Israel Sekler, Michal Hershfinkel
Impaired epithelial barrier function is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as colitis, contributing to diarrhoea and perpetuating inflammation. We show that the zinc sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, triggers intracellular Ca(2+) signalling in colonocytes thereby inducing occludin expression. Moreover, ZnR/GPR39 is essential for epithelial barrier recovery in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) ulcerative colitis model. Loss of ZnR/GPR39 results in increased susceptibility to DSS-induced inflammation, owing to low expression of the tight junction protein occludin and impaired epithelial barrier...
August 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Adrian Nalichowski, Don G Eagle, Jay Burmeister
This study compared 2 different treatment planning systems (TPSs) for quality and efficiency of total marrow irradiation (TMI) plans. The TPSs used in this study were VOxel-Less Optimization (VoLO) (Accuray Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) using helical dose delivery on a Tomotherapy Hi-Art treatment unit and Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems Inc, Palo Alto, CA) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dose delivery on a Varian iX treatment unit. A total dose of 1200cGy was prescribed to cover 95% of the planning target volume (PTV)...
2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Zeynep Ceren Cerci, Derya Kilic Sakarya, Mehmet Hakan Yetimalar, Incim Bezircioglu, Burcu Kasap, Emre Baser, Kamil Yucel
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to determine the predictive value of Computed Tomography (CT), alone or in combination with serum CA-125 levels, for preoperative staging, detection of the extent of the disease, and surgical complications in patients with ovarian carcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and fourteen patients diagnosed with ovarian carcinoma following an exploratory laparotomy with a preoperative CT scan, performed between January 2007 and June 2013, were enrolled in the study...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
Wendy S Biggs, Sarah Tully Marks
Adnexal masses can have gynecologic or nongynecologic etiologies, ranging from normal luteal cysts to ovarian cancer to bowel abscesses. Women who report abdominal or pelvic pain, increased abdominal size or bloating, difficulty eating, or rapid satiety that occurs more than 12 times per month in less than a year should be evaluated for ovarian cancer. Pelvic examination has low sensitivity for detecting an adnexal mass; negative pelvic examination findings in a symptomatic woman should not deter further workup...
April 15, 2016: American Family Physician
Sen Yagi, Masanori Abe, Masakatsu Yamashita, Kenichirou Mori, Hirofumi Yamanishi, Eiji Arimitsu, Yasunori Yamamoto, Eiji Takeshita, Yoshio Ikeda, Yoichi Hiasa
BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrase I (CA I), a major cecal bacterial antigen, improves inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) symptoms in a murine model. The aim of this study was to identify the responsible epitope region within the CA I protein and evaluate its effect on inflammation using a murine IBD model. METHODS: Candidate peptides within the CA I protein sequence that interact with major histocompatibility complex class II were chosen and their immune responses were evaluated using mesentery lymph nodes (MLNs) from a CD4CD25 T-cell transfer murine colitis model...
August 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Diego Currò
Alterations of smooth muscle contractility contribute to the pathophysiology of important functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) such as functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Consequently, drugs that decrease smooth muscle contractility are effective treatments for these diseases. Smooth muscle contraction is mainly triggered by Ca(2+) influx through voltage-dependent channels located in the plasma membrane. Thus, the modulation of the membrane potential results in the regulation of Ca(2+) influx and cytosolic levels...
2016: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
Hatice Yildirim, Fatma Bahar Sunay, Selma Sinan, Feray Köçkar
Increases in the risk of infections and malignancy due to immune suppressive therapies of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) have led the researchers to focus on more nontoxic and acceptable natural products like curcumin. Here we investigate whether prophylactic and therapeutic application of the curcumin alters the enzyme activities of paraoxonase (PON), carbonic anhydrase (CA), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and cytosolic β-glucosidase in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis mice...
December 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Lisa J Herrinton, Andrea Altschuler, Carmit K McMullen, Joanna E Bulkley, Mark C Hornbrook, Virginia Sun, Christopher S Wendel, Marcia Grant, Carol M Baldwin, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried, Larissa K F Temple, Robert S Krouse
For some patients with low rectal cancer, ostomy (with elimination into a pouch) may be the only realistic surgical option. However, some patients have a choice between ostomy and sphincter-sparing surgery. Sphincter-sparing surgery has been preferred over ostomy because it offers preservation of normal bowel function. However, this surgery can cause incontinence and bowel dysfunction. Increasingly, it has become evident that certain patients who are eligible for sphincter-sparing surgery may not be well served by the surgery, and construction of an ostomy may be better...
September 2016: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
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