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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096305/epithelial-expression-and-function-of-trypsin-3-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#1
Claire Rolland-Fourcade, Alexandre Denadai-Souza, Carla Cirillo, Cintya Lopez, Josue Obed Jaramillo, Cleo Desormeaux, Nicolas Cenac, Jean-Paul Motta, Muriel Larauche, Yvette Taché, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Michel Neunlist, Emmanuel Coron, Sylvain Kirzin, Guillaume Portier, Delphine Bonnet, Laurent Alric, Stephen Vanner, Celine Deraison, Nathalie Vergnolle
OBJECTIVES: Proteases are key mediators of pain and altered enteric neuronal signalling, although the types and sources of these important intestinal mediators are unknown. We hypothesised that intestinal epithelium is a major source of trypsin-like activity in patients with IBS and this activity signals to primary afferent and enteric nerves and induces visceral hypersensitivity. DESIGN: Trypsin-like activity was determined in tissues from patients with IBS and in supernatants of Caco-2 cells stimulated or not...
January 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087670/plant-lectins-activate-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-to-promote-inflammatory-disorders
#2
Tao Gong, Xiaqiong Wang, Yanqing Yang, Yiqing Yan, Chenggong Yu, Rongbin Zhou, Wei Jiang
Plant-derived dietary lectins have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying lectin-induced inflammation. In this study, we showed that plant lectins can induce caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion via the NLRP3 inflammasome. Lectins were internalized and subsequently escaped from the lysosome and then translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047756/we-ab-207b-09-margin-reduction-for-planning-target-volume-ptv-in-patients-with-localized-prostate-cancer-impact-on-delivered-dose-and-quality-of-life
#3
A Kumarasiri, C Liu, S Brown, C Glide-Hurst, M Elshaikh, I Chetty, B Movsas
PURPOSE: To estimate the delivered (cumulative) dose to targets and organs at risk for localized prostate cancer patients treated with reduced PTV margins and to evaluate preliminary patient reported quality-of-life (QOL). METHODS: Under an IRB-approved protocol, 20 prostate cancer patients (including 11 control patients) were treated with reduced planning margins (5 mm uniform with 4 mm at prostate/rectum interface). Control patients had standard margin (10/6 mm)-based treatments...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046466/su-f-t-395-evaluation-of-best-dosimetry-achievable-with-vmat-and-imrt-treatment-techniques-targeting-borderline-resectable-pancreatic-cancer
#4
K Harpool, E Schnell, T Herman, S Ahmad, T De La Fuente Herman
PURPOSE: To determine from retrospective study the most appropriate technique for targeting small borderline operable pancreatic cancer surrounding blood vessels by evaluating the dosimetry and normal tissue sparing achievable using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). METHODS: Treatment plans from ten patients who have undergone treatment with a prescribed dose of 4950 cGy, at 275 cGy per fraction, were analyzed...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028930/an-update-on-cancer-risk-and-surveillance-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#5
Jennifer L Horsley-Silva, Eduardo A Rodriguez, Diana L Franco, Keith D Lindor
Malignancy represents substantial morbidity and mortality in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). This subset of patients has been proven to be at increased risk for developing cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder carcinoma, and colorectal cancer in those with overlapping inflammatory bowel disease. Herein we review the prevalence of these malignancies and recommend screening tools and current knowledge to reduce the disease burden in this population. Cholangiocarcinoma is the most dominant malignancy affecting PSC patients, with a lifetime risk ranging from 5-20%...
December 27, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011967/reduced-wound-infection-in-colorectal-resection-by-using-a-wound-auto-retractor
#6
Juan J Arenal, Agustín Martínez, María V Maderuelo, Claudia Tinoco, César Benito, Miguel A Citores, José M Eiros
Surgical site infection (SSI) remains an important problem in colorectal surgery. The aim of this study is to determine whether the use of a wound protection system can be effective in reducing the incidence of wound infection after colorectal resection. Ninety-five consecutive patients underwent colorectal resection, carried out by one single surgeon during a six-year period (2009-2015). A laparotomy auto-retractor was used in all cases (Alexis Wound Retractor; Applied Medical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA)...
1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965521/lymphocyte-antigen-75-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-disease-susceptibility-and-phenotype-in-japanese-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Atsuhiro Hirayama, Satoru Joshita, Kei Kitahara, Kenji Mukawa, Tomoaki Suga, Takeji Umemura, Eiji Tanaka, Masao Ota
Recent genome-wide association studies have rapidly improved our understanding of the molecular pathways leading to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Although several reports have demonstrated that gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with susceptibility to IBD, its precise genetic factors have not been fully clarified. Here, we performed an association analysis between lymphocyte antigen 75 (LY75) genetic variations and IBD susceptibility or phenotype...
