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Tissue or origin cancer

Bente Benedict, Tanja van Harn, Marleen Dekker, Simone Hermsen, Asli Kucukosmanoglu, Wietske Pieters, Elly Delzenne-Goette, Josephine C Dorsman, Eva Petermann, Floris Foijer, Hein Te Riele
In cancer cells, loss of G1/S control is often accompanied by p53 pathway inactivation, the latter usually rationalized as a necessity for suppressing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, we found an unanticipated effect of p53 loss in mouse and human G1-checkpoint-deficient cells: reduction of DNA damage. We show that abrogation of the G1/S-checkpoint allowed cells to enter S-phase under growth-restricting conditions at the expense of severe replication stress manifesting as decelerated DNA replication, reduced origin firing and accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs)...
October 16, 2018: ELife
Wangjian Li, Lihong Ye, Yongliang Chen, Peng Chen
BACKGROUND: Genetic alterations play a significant role in the progression of bladder cancer. Identifying novel biomarkers to personalize the therapeutic regimen and evaluate the prognosis of patients with bladder cancer is vital. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase family member 4 (P3H4) is significantly involved in several types of human cancer. However, the effect of P3H4 in bladder cancer remains unknown. METHODS: The mRNA expression of P3H4 was measured in 44 paired tumors and adjacent normal tissues by using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
October 15, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Helen Zirnask, Pasi Pöllanen, Siim Suutre, Marianne Kuuslahti, Andres Kotsar, Tomi Pakarainen, Kersti Kokk
The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin (LHCG) receptor in the human penis to see, if the luteinizing hormone (LH) effects are possible in the spongious and cavernous tissue of the penis. The number of men with erection disturbances increases significantly simultaneously with the elevated LH concentrations between 40 and 70 years. It is possible that the elevated LH concentrations may influence locally the erectile mechanisms. The precondition for this is the expression of LHCG receptors in the penis...
October 15, 2018: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
Anders H Elliot, Lennart Blomqvist, Arni Sigurdsson, Anna Martling, Hemming Johansson, Bengt Glimelius, Per J Nilsson
Background The performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) interpretation and communication of findings and its implication on treatment decisions has not fully been explored in rectal cancer. Purpose To investigate in a region the adherence to MRI protocol standards and the relation between MRI interpretation and selection to preoperative therapy in rectal cancer. Material and Methods Data on consecutive patients who underwent elective rectal cancer surgery in the region from January to June 2010 were obtained from the National Colorectal Cancer Registry...
October 15, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Ivano Iavarone, Carlotta Buzzoni, Giorgia Stoppa, Eva Steliarova-Foucher
BACKGROUND: this paper is based upon work from COST Action ICSHNet. Children's environmental health is on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The incidence of childhood cancer is increasing worldwide and in Europe. Yet, the aetiology of most childhood cancers, including the role of environmental carcinogens, is still largely unknown. Contaminated areas, especially of industrial origin, are of high concern due to complex mix of hazardous pollutants and their potential health impacts on human populations, notably in children...
September 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Manuela De Sario, Roberto Pasetto, Simona Vecchi, Ariana Zeka, Gerard Hoek, Paola Michelozzi, Ivano Iavarone, Tony Fletcher, Lisa Bauleo, Carla Ancona
BACKGROUND: this paper is based upon work from COST Action ICSHNet. Industrial contaminated sites (ICSs) are of high concern since industrial plants have produced widespread contamination potentially affecting the health of local population OBJECTIVES: to assess the types of epidemiological designs applied in studies of health effects related to ICSs according to time periods, type of ICS, and geography. METHODS: a literature search was conducted in Medline (OVID) through June 30th, 2018, using MeSH and customized terms, and no restrictions on publication year or language...
September 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Kairong Xiong, Andreja Kukec, Isabell Katharina Rumrich, Tanja Rejc, Roberto Pasetto, Ivano Iavarone, Otto Hänninen
BACKGROUND: this paper is based upon work from COST Action ICSHNet. Industrially contaminated sites (ICSs) are a serious problem worldwide and there is growing concern about their impacts on the environment and public health. Health risk assessment methods are used to characterize and quantify the health impacts on nearby populations and to guide public health interventions. However, heterogeneous methods and inconsistent reporting practices compromise comparability risk and impact estimates...
