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(ox40 OR cd28 OR cd137 OR 4-1BB OR GITR OR ICOS OR CD27 OR CD40) AND (chimeric antigen receptor)

John P Murad, Anna K Kozlowska, Hee Jun Lee, Maya Ramamurthy, Wen-Chung Chang, Paul Yazaki, David Colcher, John Shively, Mihaela Cristea, Stephen J Forman, Saul J Priceman
Impressive clinical efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cell therapy for hematological malignancies have prompted significant efforts in achieving similar responses in solid tumors. The lack of truly restricted and uniform expression of tumor-associated antigens, as well as limited T cell persistence and/or tumor trafficking pose major challenges for successful translation of CAR T cell therapy in solid tumors. Recent studies have demonstrated that aberrantly glycosylated cell surface proteins on tumor cells are amenable CAR targets...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Michael A Pulsipher
Multicenter trials in children and young adults using second-generation CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown dramatic levels of remission in patients with multiply relapsed/refractory disease (80% to ≥90%). Early results in adult trials have also shown significant responses, and strategies aimed at mitigating toxicities associated with the therapy have improved tolerability. Therefore, if available, CAR T-cell therapy deserves consideration for salvage of children and adults with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) who are multiply relapsed, refractory, or relapsed after a previous allogeneic transplantation...
November 30, 2018: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Hadas Weinstein-Marom, Noam Levin, Aviad Pato, Nofar Shmuel, Adi Sharabi-Nov, Tamar Peretz, Galit Eisenberg, Michal Lotem, Orit Itzhaki, Michal J Besser, Gideon Gross
Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) or gene-modified T cells expressing antitumor TCRs or chimeric antigen receptors often yields a high rate of clinical response in several types of cancer. New approaches for enhancing the functional properties of antitumor T cells could improve the clinical outcome of these treatments. To this end, we created 3 classes of genes, each designed to operate autonomously upon expression in T cells. We recently reported on the enhancing effects of constitutively active toll-like receptor 4 (caTLR4), membrane (mem) interleukin-2, memIL-12, and memIL-15, and self-oligomerizing, constitutively active CD40 (caCD40)...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
Yiyang Xu, Zhiyuan Yang, Lucas H Horan, Pengbo Zhang, Lianxing Liu, Bryan Zimdahl, Shon Green, Jingwei Lu, Javier F Morales, David M Barrett, Stephan A Grupp, Vivien W Chan, Hong Liu, Cheng Liu
The clinical use of genetically modified T-cell therapies has led to unprecedented response rates in leukemia and lymphoma patients treated with anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T. Despite this clinical success, FDA-approved T-cell therapies are currently limited to B-cell malignancies, and challenges remain with managing cytokine-related toxicities. We have designed a novel antibody-T-cell receptor (AbTCR) platform where we combined the Fab domain of an antibody with the γ and δ chains of the TCR as the effector domain...
2018: Cell Discovery
Sushmita Nair, Jing-Bo Wang, Shih-Ting Tsao, Yuchen Liu, Wei Zhu, William B Slayton, Jan S Moreb, Lujia Dong, Lung-Ji Chang
Recent studies of CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells (CARTs) have demonstrated unprecedented successes in treating refractory and relapsed B cell malignancies. The key to the latest CART therapy advances can be attributed to the improved co-stimulatory signals in the CAR design. Here we established several novel CARs by incorporating T cell signaling domains of CD28 in conjunction with intracellular signaling motif of 4-1BB, CD27, OX40, ICOS, and IL-15Rα. These novel CARs were functionally assessed based on a simple target cell killing assay...
November 15, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
Hamid Reza Mirzaei, Arezoo Jamali, Leila Jafarzadeh, Elham Masoumi, Khadijeh Alishah, Keyvan Fallah Mehrjardi, Seyed Amir Hossein Emami, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Brian G Till, Jamshid Hadjati
Although remarkable results have been attained by adoptively transferring T cells expressing fully murine and/or humanized anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to treat B cell malignancies, evidence of human anti-mouse immune responses against CARs provides a rationale for the development of less immunogenic CARs. By developing a fully human CAR (huCAR), these human anti-mouse immune responses are likely eliminated. This, perhaps, not only increases the persistence of anti-CD19 CAR T cells-thereby reducing the risk of tumor relapse-but also facilitates administration of multiple, temporally separated doses of CAR T cells to the same recipient...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Xingliang Guo, Hua Jiang, Bizhi Shi, Min Zhou, Honghong Zhang, Zhimin Shi, Guoxiu Du, Hong Luo, Xiuqi Wu, Yi Wang, Ruixin Sun, Zonghai Li
Cancer immunotherapy has made unprecedented breakthrough in the fields of chimeric antigen receptor-redirected T (CAR T) cell therapy and immune modulation. Combination of CAR modification and the disruption of endogenous inhibitory immune checkpoints on T cells represent a promising immunotherapeutic modality for cancer treatment. However, the potential for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been explored. In this study, the gene expressing the programmed death 1 receptor (PD-1) on the Glypican-3 (GPC3)-targeted second-generation CAR T cells employing CD28 as the co-stimulatory domain was disrupted using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing system...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Carlos A Ramos, Rayne Rouce, Catherine S Robertson, Amy Reyna, Neeharika Narala, Gayatri Vyas, Birju Mehta, Huimin Zhang, Olga Dakhova, George Carrum, Rammurti T Kamble, Adrian P Gee, Zhuyong Mei, Meng-Fen Wu, Hao Liu, Bambi Grilley, Cliona M Rooney, Helen E Heslop, Malcolm K Brenner, Barbara Savoldo, Gianpietro Dotti
Second-generation (2G) chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 are highly active against B cell malignancies, but it is unknown whether any of the costimulatory domains incorporated in the CAR have superior activity to others. Because CD28 and 4-1BB signaling activate different pathways, combining them in a single third-generation (3G) CAR may overcome the limitations of each individual costimulatory domain. We designed a clinical trial in which two autologous CD19-specific CAR-transduced T cell products (CD19...