2016: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896155/colonic-atresia-association-with-other-anomalies
#8
Khaled M El-Asmar, Mohammed Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid A El-Kassaby, Mohamed H Soliman, Mosad M El-Behery
BACKGROUND: Colonic atresia (CA) is a rare form of congenital intestinal atresia. Although CA may be isolated, it is more commonly reported in literature in association with other congenital anomalies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a review of prospectively collected data of all the patients with colonic atresia presented to our center (Ain Shams University) during 2008 to 2016. RESULTS: Twelve patients were enrolled in this study. The atresia was of type I in one case, type II in four cases, type IIIa in six cases, type IV in one case...
October 2016: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895892/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-mast-cell-transcriptome-and-the-pathophysiological-responses-to-immunological-and-psychological-stress
#9
Emily Mackey, Saravanan Ayyadurai, Calvin S Pohl, Susan D' Costa, Yihang Li, Adam J Moeser
BACKGROUND: Biological sex plays a prominent role in the prevalence and severity of a number of important stress-related gastrointestinal and immune-related diseases including IBS and allergy/anaphylaxis. Despite the establishment of sex differences in these diseases, the underlying mechanisms contributing to sex differences remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to define the role of biological sex on mast cells (MCs), an innate immune cell central to the pathophysiology of many GI and allergic disorders...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866394/repeated-otilonium-bromide-administration-prevents-neurotransmitter-changes-in-colon-of-rats-underwent-to-wrap-restraint-stress
#10
Chiara Traini, Stefano Evangelista, Vincent Girod, Maria Simonetta Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria Giuliana Vannucchi
Otilonium bromide (OB) is a spasmolytic drug successfully used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Its efficacy has been attributed to the block of L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels and muscarinic and tachykinin receptors in the smooth muscle. Furthermore, in healthy rats, repeated OB administration modified neurotransmitter expression and function suggesting other mechanisms of action. On this basis, we investigated whether repeated OB treatment prevented the functional and neurochemical changes observed in the colon of rats underwent to wrap restrain stress (WRS) a psychosocial stressor considered suitable to reproduce the main IBS signs and symptoms...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843688/extreme-lateral-lumbar-interbody-fusion-do-the-cons-outweigh-the-pros
#11
Nancy E Epstein
BACKGROUND: Major factors prompted the development of minimally invasive (MIS) extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF; NuVasive Inc., San Diego, CA, USE) for the thoracic/lumbar spine. These include providing interbody stabilization and indirect neural decompression while avoiding major visceral/vessel injury as seen with anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), and to avert trauma to paraspinal muscles/facet joints found with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), and posterior-lateral fusion techniques (PLF)...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696233/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-children-epidemiology-and-risk-of-recurrence-in-a-low-prevalence-country
#12
A Lo Vecchio, L Lancella, C Tagliabue, C De Giacomo, S Garazzino, M Mainetti, L Cursi, E Borali, M V De Vita, E Boccuzzi, L Castellazzi, S Esposito, A Guarino
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasingly found in children worldwide, but limited data are available from children living in southern Europe. A 6-year retrospective study was performed to investigate the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and risk of recurrence in Italy. Data of children with community- and hospital-acquired CDI (CA-CDI and HA-CDI, respectively) seen at seven pediatric referral centers in Italy were recorded retrospectively. Annual infection rates/10,000 hospital admissions were calculated...
January 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616276/role-of-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-2-trpm2-channels-in-visceral-nociception-and-hypersensitivity
#13
Kenjiro Matsumoto, Kanako Takagi, Atsumi Kato, Takuya Ishibashi, Yasuo Mori, Kimihito Tashima, Atsushi Mitsumoto, Shinichi Kato, Syunji Horie
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a thermosensitive, Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel. TRPM2 contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, and inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that TRPM2 is important for visceral nociception and the development of visceral hypersensitivity. Therefore, we investigated the expression of TRPM2 channels and their involvement in visceral nociception in normal physiology and under pathological conditions that cause visceral hypersensitivity in rats...
November 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598273/-clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-complicated-intra-abdominal-infection-in-colombia-a-multicenter-study
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Marta Vallejo, Diana P Cuesta, Luz E Flórez, Adriana Correa, Carmen E Llanos, Berenice Isaza, Stella Vanegas, Johanna Osorio, Lucía Casanova, María V Villegas
INTRODUCTION: Complicated community-acquired intra-abdominal infections (CA-cIAI) are a common cause of acute abdomen. OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical and microbiology profile of CA-cIAI in four Colombian hospitals. METHODS: This is a prospective, descriptive study, between 08-2012 and 09-2014, including patients with CA-cIAI > 15 years. Data collected included: socio-demographic, clinical, diagnosis, and isolates of the first culture obtained aseptically during surgery with antimicrobial susceptibility...
