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ROS generating agent

Su-Kyung Shin, Hyun-Woo Cho, Seung-Eun Song, Dae-Kyu Song
Obesity and insulin resistance are considered the main causes of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and oxidative stress accelerates the progression of NAFLD. Free fatty acids, which are elevated in the liver by obesity or insulin resistance, lead to incomplete oxidation in the mitochondria, peroxisomes, and microsomes, leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Among the ROS generated, H2 O2 is mainly produced in peroxisomes and decomposed by catalase. However, when the H2 O2 concentration increases because of decreased expression or activity of catalase, it migrates to cytosol and other organelles, causing cell injury and participating in the Fenton reaction, resulting in serious oxidative stress...
August 17, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Xu Zheng, Bin Jia, Xiao-Ting Tian, Xue Song, Mo-Li Wu, Qing-You Kong, Hong Li, Jia Liu
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most lethal thyroid malignancy without a reliable therapeutic agent. Resveratrol possesses cancer-suppressive effects, while its effect(s) on ATC cells remains unknown. Because oxidative damage caused by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the therapeutic effects of anticancer drugs and oxidative stress-caused mitochondria swelling is observed in resveratrol-treated cancer cells, the oxidative statuses and their relevance with resveratrol sensitivities are elucidated using THJ-16T and THJ-11T ATC cells established from two human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cases...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Xiang-Bei Han, Yan Tan, Yan-Qiu Fang, Feng Li
High-dose ionizing radiation can cause harmful effects on the cardiovascular system. Notably, endothelial cells are critical targets in radiation-induced damage. γ radiation exerts its biological effects through the radiolysis of water, which further generates ROS and induces lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effects of celastrol against γ radiation-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were exposed to γ radiation at different doses with or without celastrol treatment...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Nadine Wiesmann, Martin Kluenker, Philipp Demuth, Walburgis Brenner, Wolfgang Tremel, Juergen Brieger
The predicted global cancer burden is expected to surpass 20 million new cancer cases by 2025. Despite recent advancement in tumor therapy, a successful cancer treatment remains challenging. The emerging field of nanotechnology offers great opportunities for diagnosis, imaging, as well as treatment of cancer. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) were shown to exert selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells via a yet unknown mechanism, most likely involving the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These nanoparticles are a promising therapeutic opportunity as zinc is a nontoxic trace element and its application in medically-related products is considered to be safe...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Catia Santos Branco, Angela Duong, Alencar K Machado, Gustavo Scola, Ana C Andreazza, Mirian Salvador
Araucaria angustifolia extract (AAE) is a polyphenol-rich extract that has gained interest as a natural anticancer agent. Recent work suggests that AAE induces oxidative damage and apoptosis through its action on decreasing complex I activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). In the present study, we aimed to further examine the specific targets by which AAE exerts pro-apoptotic effects in HEp-2 cancer cells. Specifically, the effect of AAE on the: 1) levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase was assessed by ELISA assay; 2) levels of mitochondrial ETC complexes, focusing on complex I at the gene transcript and protein level relevant to ROS generation was evaluated by multiplex ELISA followed by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting; 3) mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was assessed by MitoTracker Red CMXRos; and 4) chemical variations on DNA was evaluated by dot-blotting in HEp-2 cells...
August 16, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Samuel Marques, Teresa Trevisan, Carlos Maia, Andrea Breuer, Robert W Owen
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) represent a set of molecules that contribute directly to the initiation and aggravation of diseases associated with ageing. AGEs are produced by the reaction between reducing sugars (or α-dicarbonyl compounds), proteins, and amino acid residues. Previous in vitro methods using non-enzymatic procedures described in the literature require an incubation period of 1⁻3 weeks to generate AGEs. In this study, the reaction time for the formation of AGEs (48 and 3 h) was significantly reduced by adaptation of methods previously described in the literature and coupling them to the free radical generation system termed hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay...
August 15, 2018: Biomedicines
Seon-Bong Lee, Eun-Hye Choi, Kang-Hyun Jeong, Kwang-Sik Kim, Soon-Mi Shim, Gun-Hee Kim
The present study investigated the effect of high-temperature-processed green tea extract (HTP_GTE) and its bioactive components on the reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein in human microvascular endothelial cells. Compared to Aβ1-42 -only treatment, pretreatment of HTP_GTE was revealed to effectively inhibit ROS generation (P<0.05). HTP_GTE and catechins not only inhibit Aβ1-42 fibril formation but also destabilize preformed Aβ1-42 fibrils. The presence of HTP_GTE, Aβ1-42 fibril formation was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner at 12...
