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Transport Nano particle

S Pawłowska, T A Kowalewski, F Pierini
Over the past few decades, there has been strong interest in the development of new micro- and nanomaterials for biomedical applications. Their use in the form of capsules, particles or filaments suspended in body fluids is associated with conformational changes and hydrodynamic interactions responsible for their transport. The dynamics of fibres or other long objects in Poiseuille flow is one of the fundamental problems in a variety of biomedical contexts, such as mobility of proteins, dynamics of DNA or other biological polymers, cell movement, tissue engineering, and drug delivery...
October 19, 2018: Soft Matter
Yanping Lu, Shunping Han, Hongyue Zheng, Rui Ma, Yuting Ping, Jiafeng Zou, Hongxia Tang, Yongping Zhang, Xiuling Xu, Fanzhu Li
Background: The Traditional Chinese Medicine, arsenic trioxide (ATO, As2 O3 ) could inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in a variety of solid tumor cells, but it is severely limited in the treatment of glioma due to its poor BBB penetration and nonspecifcity distribution in vivo. Purpose: The objective of this study was encapsulating ATO in the modified PAMAM den-drimers to solve the problem that the poor antitumor effect of ATO to glioma, which provide a novel angle for the study of glioma treatment...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Crystal Chan, Enno Kätelhön, Richard G Compton
The Brownian motion of nanoparticles near liquid-solid interfaces is at the heart of evolving technologies: recent developments in the sensing of nano-objects and energy storages based on electro-active colloidal solutions crucially rely on the understanding and, even more, on the control of particle transport near charged surfaces. On the basis of the Nernst-Planck equation, the Gouy-Chapman model, and an established model of near-wall hindered diffusion, this work predicts transient and highly-localised accumulations of nanoparticles at a well-defined distance from an electrified surface following a potential being applied...
October 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Mohsin Qureshi, Mohd Aqil, Syed Sarim Imam, Abdul Ahad, Yasmin Sultana
The present work was designed to explore the efficacy of neuroactive drug (risperidone) loaded chitosan lipid nano particle (RIS-CH-LNPs) to enhance the bioactivity in schizophrenia via nasal route. The three-factor and three-level formulation by design approach was used for optimization and their effects were observed on (Y1) size in nm, (Y2) % drug loading, and (Y3) % drug release. The optimized formulation RIS-CH-LNPopt was further evaluated for its surface morphology, ex-vivo permeation study, in-vivo behavior study, and stability study...
October 11, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Anatoly Golovnev, Matthew E Suss
A broad variety of materials, ranging from composites and heat transfer nano-fluids to electrochemical energy storage electrodes, widely employ cylindrical particles of various aspect ratios, such as carbon nanotubes. These particles are generally excellent conductors of heat and electricity and when dispersed in a continuous medium influence dramatically the transport properties of the heterogeneous material by forming a percolating network. Numerous theories exist to predict key parameters such as particle concentration at the percolation threshold and transport properties at concentrations beyond the threshold...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Chun Tan, Matthew D R Kok, Sohrab R Daemi, Daniel J L Brett, Paul R Shearing
An elemental sulfur electrode was imaged with X-ray micro and nano computed tomography and segmented into its constituent phases. Morphological parameters including phase fractions and pore and particle size distributions were calculated directly from labelled image data, and flux based simulations were performed to determine the effective molecular diffusivity of the pore phase and electrical conductivity of the conductive carbon and binder phase, Deff and σeff, that can be used as an input for Li-S battery modelling...
October 9, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
András Libál, Dong Yun Lee, Antonio Ortiz-Ambriz, Charles Reichhardt, Cynthia J O Reichhardt, Pietro Tierno, Cristiano Nisoli
Artificial particle ices are model systems of constrained, interacting particles. They have been introduced theoretically to study ice-manifolds emergent from frustration, along with domain wall and grain boundary dynamics, doping, pinning-depinning, controlled transport of topological defects, avalanches, and memory effects. Recently such particle-based ices have been experimentally realized with vortices in nano-patterned superconductors or gravitationally trapped colloids. Here we demonstrate that, although these ices are generally considered equivalent to magnetic spin ices, they can access a novel spectrum of phenomenologies that are inaccessible to the latter...