September 13, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Sergey N Zolov, Skyler P Rietberg, Challice L Bonifant
Targeted adoptive immunotherapy with engineered T cells is a promising treatment for refractory hematologic malignancies. However, many patients achieving early complete remissions ultimately relapse. Immunosuppressive ligands are expressed on tumor and supportive cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). When activated, T cells express associated "checkpoint" receptors. Binding of co-inhibitory ligands and receptors may directly contribute to T-cell functional exhaustion. It is not known whether all T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are subject to checkpoint-mediated regulation...
October 2018: Cytotherapy
Johannes Breuning, Brian Philip, Marion H Brown
T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are a promising new cancer immunotherapy that has now reached the clinic. CARs are synthetic receptors that redirect T cells towards a tumour-associated antigen and activate them through various fused signalling regions, for example derived from CD3ζ, 4-1BB or CD28. Analysis of the optimal combination of CAR components including signalling domains is not yet comprehensive and may vary with the particular application. The C-terminus of the T-cell surface receptor CD6 is critical for its co-stimulatory effects and signals through two phospho-tyrosine motifs that bind to the intracellular adaptor proteins GADS and SLP-76...
October 9, 2018: Immunology
Hui Zhou, Yuling Luo, Sha Zhu, Xi Wang, Yunuo Zhao, Xuejin Ou, Tao Zhang, Xuelei Ma
BACKGROUND: Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells immunotherapy is rapidly developed in treating cancers, especially relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies. METHODS: To assess the efficacy and safety of CAR T therapy, we analyzed clinical trials from PUBMED and EMBASE. RESULTS: Results showed that the pooled response rate, 6-months and 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate were 67%, 65.62% and 44.18%, respectively. We observed that received lymphodepletion (72% vs 44%, P = 0...
September 26, 2018: BMC Cancer
Qi Zhong, Yang-Min Zhu, Li-Ling Zheng, Hui-Juan Shen, Rui-Ming Ou, Zhi Liu, Yan-Ling She, Rui Chen, Cheng Li, Jing Huang, Meng-Dong Yao, Qing Zhang, Shuang Liu
BACKGROUND: The second-generation CD19-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T co-stimulatory domain that is commonly used in clinical practice is CD28 or 4-1BB. Previous studies have shown that the persistence of CAR-T in the 4-1BB co-stimulatory domain appears to be longer. METHODS: The expression profile data of GSE65856 were obtained from GEO database. After data preprocessing, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the mock CAR versus CD19-28z CAR T cells and mock CAR versus CD19-BBz CAR T cells were identified using the limma package...
2018: Acta Haematologica
Gongbo Li, Justin C Boucher, Hiroshi Kotani, Kyungho Park, Yongliang Zhang, Bishwas Shrestha, Xuefeng Wang, Lawrence Guan, Nolan Beatty, Daniel Abate-Daga, Marco L Davila
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have an antigen-binding domain fused to transmembrane, costimulatory, and CD3ζ domains. Two CARs with regulatory approval include a CD28 or 4-1BB costimulatory domain. While both CARs achieve similar clinical outcomes, biologic differences have become apparent but not completely understood. Therefore, in this study we aimed to identify mechanistic differences between 4-1BB and CD28 costimulation that contribute to the biologic differences between the 2 CARs and could be exploited to enhance CAR T cell function...
September 20, 2018: JCI Insight
Jennifer A Rohrs, Dongqing Zheng, Nicholas A Graham, Pin Wang, Stacey D Finley
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have recently been approved for the treatment of hematological malignancies, but our lack of understanding of the basic mechanisms that activate these proteins has made it difficult to optimize and control CAR-based therapies. In this study, we use phosphoproteomic mass spectrometry and mechanistic computational modeling to quantify the in vitro kinetics of individual tyrosine phosphorylation on a variety of CARs. We show that each of the 10 tyrosine sites on the CD28-CD3ζ CAR is phosphorylated by lymphocyte-specific protein-tyrosine kinase (LCK) with distinct kinetics...