August 15, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Tao Lin, Jae Eun Lee, Jeong Won Kang, Reza K Oqani, Eun Seok Cho, Seong Bok Kim, Dong Il Jin
Poor-quality oocytes (those with 1 to 2 layers of cumulus cells) typically possess low meiotic competence and development. Prolonging the duration of in vitro maturation (IVM; 52 h) can enhance the maturation rate of poor-quality oocytes, but it does not improve subsequent embryonic development. This likely reflects the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis seen in these oocytes compared with the non-prolonged IVM (44 h) group. Melatonin is a free radical scavenger, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic agent that reported to enhance the quality of embryos by inhibiting ROS generation and apoptosis...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Kristien Daenen, Asmin Andries, Djalila Mekahli, Ann Van Schepdael, François Jouret, Bert Bammens
Oxidative stress (OS), defined as disturbances in the pro-/antioxidant balance, is harmful to cells due to the excessive generation of highly reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species. When the balance is not disturbed, OS has a role in physiological adaptations and signal transduction. However, an excessive amount of ROS and RNS results in the oxidation of biological molecules such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. Oxidative stress has been reported in kidney disease, due to both antioxidant depletions as well as increased ROS production...
August 13, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Hong Su, Zhou Li, Lissy Lazar, Yasmin Alhamoud, Xin Song, Juan Li, Yafei Wang, Samuel Selorm Fiati Kenston, Muhammad Zubair Lqbal, Aiguo Wu, Zhen Li, Qihang Hua, Min Ding, Jinshun Zhao
Recent studies show that Janus Fe3 O4 -TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) have potential applications as a multifunctional agent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. However, little work has been done on their biological effects. To evaluate the toxicity and underlying molecular mechanisms of Janus Fe3 O4 -TiO2 nanoparticles, an in vitro study using a human liver cell line HL-7702 cells was conducted. For comparison, the Janus Fe3 O4 -TiO2 NPs parent material TiO2 NPs was also evaluated...
August 11, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Guo-Qiang Zheng, Hai-Yu Ji, Shao-Jing Zhang, Juan Yu, An-Jun Liu
In this study, the cytotoxic activity of selenious-β-lactoglobulin (Se-β-Lg) and the anticancer mechanism were investigated in human lung cancer A549 cells in vitro. MTT assay showed that Se-β-Lg at 200 μg/mL exhibited a significant suppression effect on A549 cells and the maximum inhibition rate reached 90% after 72 h treatment. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that 200 μg/mL of Se-β-Lg induced cell cycle arrest at G0 /G1 phase. Cell apoptosis was induced via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in a time-dependent manner...
August 10, 2018: Cytotechnology
Bo Liu, Shuo Yu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a burden on public health worldwide. Therefore, development of novel therapeutic agents for managing HCC is imperative. Amentoflavone (AF), a flavonoid compound extracted from Selaginella tamariscina Spring, reportedly has anti-neoplastic activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of AF in HCC and the underlying mechanism of action. We found that AF decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in both HCC cell lines but did not affect the viability of a normal hepatic cell line...
August 7, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Wen-Bin Kuang, Ri-Zhen Huang, Jiao-Lan Qin, Xing Lu, Qi-Pin Qin, Bi-Qun Zou, Zhen-Feng Chen, Hong Liang, Ye Zhang
A series of new 3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)quinolin-2(1H)-one derivatives (5a1 -5d6 ) were designed and synthesized as antitumor agents. In vitro antitumor assay results showed that some compounds exhibited moderate to high inhibitory activity against HepG2, SK-OV-3, NCI-H460 and BEL-7404 tumor cell lines, and most compounds exhibited much lower cytotoxicity against the HL-7702 normal cell line compared to 5-FU and cisplatin. In vivo antitumor assay results demonstrated that 5a3 exhibited effective inhibition on tumor growth in the NCI-H460 xenograft mouse model and that 5d3 displayed excellent antiproliferative activity in the BEL-7402 xenograft model...