September 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Muhammad Nawaz, Neelam Shah, Bruna Riedo Zanetti, Marco Maugeri, Renata Nacasaki Silvestre, Farah Fatima, Luciano Neder, Hadi Valadi
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane enclosed micro- and nano-sized vesicles that are secreted from almost every species, ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, and from almost every cell type studied so far. EVs contain repertoire of bioactive molecules such as proteins (including enzymes and transcriptional factors), lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids including DNA, coding and non-coding RNAs. The secreted EVs are taken up by neighboring cells where they release their content in recipient cells, or can sail through body fluids to reach distant organs...
October 13, 2018: Cells
Cherie Ann Kruger, Heidi Abrahamse
The cancer incidence world-wide has caused an increase in the demand for effective forms of treatment. One unconventional form of treatment for cancer is photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT has 3 fundamental factors, namely a photosensitiser (PS) drug, light and oxygen. When a PS drug is administered to a patient, it can either passively or actively accumulate within a tumour site and once exposed to a specific wavelength of light, it is excited to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in tumour destruction...
October 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yu-Dong Cai, Shiqi Zhang, Yu-Hang Zhang, Xiaoyong Pan, KaiYan Feng, Lei Chen, Tao Huang, Xiangyin Kong
As a common brain cancer derived from glial cells, gliomas have three subtypes: glioblastoma, diffuse astrocytoma, and anaplastic astrocytoma. The subtypes have distinctive clinical features but are closely related to each other. A glioblastoma can be derived from the early stage of diffuse astrocytoma, which can be transformed into anaplastic astrocytoma. Due to the complexity of these dynamic processes, single-cell gene expression profiles are extremely helpful to understand what defines these subtypes. We analyzed the single-cell gene expression profiles of 5057 cells of anaplastic astrocytoma tissues, 261 cells of diffuse astrocytoma tissues, and 1023 cells of glioblastoma tissues with advanced machine learning methods...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Martha Wium, Juliano D Paccez, Luiz F Zerbini
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate cellular processes by converting signals from the extracellular environment to the cytoplasm and nucleus. Tyro3, Axl, and Mer (TAM) receptors form an RTK family that plays an intricate role in tissue maintenance, phagocytosis, and inflammation as well as cell proliferation, survival, migration, and development. Defects in TAM signaling are associated with numerous autoimmune diseases and different types of cancers. Here, we review the structure of TAM receptors, their ligands, and their biological functions...
October 12, 2018: Cells
Masato Nakaya, Shinya Ichimura, Yutaka Kurebayashi, Youichi Mochizuki, Raita Fukaya, Masahito Fukuchi, Koji Fujii
BACKGROUND:  Metastasis from one tumor into another is known as tumor-to-tumor metastasis. We report a case of a contiguous occurrence of meningioma and brain cancer metastasis. PATIENT:  A 91-year-old woman presented with a sudden onset of weakness in her right limbs and gait disturbance. Fourteen years previously, she had a tumor that was suspected to be a meningioma in the left frontal convexity with no change for several years. One year earlier to presentation she was diagnosed with lung carcinoma in the left lower lobe...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
Ming Zhong, Cheng Zhong, Pei Hu, Wen Cui, Guanghui Wang, Huijei Gao, Chao Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Zhihua Li, Chunxia Li, Eiichi Gohda
Dendritic cells (DCs) play key regulatory roles in tumor immunity: increased activity of DCs infiltrating tumor tissues leads to enhancement of tumor immunity. Functions of DCs are also modulated by tumor cell-derived factors. Here, we investigated the effects of low molecular weight oyster polysaccharide (LMW-OPS) on differentiation and function of bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) exposed to a conditioned medium (CM) obtained from spheres of stemness-high colorectal cancer cell lines CMT93 and CT26. The CM containing a detectable level of TGF-β1 was found to down-regulate the surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class II of BMDCs and to inhibit the potency of BMDCs to stimulate T cells...
October 12, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
R Diez-Bello, I Jardin, J J Lopez, M El Haouari, J Ortega-Vidal, J Altarejos, G M Salido, S Salido, J A Rosado
Triple negative breast cancer is an aggressive type of cancer that does not respond to hormonal therapy and current therapeutic strategies are accompanied by side effects due to cytotoxic actions on normal tissues. Therefore, there is a need for the identification of anti-cancer compounds with negligible effects on non-tumoral cells. Here we show that (-)‑oleocanthal (OLCT), a phenolic compound isolated from olive oil, selectively impairs MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and viability without affecting the ability of non-tumoral MCF10A cells to proliferate or their viability...
