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Simran Sinsinwar, Monaj Kumar Sarkar, Karmegam Rohit Suriya, Paramasivam Nithyanand, Vellingiri Vadivel
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is environmentally satisfactory because of their low cost and safe to nature. In the present study, extract of an agricultural waste, coconut (Cocos nucifera) shell is used to synthesize AgNPs and their antibacterial effect was investigated against selected human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium. The AgNPs synthesized using coconut shell extract (CSE-AgNPs) were characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy (absorption peak at 432 nm), Transmission Electron Microscopy (spherical shaped particles size of 14...
August 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Abhinav Sharma, Andrew P Ambrosy, Adam D DeVore, Kenneth B Margulies, Steven E McNulty, Robert J Mentz, Adrian F Hernandez, Gary Michael Felker, Lauren B Cooper, Anuradha Lala, Justin Vader, John D Groake, Barry A Borlaug, Eric J Velazquez
AIMS: Obesity is present in up to 45% of patients with heart failure (HF). Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor antagonist, facilitates weight loss in obese patients. The efficacy of liraglutide as a weight loss agent among patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and a recent acute HF hospitalization remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Functional Impact of GLP-1 for Heart Failure Treatment study randomized 300 patients with HFrEF (ejection fraction ≤ 40%), both with and without diabetes and a recent HF hospitalization to liraglutide or placebo...
August 17, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Marcela Dendisová, Adéla Jeništová, Alžběta Parchaňská-Kokaislová, Pavel Matějka, Vadym Prokopec, Marie Švecová
Recent advances in nanotechnology have opened a lot of new possibilities for nanomaterials application in wide variety of industrial, pharmaceutical, medicinal and environmental applications. This review aims to description of various Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)-based spectroscopic techniques suitable to characterize (i) different types of nanomaterials and (ii) various macroscopic samples at their nanoscale. In the introductory section, nanomaterials are classified according to their crucial properties, i...
November 15, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Maayan Waldman, Keren Cohen, Dor Yadin, Vadim Nudelman, Dan Gorfil, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Ran Kornwoski, Dan Aravot, Nader G Abraham, Michael Arad, Edith Hochhauser
Unfortunately, after publication of this article [1], it was noticed that Table 1 contained errors introduced during the production process. In the WT + AT column, the FS value is 21 ± 7 and the Body Weight value is 25 ± 2. In the WT + AT + CR column, the FS value is 46 ± 14 and the Body Weight value is 19 ± 1. The original article has been updated to reflect this.
August 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Sayoob Vadakke-Chanat, Palanisamy Shanmugam, Balasubramanian Sundarabalan
Three-dimensional simulations using the Monte Carlo method are implemented to analyze and quantify the uncertainty and the influence of absorption on the measurement of light backscattering by ECO-BB9 (WET Labs) sensor for a wide variety of optically complex and open ocean waters. The analytical investigation of the geometrical configuration revealed a distinct effective path length which contributes towards an accurate assessment of absorption effect on the backscattering measurement. The present study proposes the application of a non-linear relationship to determine the measured parameter from the detector counts more accurately than the conventional method that applies the scale factor...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Paulo Vinicius Pereira Pinheiro, Poompong Chaiwongkhot, Shihan Sajeed, Rolf T Horn, Jean-Philippe Bourgoin, Thomas Jennewein, Norbert Lütkenhaus, Vadim Makarov
Quantum key distribution (QKD) promises information theoretic secure key as long as the device performs as assumed in the theoretical model. One of the assumptions is an absence of information leakage about individual photon detection outcomes of the receiver unit. Here we investigate the information leakage from a QKD receiver due to photon emission caused by detection events in single-photon detectors (backflash). We test commercial silicon avalanche photodiodes and a photomultiplier tube, and find that the former emit backflashes...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Maria Vadala, Christian Testa, Laura Coda, Stefania Angioletti, Rosanna Giuberti, Carmen Laurino, Beniamino Palmieri