October 8, 2018: Nature Communications
V Sokolova, K Loza, T Knuschke, J Heinen-Weiler, H Jastrow, M Hasenberg, J Buer, A M Westendorf, M Gunzer, M Epple
Nanoparticles can act as transporters for synthetic molecules and biomolecules into cells, also in immunology. Antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells are important targets for immunotherapy in nanomedicine. Therefore, we have used primary murine bone marrow-derived phagocytosing cells (bmPCs), i.e. dendritic cells and macrophages, to study their interaction with spherical barium sulphate particles of different size (40 nm, 420 nm, and 1 µm) and to follow their uptake pathway. Barium sulphate is chemically and biologically inert (no dissolution, no catalytic effects), i...
September 18, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Kaitlyn T Hanley, Stefan Wuertz, Alexander Schriewer, Uta Passow, Woutrina Smith, Paul Olin, Karen Shapiro
Human noroviruses (NoVs) are responsible for 50% of food-related disease outbreaks and are notably associated with shellfish consumption. Despite the detrimental health impacts of human NoV-contaminated seafood to public health, there is a lack of knowledge on the physicochemical conditions that govern NoV transmission in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, we investigated the propensity for NoVs to associate with aquatic aggregates, which have been shown to efficiently deliver nano-sized particles to shellfish...
December 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Giovanni Scorrano, Giacomo Bruno, Nicola Di Trani, Mauro Ferrari, Alberto Pimpinelli, Alessandro Grattoni
Gas transport across nanoscale pores is determinant in molecular exchange in living organisms as well as in a broad spectrum of technologies. Here, we report an unprecedented theoretical and experimental analysis of gas transport in a consistent set of confining nanochannels ranging in size from the ultra-nanoscale to the sub-microscale. A generally applicable theoretical approach quantitatively predicting confined gas flow in the Knudsen and transition regime was developed. Unlike current theories, specifically designed for very simple channel geometries, our approach can be applied to virtually all geometries, for which the probability distribution of path lengths for particle-interface collisions can be computed, either analytically or by numerical simulations...
September 26, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yu Hoshino, Toshiki Jibiki, Masahiko Nakamoto, Yoshiko Miura
The acid dissociation constants (p Ka values) of Brønsted acids at the active sites of proteins are reversibly modulated by intramolecular electrostatic interactions with neighboring ions in a reaction cycle. The resulting p Ka shift is crucial for the proteins to capture, transfer, and release target ions. On the other hand, reversible p Ka modulation through electrostatic interactions in synthetic polymer materials has seldom been realized because the interactions are strongly shielded by solvation water molecules in aqueous media...
September 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiangfu Wang, Ye Wang, Jihong Yu, Yanyan Bu, Xiaohong Yan
An efficient soft chemistry method to modify the phase, shape and optical thermometry of NaGdF4 :2%Er3+ nano-phosphors through doping Ca2+ ion is reported. With the introduction of Ca2+ , the phase changes from the GdF3 :2%Er3+ to NaGdF4 :2%Er3+ was achieved, and the shapes of NaGdF4 :2%Er3+ were modified from irregular particles to pure hexagonal NaGdF4 microtubes. These modifications derive from the charge redistribution on the nucleus surface through internal electron charge transport between Gd3+ in a lattice and co-doped Ca2+ ion...
August 20, 2018: Optics Express
José A Rodrigo, Mercedes Angulo, Tatiana Alieva
The development of optical manipulation techniques focused on the confinement and transport of micro/nano-particles has attracted increased interest in the last decades. In particular the combination of all-optical confinement and propelling forces, respectively arising from high intensity and phase gradients of a strongly focused laser beam, is promising for optical transport. The recently developed freestyle laser trap exploits this manipulation mechanism to achieve optical transport along arbitrary 3D curves...
