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leptomeningeal metastasis

T C Jiang, Z Y Pan, G Z Yang, S L Gong, L H Dong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2018: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
Rupesh Kotecha, Vinai Gondi, Manmeet S Ahluwalia, Priscilla K Brastianos, Minesh P Mehta
Brain metastases are the most common malignancy encountered in the central nervous system (CNS), with up to 30-40% of cancer patients developing brain metastases at some point during the course of their disease. The management of brain metastasis is rapidly evolving and the roles of local therapies such as whole-brain radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and resection along with systemic therapies are in flux. An emphasis on the neurocognitive side effects associated with treatment has gained prominence...
2018: F1000Research
Ruofan Huang, Mengxi Ge, Xinli Zhou, Xiaoyu Ji, Li Liao, Xiaohua Liang, Qiong Zhan
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are associated with leptomeningeal metastases (LM) of nonsmall cell lung cancer and sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining carcinomatous meningeal tissue for analysis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) might be an alternative. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the EGFR mutation detection in the CSF of lung adenocarcinoma patients with LM. METHODS: Twenty-five lung adenocarcinoma patients with LM diagnosed by CSF cytology were retrospectively evaluated...
November 16, 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Ruiqi Chen, Chuanyuan Tao, Chao You, Yan Ju
BACKGROUND: Intracranial germinomas are uncommon and constitute less than 1% of all intracranial tumors. They usually arise in the midline of the brain, most commonly in the pineal region. Pineal germinomas tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, pineal germinomas with fast-developing diffuse subarachnoid/leptomeningeal dissemination are extremely rare, especially in young children. METHODS: The case of a 4-year-old boy with a pineal germinoma who died of diffuse subarachnoid/leptomeningeal dissemination 1 month after radiotherapy is reported...
November 19, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Rituparna Biswas, Subhash Gupta, K P Haresh, Anirban Halder, G K Rath
Giant cell glioblastoma (GCG) is a rare subtype of classic glioblastoma multiforme with favorable prognosis and little is known about its metastatic potential. We hereby present a unique case of GCG in a 7-year-old child who developed spinal and spinal leptomeningeal metastasis during adjuvant therapy. She succumbed to it in spite of salvage therapy.
July 2018: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
Yan Xu, Min Hu, Meizhuo Zhang, Wei Zhong, Xiaolu Yin, Yun Sun, Minjiang Chen, Jing Zhao, Xiaoyan Si, Hanping Wang, Xiaotong Zhang, Li Zhang, Ji Li, Hongzhi Guan, Zhenfan Yang, Mengzhao Wang
OBJECTIVE: Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) secondary to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a devastating complication associated with poor prognosis. Diagnosis and assessment of responses in LM have been challenging due to limitation of traditional imaging tools and lack of standard evaluation criteria until very recently. To bridge this gap, we conducted the first prospective, observational study in cytologically diagnosed NSCLC-LM patients (NCT02803619). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 49 NSCLC-LM patients were enrolled...
November 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Yutong Zhang, Rui Ban, Qiang Shi, Chenglin Tian
BACKGROUND: The measurement of carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen series biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is useful for the diagnosis of brain metastasis and leptomeningeal metastases to a certain extent. Their serum/CSF ratios may be of benefit to earlier diagnosis and treatment. However, the normal reference values of the ratios were not available. Accordingly, in this study we analyzed the serum/CSF ratios of tumor markers levels in non-neoplastic diseases patients for possible normal values...
November 4, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Masakuni Sakaguchi, Toshiya Maebayashi, Takuya Aizawa, Naoya Ishibashi
AIM: To evaluate outcomes of breast cancer patients with confirmed dural metastasis (DM) alone who received whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records of thirty-three breast cancer patients who received WBRT to treat intracranial metastasis were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical presentation of DM-only was compared with that of brain metastasis (BM)/leptomeningeal metastasis (LM). RESULTS: Eight patients had DM and 25 patients had BM/LM...
November 2018: Anticancer Research
Hyojeong Kim, Eun Mi Lee
BACKGROUND: Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is an uncommon, but devastating complication of advanced cancer and has no standard treatment. Herein, we analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with solid tumors who were diagnosed with LM. METHODS: Between January 2007 and December 2017, we retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with solid tumors who were diagnosed with LM. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients were enrolled in this study...
October 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Suzana A Kahn, Xin Wang, Ryan T Nitta, Sharareh Gholamin, Johanna Theruvath, Gregor Hutter, Tej D Azad, Lina Wadi, Sara Bolin, Vijay Ramaswamy, Rogelio Esparza, Kun-Wei Liu, Michael Edwards, Fredrik J Swartling, Debashis Sahoo, Gordon Li, Robert J Wechsler-Reya, Jüri Reimand, Yoon-Jae Cho, Michael D Taylor, Irving L Weissman, Siddhartha S Mitra, Samuel H Cheshier
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Group 3 medulloblastoma, the most aggressive molecular subtype, frequently disseminates through the leptomeningeal cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) spaces in the brain and spinal cord. The mechanism of dissemination through the CSF remains poorly understood, and the molecular pathways involved in medulloblastoma metastasis and self-renewal are largely unknown. Here we show that NOTCH1 signaling pathway regulates both the initiation of metastasis and the self-renewal of medulloblastoma...