July 30, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Soojeong Cho, Byeongdu Lee, Wooram Park, Xiaoke Huang, Dong-Hyun Kim
To enhance localization and precision of therapeutic radiation delivery, nano-radiosensitizers have been developed. A specific volume of comprising surface atoms is known to be the radiosensitizing region. However, the shape dependent local dose enhancement of nanoparticles is often underestimated and rarely reported. Here, a noble metal nanostructure, inspired by the photoperiodic day-flowers, was synthesized by metal reduction with bile acid molecules. The impact of high surface area of day-flower like nanoparticles (D-NP) on radiosensitizing effect was demonstrated with assays for ROS generation, cellular apoptosis, and clonogenic survival of human liver cancer cells (HepG2) cells...
August 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Maqsood A Siddiqui, Zulfiqar Ali, Amar G Chittiboyina, Ikhlas A Khan
Dioscorea villosa , commonly known as "Wild Yam" and native to North America, is well documented for its pharmacological properties due to the presence of steroidal glycosides. However, the hepatoprotective potential of these compounds has not been studied so far. The present investigation was aimed to study the hepatoprotective effect of the steroidal glycosides from D. villosa against H2 O2 , a known hepatotoxin, in human liver cell line (HepG2). Cytotoxicity assessment was carried out in cells exposed to various concentrations (10-50 μM) of compounds for 24 h using MTT assay and morphological changes...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jinkai Ji, Xiao Li, Tiantian Wu, Fude Feng
Reversibly controlled generation of singlet oxygen from photosensitizing nanosystems has the benefits of selective cell killing and controllable effect time, but is a challenging option for photodynamic therapies. We report a strategy for integrating photochromic spiropyrans into biocompatible cationic polymers, which involved assembling nucleic acids into functional nanoparticles without introducing additional photosensitizers and imaging agents. We found that spiropyran-containing nanoparticles have photoswitching properties for both fluorescence (with a quantum yield of up to 0...
July 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Adilson Fonseca Teixeira, Juliana Rodrigues Alves, Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca, Andre Luiz Mencalha
Patients with triple negative breast cancer can develop side effects as result of chemotherapy. Photodynamic therapy can reduce these effects by a chemotherapeutical agent as photosensitizer combined with non-ionizing radiation from low power light emitting diode (LED). Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species production induced by doxorubicin and low power blue LED in breast cancer cultures. Cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MDA-MB-231 cultures were evaluated in response to different doxorubicin concentrations and blue LED fluences...
July 28, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Youkun Zheng, Weiwei Liu, Zhaojian Qin, Yun Chen, Hui Jiang, Xuemei Wang
Widespread bacterial resistance induced by the abuse of antibiotics eagerly needs the exploitation of novel antimicrobial agents and strategies. Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have recently emerged as an innovative nanomedicine, but study on their antibacterial properties especially toward multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria is scarce. Herein, we demonstrate that a novel class of Au NCs, mercaptopyrimidine conjugated Au NCs, can act as potent nanoantibiotics targeting these intractable superbugs in vitro and in vivo, without induction of bacterial antibiotic resistance and noticeable cytotoxicity to mammalian cells...
August 10, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
T Kiran Kishore Kranthi, Abdul Basit Baba, Jaganathan Kowshik, G Bhanuprakash Reddy, Siddavaram Nagini
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Aldose reductase (AR), a polyol pathway enzyme that mediates diabetic complications is implicated in tumour development and progression. This study was undertaken to determine whether gedunin, a neem limonoid prevents the hallmarks of cancer by inhibiting AR and the associated downstream PI3K/Akt/mTOR/ERK/NF-κB signalling axis in the SCC131 oral cancer cell line. METHODS: The expression of AR and key molecules involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, invasion and angiogenesis was analysed by qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting...
July 30, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Sounik Manna, Munmun Ghosh, Ranadhir Chakraborty, Sudipto Ghosh, Santi M Mandal
Succumbing to multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria is a great distress to recent health care system. Out of the several attempts that have been made to kill MDR pathogens, a few gained short-lived success. The failures, of the discovered or innovated antimicrobials, were mostly due to their high level of toxicity to hosts and the phenomenal rate of developing resistance by the pathogens against the new arsenal. Recently, a few quantum dots were tested against the pathogenic bacteria and therefore justified for potential stockpiling of next generation antibacterial agents...
July 31, 2018: Current Drug Targets
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