Background: The vulvovestibular syndrome (VVS) is a chronic, inflammatory, multifactorial, chronic inflammation of the female urogenital access. Methods: The aim of this anecdotal, observational, retrospective, case-control study was to comparatively evaluate the most common bacterial strains ( Lactobacillus spp. , Klebsiella spp. , Gardnerella spp. , and Streptococcus spp. ) and fungi ( Candida spp. , Pennicillum spp ., and Aspergillus spp. ) in vulvodinic women, and in women without gynecological symptoms (control group)...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Wenzhuo Jia, Tao Yu, Qi An, Xianglong Cao, Hongda Pan
Plasma microRNA (miR)-423-5p is a potential biomarker for the detection of colon cancer. However, the expression and biological role of miR-423-5p in colon tumorigenesis remains unclear. In the current study, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine miR-423-5p expression in malignant colon tissues and plasma from patients with colon cancer. Cell viability, colony formation and apoptosis assays, as well as western blotting, were performed to investigate the biological role and regulatory mechanisms of miR-423-5p in colon cancer...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Leila M Larson, Junjie Guo, Anne M Williams, Melissa F Young, Sanober Ismaily, O Yaw Addo, David Thurnham, Sherry A Tanumihardjo, Parminder S Suchdev, Christine A Northrop-Clewes
The accurate estimation of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is critical to informing programmatic and policy decisions that could have important public health implications. However, serum retinol and retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations, two biomarkers often used to estimate VAD, are temporarily altered during the acute phase response, potentially overestimating the prevalence of VAD in populations with high levels of inflammation. In 22 nationally-representative surveys, we examined (1) the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) or α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and retinol or RBP, and (2) how different adjustment approaches for correcting for inflammation compare with one another...
August 16, 2018: Nutrients
Pei-Zhong Tang, Bo Ding, Lansha Peng, Vadim Mozhayskiy, Jason Potter, Jonathan D Chesnut
GUIDE-seq was developed to detect CRISPR/Cas9 off-target. However, as originally reported, it was associated with a high level of nonspecific amplification. In an attempt to improve it, we developed target-enriched GUIDE-seq (TEG-seq). The sensitivity level reached 0.1-10 reads-per-million  depending on the NGS platform used, which was equivalent to 0.0002-1% measured by Targeted Amplicon-seq. Application of TEG-seq was demonstrated for the evaluation of various Cas9/gRNA configurations, which suggests delivery of Cas9/gRNA ribonucleoprotein results in significantly fewer off-targets than Cas9/gRNA plasmid...
August 17, 2018: BioTechniques
Manohar N M Bhat, Rohit Vadala, Ebenezer Rabindrarajan, Nagarajan Ramakrishnan
May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) or iliac vein compression syndrome is an uncommon cause of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limb occurring, especially on the left side. It occurs due to compression of the left common iliac vein by the right common iliac artery and occurs predominantly in young females. The awareness of such a presentation is essential to guide therapy. We report one such unusual case of acute-onset DVT of the left lower limb due to MTS.
July 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Vadhana Varadarajan, Chandan Dasgupta, K G Ayappa
Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for a single component, monatomic Lennard-Jones fluid confined between two mica surfaces to investigate the structure and relaxation dynamics of the confined fluid as a function of surface separation. Due to the underlying symmetry of the potassium ions on the mica surface, the contact layers prefer to adopt an incommensurate square or rhombic symmetry. The inner layers adopt a symmetry varying between rhombic, triangular, and square, depending on the density and surface separation...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Chong Chen, Haining Tan, Jiaqi Bi, Zheng Li, Tianhua Rong, Youxi Lin, Liang Sun, Xingye Li, Jianxiong Shen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a result of anomalous development of vertebrae and is frequently associated with somitogenesis malformation. Although noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been recently determined to be involved in the pathogenesis of CS, the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory networks in CS remain largely unknown. METHODS: Sequencing was conducted to explore the ncRNA expression profiles in rat embryos (gestation day 9) following vitamin A deficiency (VAD) (n = 9 for the vitamin A deficiency-induced congenital scoliosis (VAD-CS) group and n = 4 for the control group)...