July 9, 2018: Optics Express
Orane Lorton, Jean-Noël Hyacinthe, Stéphane Desgranges, Laura Gui, Antoine Klauser, Zarko Celicanin, Lindsey A Crowe, François Lazeyras, Eric Allémann, Nicolas Taulier, Christiane Contino-Pépin, Rares Salomir
OBJECTIVE: Perfluorocarbon nano- and micron-sized emulsions are a new field of investigation in cancer treatment due to their ability to be used as imaging contrast agents, or as delivery vectors for pharmaceuticals. They also demonstrated capability to enhance the efficiency of high intensity focused ultrasound thermo-therapy. In the context of new biomedical applications we investigated perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) theranostic droplets using 19 F NMR. Each droplet contains biocompatible fluorinated surfactants composed of a polar Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane head unit and hydrophobic perfluorinated tail (abbreviated as F-TAC)...
October 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
A Mateos-Maroto, A Guerrero-Martínez, R G Rubio, F Ortega, F Martínez-Pedrero
Some biological microorganisms can crawl or swim due to coordinated motions of their cytoskeleton or the flagella located inside their bodies, which push the cells forward through intracellular forces. To date, there is no demonstration of synthetic systems propelling at low Reynolds number via the precise actuation of the material confined within an enclosing lipid membrane. Here, we report lipid vesicles and other more complex self-assembled biohybrid structures able to propel due to the advection flows generated by the actuated rotation of the superparamagnetic particles they contain...
September 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Leila Pourtalebi Jahromi, Soliman Mohammadi-Samani, Reza Heidari, Amir Azadi
PURPOSE: Although it passes through blood-brain barrier (BBB) very poorly, methotrexate (MTX) is an important therapeutic in the treatment of many central nervous system malignancies. Accordingly, intranasal (IN) administration accompanied with a muco-adhesive chitosan-based nanoformulation is expected to overcome this problem. METHODS: Nanogel containing MTX was prepared through an ionic gelation method and then characterized in terms of particle size, morphology, zeta potential, drug loading and drug release behavior...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jarol E Molina, Alejandro Vasquez-Echeverri, David C Schwartz, Juan P Hernández-Ortiz
Electrostatic forces greatly affect the overall dynamics and diffusional activities of suspended charged particles in crowded environments. Accordingly, the concentration of counter- or co-ions in a fluid-''the salt"-determines the range, strength, and order of electrostatic interactions between particles. This environment fosters engineering routes for controlling directed assembly of particles at both the micro- and nanoscale. Here, we analyzed two computational modeling schemes that considered salt within suspensions of charged particles, or polyelectrolytes: discrete and continuum...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Kittima Amornwachirabodee, Supaporn Khramchantuk, Prompong Pienpinijtham, Nipan Israsena, Tanapat Palaga, Supason Wanichwecharungruang
Uses of micro-/nano-sized particles to deliver biologically active entities into cells are common for medical therapeutics and prophylactics and also for cellular experiments. Enhancing cellular uptake and avoiding destruction by lysosomes are desirable for general particulate drug delivery systems. Here, we show that the relatively nontoxic, negatively charged oxidized carbon black particles (OCBs) can enhance cellular penetration of micro- and nano-particles. Experiments with retinal-grafted chitosan particles (PRPs) with hydrodynamic sizes of 1200 ± 51...
June 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Sesi Li, Yunhao Zhao, Zhengwang Liu, Liting Yang, Jie Zhang, Min Wang, Renchao Che
The ingenious design of a freestanding flexible electrode brings the possibility for power sources in emerging wearable electronic devices. Here, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) wraps carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and rGO tightly surrounded by MnO2 nanosheets, forming a 3D multilevel porous conductive structure via vacuum freeze-drying. The sandwich-like architecture possesses multiple functions as a flexible anode for lithium-ion batteries. Micrometer-sized pores among the continuously waved rGO layers could extraordinarily improve ion diffusion...
August 2018: Small
Tatiana Borisova
Nerve cells take a special place among other cells in organisms because of their unique function mechanism. The plasma membrane of nerve cells from the one hand performs a classical barrier function, thereby being foremost targeted during contact with micro- and nano-sized particles, and from the other hand it is very intensively involved in nerve signal transmission, i.e., depolarization-induced calcium-dependent compound exocytosis realized via vesicle fusion following by their retrieval and calcium-independent permanent neurotransmitter turnover via plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters that utilize Na+ /K+ electrochemical gradient as a driving force...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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