June 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543846/the-hydrogen-peroxide-scavenger-catalase-alleviates-ion-transport-dysfunction-in-murine-colitis
#15
Kim E Barrett, Declan F McCole
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) contribute to epithelial damage and ion transport dysfunction (key events in inflammatory diarrhea) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to identify if H2 O2 mediates suppression of colonic ion transport function in the murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model by using the H2 O2 degrading enzyme, catalase. Colitis was induced by administering DSS (4%) in drinking water for 5 days followed by 3 days on normal H2 O...
August 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492899/s100a8-a9-from-basic-science-to-clinical-application
#16
Monika Pruenster, Thomas Vogl, Johannes Roth, Markus Sperandio
Neutrophils and monocytes belong to the first line of immune defence cells and are recruited to sites of inflammation during infection or sterile injury. Both cells contain huge amounts of the heterodimeric protein S100A8/A9 in their cytoplasm. S100A8/A9 belongs to the Ca(2+) binding S100 protein family and has recently gained a lot of interest as a critical alarmin modulating the inflammatory response after its release (extracellular S100A8/A9) from neutrophils and monocytes. Extracellular S100A8/A9 interacts with the pattern recognition receptors Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE) promoting cell activation and recruitment...
November 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464459/combination-of-soya-pulp-and-bacillus-coagulans-lilac-01-improves-intestinal-bile-acid-metabolism-without-impairing-the-effects-of-prebiotics-in-rats-fed-a-cholic-acid-supplemented-diet
#17
Yeonmi Lee, Reika Yoshitsugu, Keidai Kikuchi, Ga-Hyun Joe, Misaki Tsuji, Takuma Nose, Hidehisa Shimizu, Hiroshi Hara, Kimiko Minamida, Kazunori Miwa, Satoshi Ishizuka
Intestinal bacteria are involved in bile acid (BA) deconjugation and/or dehydroxylation and are responsible for the production of secondary BA. However, an increase in the production of secondary BA modulates the intestinal microbiota due to the bactericidal effects and promotes cancer risk in the liver and colon. The ingestion of Bacillus coagulans improves constipation via the activation of bowel movement to promote defaecation in humans, which may alter BA metabolism in the intestinal contents. BA secretion is promoted with high-fat diet consumption, and the ratio of cholic acid (CA):chenodeoxycholic acid in primary BA increases with ageing...
August 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423812/carbonyl-stress-induced-5-hydroxytriptamine-secretion-from-rin-14b-rat-pancreatic-islet-tumor-cells-via-the-activation-of-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1
#18
Sayaka Suzawa, Kenji Takahashi, Takahisa Shimada, Toshio Ohta
Methylglyoxal (MG), a highly reactive dicarbonyl substance, is known as an endogenous carbonyl stress-inducing substance related to various disease states. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most frequently encountered gastrointestinal disorders and MG is considered to be its causal substance. An increased serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level is related to IBS symptoms and the majority of 5-HT originates from enterochromaffin (EC) cells in the intestine. Here we examine the mechanisms of MG-induced 5-HT secretion using RIN-14B cells derived from a rat pancreatic islet tumor since these cells are used as a model for EC cells...
July 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416040/molecular-signaling-and-dysfunction-of-the-human-reactive-enteric-glial-cell-phenotype-implications-for-gi-infection-ibd-poi-neurological-motility-and-gi-disorders
#19
Andromeda Liñán-Rico, Fabio Turco, Fernando Ochoa-Cortes, Alan Harzman, Bradley J Needleman, Razvan Arsenescu, Mahmoud Abdel-Rasoul, Paolo Fadda, Iveta Grants, Emmett Whitaker, Rosario Cuomo, Fievos L Christofi
BACKGROUND: Clinical observations or animal studies implicate enteric glial cells in motility disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, gastrointestinal (GI) infections, postoperative ileus, and slow transit constipation. Mechanisms underlying glial responses to inflammation in human GI tract are not understood. Our goal was to identify the "reactive human enteric glial cell (rhEGC) phenotype" induced by inflammation, and probe its functional relevance. METHODS: Human enteric glial cells in culture from 15 GI-surgical specimens were used to study gene expression, Ca, and purinergic signaling by Ca/fluo-4 imaging and mechanosensitivity...
August 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377730/the-zinc-sensing-receptor-znr-gpr39-triggers-metabotropic-calcium-signalling-in-colonocytes-and-regulates-occludin-recovery-in-experimental-colitis
#20
Laxmi Sunuwar, Michal Medini, Limor Cohen, Israel Sekler, Michal Hershfinkel
Impaired epithelial barrier function is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as colitis, contributing to diarrhoea and perpetuating inflammation. We show that the zinc sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, triggers intracellular Ca(2+) signalling in colonocytes thereby inducing occludin expression. Moreover, ZnR/GPR39 is essential for epithelial barrier recovery in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) ulcerative colitis model. Loss of ZnR/GPR39 results in increased susceptibility to DSS-induced inflammation, owing to low expression of the tight junction protein occludin and impaired epithelial barrier...
August 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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