August 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Yue Hu, Jialin Du, Zhenlei Liu, Hao Wu, Jianping Ding, Fengzeng Jian
BACKGROUND: Atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) is the most common craniovertebral junction malformation (CVJm) which are anomalies of the bones and soft tissues surrounding the foramen magnum. It usually leads to neurologic abnormalities because of instability of this mobile area. But vertebral artery dissection (VAD) caused by AAD is uncommon. CASE REPORT: We report a 15-year-old boy who presented with acute onset of bilateral VAD leading to posterior circulation ischemic stroke (PCIS)...
August 14, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Thomas F Gronauer, Melanie M Mandl, Markus Lakemeyer, Mathias W Hackl, Martina Meßner, Vadim S Korotkov, Johanna Pachmayr, Stephan A Sieber
Human caseinolytic protease P (hClpP) is important for degradation of misfolded proteins in the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. We here introduce tailored hClpP inhibitors that utilize a steric discrimination in their core naphthofuran scaffold to selectively address the human enzyme. This novel inhibitor generation exhibited superior activity compared to previously introduced beta-lactones, optimized for bacterial ClpP. Further insights into the bioactivity and binding to cellular targets were obtained via chemical proteomics as well as proliferation- and migration studies in cancer cells...
August 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Silvia Buroni, Viola C Scoffone, Marco Fumagalli, Vadim Makarov, Maddalena Cagnone, Gabriele Trespidi, Edda De Rossi, Federico Forneris, Giovanna Riccardi, Laurent R Chiarelli
Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial intercellular communication process which controls the production of major virulence factors, such as proteases, siderophores, and toxins, as well as biofilm formation. Since the inhibition of this pathway reduces bacterial virulence, QS is considered a valuable candidate drug target, particularly for the treatment of opportunistic infections, such as those caused by Burkholderia cenocepacia in cystic fibrosis patients. Diketopiperazine inhibitors of the acyl homoserine lactone synthase CepI have been recently described...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Sang-Goo Lee, Aleksei E Mikhalchenko, Sun Hee Yim, Vadim N Gladyshev
Naked mole rats (NMRs, Heterocephalus glaber) are long-lived, cancer-resistant rodents. Here, we report the development of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line generated from immortalized NMR embryonic fibroblasts transduced with a doxycycline-inducible mouse OSKM polycistronic vector. This iPSC line was shown to express pluripotency-associated markers, form embryoid bodies, differentiate in vitro to the derivatives of three germ layers, and exhibit normal karyotype. The ability of iPSCs to differentiate in vivo was supported by the contribution to interspecific chimera upon injection into mouse blastocysts...
June 20, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Eunji Im, Changhwan Yeo, Eun-Ok Lee
AIMS: Luteolin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, possesses anti-cancer effects including induction of apoptosis. This study investigated the involvement of osteopontin (OPN) in luteolin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) SK-Hep-1 cells with high OPN expression. MAIN METHODS: MTT assay was used to determine the cell viability. Cell cycle analysis was performed to identify apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by detecting cytoplasmic histone-associated-DNA-fragments using a cell death detection ELISAPLUS kit...
August 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Shelvin Kumar Vadi, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Ashwin Singh Parihar, Rajender Kumar, Vishal Sharma, Harshal S Mandavdhare
Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis also called as abdominal cocoon is a less understood condition mostly due to idiopathic causes and sometimes secondary to tuberculosis or peritoneal dialysis. This report describes the typical features of "abdominal cocoon" on F-FDG PET/CT in a young woman, which was later diagnosed to be secondary to tuberculosis. Because the early features of this unusual entity are often nonspecific, high clinical suspicion along with understanding of the typical radiological/PET/CT features of this intriguing entity may guide the physician in ruling out the secondary treatable causes like tuberculosis, as noted in the index case...
August 13, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Clare L Clarke, Falko F Sniehotta, Thenmalar Vadiveloo, Peter T Donnan, Miles D Witham
BACKGROUND: Centrally acting medications cause cognitive slowing and incoordination, which could reduce older people's physical activity levels. This association has not been studied previously. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association between opioid, hypnotic and anticholinergic medication, and objectively measured physical activity, in a cohort of older people. METHODS: We used data from the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland, a representative cohort of community-dwelling older people aged 65 years and over who were assessed at baseline and again 2-3 years later...
August 14, 2018: Drugs & Aging
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