August 22, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Elad Jacoby, Bella Bielorai, Abraham Avigdor, Orit Itzhaki, Daphna Hutt, Vered Nussboim, Amilia Meir, Adva Kubi, Michal Levy, Dragoslav Zikich, Li-At Zeltzer, Karin Brezinger, Jacob Schachter, Arnon Nagler, Michal J Besser, Amos Toren
Autologous CD19 chimeric-antigen receptor (CAR) T cells demonstrated remarkable remission rates in relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (R/R ALL). Here, we report results from a phase 1b/2 study of in-house produced CD19 CAR with a CD28 costimulatory domain. Twenty-one patients with R/R ALL were enrolled, and 20 infused. The median age was 11 years (range, 5-48). Patients had a median of 4 prior regimens, including blinatumomab in 6 and prior stem-cell transplantation in 10. In total 8 patients had extramedullary (EM) leukemic involvement, and prior to lymphodepletion and CAR 7 had active lesions, a group underrepresented in previous trials...
December 2018: American Journal of Hematology
Na An, Yun Nan Hou, Qiao Xia Zhang, Ting Li, Qiong Li Zhang, Cheng Fang, Huan Chen, Hon Cheung Lee, Yong Juan Zhao, Xin Du
Chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-Ts) are a promising strategy for the treatment of many cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM), a hematological malignancy characterized by the high expression of CD38. To broaden the applications of using CD38 as a therapeutic target for the disease, we developed a new nanobody against CD38 and constructed a CD38-CAR that was composed of this nanobody as the targeting domain, and 4-1BB and CD3ζ as the costimulatory and activating domains, in a lentiviral vector. CD3+ T cells from healthy individuals were transduced with the CD38-CAR at an efficiency higher than 60%, as determined by CD38-CAR expression using flow cytometry...
October 1, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Alexander I Salter, Richard G Ivey, Jacob J Kennedy, Valentin Voillet, Anusha Rajan, Eva J Alderman, Uliana J Voytovich, Chenwei Lin, Daniel Sommermeyer, Lingfeng Liu, Jeffrey R Whiteaker, Raphael Gottardo, Amanda G Paulovich, Stanley R Riddell
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) link an antigen recognition domain to intracellular signaling domains to redirect T cell specificity and function. T cells expressing CARs with CD28/CD3ζ or 4-1BB/CD3ζ signaling domains are effective at treating refractory B cell malignancies but exhibit differences in effector function, clinical efficacy, and toxicity that are assumed to result from the activation of divergent signaling cascades. We analyzed stimulation-induced phosphorylation events in primary human CD8+ CD28/CD3ζ and 4-1BB/CD3ζ CAR T cells by mass spectrometry and found that both CAR constructs activated similar signaling intermediates...
August 21, 2018: Science Signaling
Erhao Zhang, Peiwei Yang, Jieyi Gu, Heming Wu, Xiaowei Chi, Chen Liu, Ying Wang, Jianpeng Xue, Weiyan Qi, Qingbo Sun, Shengnan Zhang, Jialiang Hu, Hanmei Xu
BACKGROUND: The therapeutic application of T cells endowing with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is faced with "on-target, off-tumor" toxicity against solid tumors, particularly in the treatment of the pancreatic cancer. To our best knowledge, the pancreatic cancer cell line AsPC-1 often highly expressed some distinct tumor-associated antigens, such as carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) and mesothelin (MSLN). Therefore, in this research, we have characterized dual-receptor CAR-modified T cells (dCAR-T) that exert effective and safe cytotoxicity against AsPC-1 cells...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Anusha Thadi, Marian Khalili, William F Morano, Scott D Richard, Steven C Katz, Wilbur B Bowne
Peritoneal metastasis (PM) is an advanced stage malignancy largely refractory to modern therapy. Intraperitoneal (IP) immunotherapy offers a novel approach for the control of regional disease of the peritoneal cavity by breaking immune tolerance. These strategies include heightening T-cell response and vaccine induction of anti-cancer memory against tumor-associated antigens. Early investigations with chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells), vaccine-based therapies, dendritic cells (DCs) in combination with pro-inflammatory cytokines and natural killer cells (NKs), adoptive cell transfer, and immune checkpoint inhibitors represent significant advances in the treatment of PM...
August 10, 2018: Vaccines
Christopher W Helsen, Joanne A Hammill, Vivian W C Lau, Kenneth A Mwawasi, Arya Afsahi, Ksenia Bezverbnaya, Lisa Newhook, Danielle L Hayes, Craig Aarts, Bojana Bojovic, Galina F Denisova, Jacek M Kwiecien, Ian Brain, Heather Derocher, Katy Milne, Brad H Nelson, Jonathan L Bramson
Engineering T cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is an effective method for directing T cells to attack tumors, but may cause adverse side effects such as the potentially lethal cytokine release syndrome. Here the authors show that the T cell antigen coupler (TAC), a chimeric receptor that co-opts the endogenous TCR, induces more efficient anti-tumor responses and reduced toxicity when compared with past-generation CARs. TAC-engineered T cells induce robust and antigen-specific cytokine production and cytotoxicity in vitro, and strong anti-tumor activity in a variety of xenograft models including solid and liquid tumors...
August 3, 2018: Nature Communications
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