October 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Tridu R Huynh, Conrad Lu, Doniel Drazin, Gregory Lekovic
Background: Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) with anaplastic features is extremely rare, with only three case reports in the literature. Case Description: We report the case of a MPE with anaplastic features in a 24-year-old female who presented with a dominant lumbar mass along with intracranial and sacral metastases. Upon gross total resection of the dominant tumor located at L2-L3, it appeared to arise from the filum terminale, and had a solid component in addition to soft or necrotic areas...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Kali Xu, Kay T Khine, Yinn Cher Ooi, Carolyn S Quinsey
Extraneural metastasis (ENM) of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors is an uncommon occurrence. Case reports and case series describe ENM after shunting, but this phenomenon has not been well characterized. In this review we aim to better understand the risk factors and clinical implications of ENM associated with shunting. A literature search of cases of ENM related to shunt placement in patients with primary CNS tumors reported through January 2018 was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar. We identified 106 cases of ENM of primary CNS tumors related to shunt placement...
November 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Brooks Udelsman, Isabel Chien, Kei Ouchi, Kate Brizzi, James A Tulsky, Charlotta Lindvall
BACKGROUND: Alone, administrative data poorly identifies patients with palliative care needs. OBJECTIVE: To identify patients with uncommon, yet devastating, illnesses using a combination of administrative data and natural language processing (NLP). DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective cohort study using the electronic medical records of a healthcare network totaling over 2500 hospital beds. We sought to identify patient populations with two unique disease processes associated with a poor prognosis: pneumoperitoneum and leptomeningeal metastases from breast cancer...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Ji-Woong Kwon, Joon Ho Yoon, Myong Cheol Lim, Jungnam Joo, Heon Yoo, Sang-Hoon Shin, Sang Yoon Park, Sang Hyeon Lee, Yeon-Joo Kim, Joo-Young Kim, Ho-Shin Gwak
OBJECTIVES: The most appropriate treatments for brain metastases from ovarian cancer have not been established mainly because of its rarity. The objective of this study was to describe clinical results of treatment and prognostic factors of patients with brain metastases from ovarian cancer treated at a single institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrieved information from the electronic medical records of 56 consecutive patients (2.8%) with brain metastases, from a total of 2008 patients with ovarian cancer...
October 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Yang Liu, Bin Wang, Yongxiang Qian, Dongmei Di, Min Wang, Xiaoying Zhang
Cauda equine syndrome (CES) is a neurological condition caused by compression of the cauda equine. Here, we demonstrate a case of CES as the primary symptom of leptomeningeal metastases from non-small cell lung carcinoma without brain metastases. A 59-year-old male suffered progressive lower extremity motor dysfunction, urinary dysfunction, and lower extremity sensory dysfunction. He was clinically diagnosed with CES. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated several vague nodules in the area of conus medullaris and cauda equine, without lumbar or thoracic herniated discs...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Ankur R Patel, Lucien Nedzi, Steven Lau, Samuel L Barnett, Bruce E Mickey, William Moore, Shivani Bindal, Zabi Wardak, Tu Dan, Robert Timmerman, Toral R Patel
OBJECTIVE: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has redefined the treatment paradigm for cerebral metastases. The benefits of SRS after surgical resection of a metastatic brain tumor have been well-defined. However, it is unclear whether preoperative SRS can improve the outcomes in select patients. The present study examined the safety and efficacy of preoperative neoadjuvant SRS (NaSRS) for the treatment of cerebral metastases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 12 patients treated at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center...
December 2018: World Neurosurgery
Evan F Garner, Laura L Stafman, Adele P Williams, Jamie M Aye, Caroline Goolsby, Venkatram R Atigadda, Blake P Moore, Li Nan, Jerry E Stewart, Anita B Hjelmeland, Gregory K Friedman, Elizabeth A Beierle
BACKGROUND: Group 3 tumors account for approximately 25-30% of medulloblastomas and have the worst prognosis. UAB30 is a novel synthetic rexinoid shown to have limited toxicities in humans and significant efficacy in the pediatric neuroectodermal tumor, neuroblastoma. We hypothesized that treatment with UAB30 would decrease tumorigenicity in medulloblastoma patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). METHODS: Three group 3 medulloblastoma PDXs (D341, D384 and D425) were utilized...
November 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Yunmei Wang, Shuguang Liu, Xiaohui Wei, Bin Yan, Jun Li, Zhixiang Su, Aiqin Liu, Yanjun Zhang
Rationale: Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is an important cause of mortality in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). As the symptoms of LM and its early clinical manifestations are nonspecific, early diagnosis of LM is difficult. However, there are few treatment options for LM, which leads to a poor prognosis; thus, increased clinical attention is necessary. The effects of most systemic chemotherapies on metastatic brain tumors (brain metastases and LMs) are limited as they cannot pass the blood-brain barrier; therefore, whole-brain radiation therapy is a therapeutic option...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Muhammad Abdullah Zain, Abbas Raza, Muhammad Owais Hanif, Zehra Tauqir, Maryam Khan, Muhammad J Mahboob, Fariha Ashraf, Waqas Javed Siddiqui, Hasan Arif, Larry E Krevolin
BACKGROUND Patients with malignancies often have electrolyte abnormalities. We present a case of a patient with central diabetes insipidus secondary to metastatic pituitary invasion complicated by hypercalcemic nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. CASE REPORT We present a case of 40-year-old female with a history of stage IV breast cancer with skeletal and leptomeningeal metastasis, who was admitted with polyuria, polydipsia, and recent onset of confusion. The patient was found to have profound hypernatremia and severe hypercalcemia with normal parathyroid and vitamin D serum levels...
August 18, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Junjun Li, Xiaomei Liu, Caijun Yuan
Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are effective in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with leptomeningeal metastases (LM); however, a proportion of the patients with resistant tumors do not benefit from EGFR-TKI treatment. In the present study the case of a female patient with advanced lung adenocarcinoma harboring the EGFR L858R mutation (encoded in exon 21) who developed intracranial metastases following treatment with erlotinib after gefitinib failure is reported...
September 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
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