October 12, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
Zhaoting Yang, Chengye Zhang, Wenbo Qi, Yanhua Xuan, Yan Cui
The role of Hedgehog (HH)/ glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) pathway has been implicated in a variety of cancer entities, and the targeted pathway inhibition mediated by GLI1 is of therapeutic relevance. However, its oncogenicity and cross-talks with other cancer pathways including PI3K/Akt/NFκB, which modulates the HH/GLI1 signal strength, have rarely been explored in colorectal adenocarcinoma. We assessed the expression of GLI1 and its relationship with other cancer stemness genes, cell cycle markers, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), PI3K/Akt/NFκB signaling pathway genes, and HIF1α in 100 paraffin-embedded colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue samples using immunohistochemistry...
October 12, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Frank Traub, Anthony M Griffin, Jay S Wunder, Peter C Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Soft-tissue sarcomas (STSs) are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors that can be difficult to treat. This is particularly true after incomplete or unplanned excisions and especially for patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III tumors, who are at high risk for relapse. Numerous studies have shown that an inadequate sarcoma excision is associated with a worse prognosis. However, other reports have suggested an improved prognosis for patients with an initial unplanned excision and subsequent re-excision in comparison with patients who undergo planned primary surgery...
October 15, 2018: Cancer
Quanying Li, Hongna Tang, Fangfang Hu, Changjiang Qin
Forkhead box class O6 (FOXO6) is an important member of FOXO family, which has been demonstrated to be implicated in tumor development. However, the role of FOXO6 in colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unclear. The study aimed to investigate the potential roles of FOXO6 in the development of CRC. Our results showed that FOXO6 was overexpressed in CRC tissues and cell lines. FOXO6 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, as well as repressed the migration and invasion of CRC cells. Additionally, we found that FOXO6 knockdown altered cellular metabolism by inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondrial respiration...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Mark J Margres, Manuel Ruiz-Aravena, Rodrigo Hamede, Menna E Jones, Matthew F Lawrance, Sarah A Hendricks, Austin Patton, Brian W Davis, Elaine A Ostrander, Hamish McCallum, Paul A Hohenlohe, Andrew Storfer
Understanding the genetic basis of disease-related phenotypes, such as cancer susceptibility, is crucial for the advancement of personalized medicine. Although most cancers are somatic in origin, a small number of transmissible cancers have been documented. Two such cancers have emerged in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii ) and now threaten the species with extinction. Recently, cases of natural tumor regression in Tasmanian devils infected with the clonally contagious cancer have been detected. We used whole-genome sequencing and FST -based approaches to identify the genetic basis of tumor regression by comparing the genomes of seven individuals that underwent tumor regression with those of three infected individuals that did not...
October 13, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Zhihong Gong, Jie Wang, Dan Wang, Matthew F Buas, Xuefeng Ren, Jo Freudenheim, Steven A Belinsky, Song Liu, Christine B Ambrosone, Michael J Higgins
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by molecularly and phenotypically distinct tumor subtypes, linked to disparate clinical outcomes. American women of African ancestry (AA) are more likely than those of European ancestry (EA) to be diagnosed with aggressive, estrogen receptor negative (ER-) or triple negative (TN) breast cancer, and to die of this disease. However, the underlying causes of AA predisposition to ER-/TN breast cancer are still largely unknown. In this study, we performed high-throughput whole-genome miRNA expression profiling in breast tissue samples from both AA and EA women...
October 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Ximena Leighton, Alakesh Bera, Ofer Eidelman, Lukas Bubendorf, Tobias Zellweger, Jaideep Banerjee, Edward P Gelmann, Harvey B Pollard, Meera Srivastava
BACKGROUND: Annexin A7 (ANXA7) is a member of the multifunctional calcium or phospholipid-binding annexin gene family. While low levels of ANXA7 are associated with aggressive types of cancer, the clinical impact of ANXA7 in prostate cancer remains unclear. Tissue microarrays (TMA) have revealed several new molecular markers in human tumors. Herein, we have identified the prognostic impact of ANXA7 in a prostate cancer using a tissue microarray containing 637 different specimens. METHODS: The patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer and long-term follow-up information on progression (median 5...
2018: PloS One
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