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Tissue or origin cancer

Balabhadrapatruni V S K Chakravarthi, Maria Del Carmen Rodriguez Pena, Sumit Agarwal, Darshan S Chandrashekar, Sai Akshaya Hodigere Balasubramanya, Fayez J Jabboure, Andres Matoso, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Katayoon Rezaei, Alcides Chaux, William E Grizzle, Guru Sonpavde, Jennifer Gordetsky, George J Netto, Sooryanarayana Varambally
Genomic and transcriptome sequencing of bladder cancer (BLCA) has identified multiple molecular alterations during cancer progression. Many of these identified genetic and epigenetic changes play a role in the progression of this disease. Studies have identified molecular subtypes in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) with different sensitivities to frontline therapy suggesting the heterogeneity in these tumors and the importance of molecular characterization of MIBC to provide effective treatment. Specifically, it has become increasingly evident, as demonstrated by The Cancer Genome Atlas project, that metabolic enzymes are commonly dysregulated in BLCA...
August 14, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Hong Zhang, Lian Xue, Bingyan Li, Hailin Tian, Zengli Zhang, Shasha Tao
Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) is a well-known air pollutant threatening public health. Studies has confirmed that long-term exposure to the particles could reduce the pulmonary function, cause exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary desease, and increase incidence and mortality of lung cancer. Bixin is a natural compound that is widely used as a food additive. Our previous studies demonstrated that bixin i.p. administration could protect against particles intratracheal exposure (56 days)-induced lung injury in an Nrf2-dependent manner...
August 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Dan Zhang, Wei Yang, Shuwei Wang, Fei Wang, Dayong Liu, Jingjing Dong, Nan Zhao, Yunye Wang, Haiyan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical significance of long non-coding RNA LINC01617 in esophageal cancer and explore the effect of LINC01617 on the proliferation and metastasis of esophageal cancer cells. METHODS: Real time fluorescence PCR was used to detect the expression of LINC01617 in 142 cases of esophageal cancer and adjacent tissues. The relationship between the expression level of LINC01617 and the survival rate of esophageal cancer patients was analyzed...
August 15, 2018: Gene
Guangfei Cui, Feng Cai, Zhanwei Ding, Ling Gao
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in most biological processes. Recently, MMP14 was reported to be upregulated in some types of cancer and to promote cancer cell invasion and metastasis. However, there are few reports on the clinical significance of MMP14 in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, MMP14 expression was first investigated in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and whole-genome expression microarray (GEO; Accession Number GSE39582) and then validated with our database. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between prognostic factors and survival outcomes...
August 15, 2018: Human Pathology
Fang Qiao, Na Li, Wei Li
BACKGROUND Lung cancer is the most lethal cancer worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify the tumor-related lncRNAs and explore their functions in female non-smokers with lung cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS The gene expression microarray datasets GSE19804, GSE31210, and GSE31548 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially-expressed lncRNAs between non-smoking female lung cancer samples and non-tumor lung tissues were identified using GEO2R. RESULTS In total, 25, 40, and 15 differentially-expressed lncRNAs were obtained from GSE19804, GSE31210, and GSE31548 datasets (|logFC| >1, adj...
August 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Jitong Zhang, Chaojie Ju, Wei Zhang, Li Xie
SNHG20 is a novel lncRNA which has been showed to be overexpressed and functions as oncogenic lncRNA in several types of human cancer. The role of SNHG20 in osteosarcoma is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to identify the clinical value and biological function of SNHG20 in osteosarcoma. Our results indicated SNHG20 was overexpressed in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines compared with paired non-tumor tissues and normal human osteoblast cell line, respectively. Moreover, we observed high-expression of SNHG20 was obviously associated with Enneking stage, distant metastasis, and histological grade...
August 18, 2018: IUBMB Life
Johannes Breyer, Ralph M Wirtz, Philipp Erben, Sebastien Rinaldetti, Thomas S Worst, Robert Stoehr, Markus Eckstein, Danijel Sikic, Stefan Denzinger, Maximilian Burger, Arndt Hartmann, Wolfgang Otto
OBJECTIVES: To investigate on the role of forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) mRNA expression and its prognostic value in stage pT1 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical data and Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded tissues (FFPE) from transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) of stage pT1 NMIBC treated with an organ preserving approach was analysed retrospectively. Total RNA was isolated by commercial RNA extraction kits and mRNA expression of FOXM1, MKI67, KRT20 and KRT5 was measured by single step RT-qPCR using RNA-specific TaqMan Assays...
August 18, 2018: BJU International
Fabrizio Luca, Danielle K Craigg, Maheswari Senthil, Matthew J Selleck, Blake D Babcock, Mark E Reeves, Carlos A Garberoglio
Several studies have reported high rates of urogenital dysfunction after open and laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer. Robotic surgery has several features that could facilitate identification and preservation of autonomic nerves. This manuscript aims to summarize the literature regarding urogenital function after robotic rectal cancer surgery and focus on technical aspects of nerve-sparing total mesorectal excision. Comprehensive searches were conducted through online databases. Selection criteria included: original articles assessing urinary and sexual function after robotic surgery of males and/or females with standardized questionnaires...
August 17, 2018: Updates in Surgery
Ya-Sian Chang, Chun-Chi Chang, Hsi-Yuan Huang, Chien-Yu Lin, Kun-Tu Yeh, Jan-Gowth Chang
Genetic and epigenetic alterations are associated with the progression and prognosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We performed whole-exome sequencing of tumor tissue from seven patients with sporadic MTC using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. We conducted Sanger sequencing to confirm the somatic mutations in both tumor and matched normal tissues. We applied Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes functional enrichment analysis with the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery and STRING for pathway analysis...
August 17, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Natalie C Wu, Wendy Wong, Kenneth E Ho, Victor C Chu, Annaliza Rizo, Simon Davenport, Devon Kelly, Rosemary Makar, Jacek Jassem, Renata Duchnowska, Wojciech Biernat, Barbara Radecka, Tomoyuki Fujita, Jonathan L Klein, Mark Stonecypher, Shoichiro Ohta, Hartmut Juhl, Jodi M Weidler, Michael Bates, Michael F Press
PURPOSE: The methods (IHC/FISH) typically used to assess ER, PR, HER2, and Ki67 in FFPE specimens from breast cancer patients are difficult to set up, perform, and standardize for use in low and middle-income countries. Use of an automated diagnostic platform (GeneXpert®) and assay (Xpert® Breast Cancer STRAT4) that employs RT-qPCR to quantitate ESR1, PGR, ERBB2, and MKi67 mRNAs from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues facilitates analyses in less than 3 h. This study compares breast cancer biomarker analyses using an RT-qPCR-based platform with analyses using standard IHC and FISH for assessment of the same biomarkers...
August 17, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Dongyu Jia, Yoshiko Nagaoka, Makoto Katsumata, Sandra Orsulic
The incidence of ovarian cancer dramatically increases in early menopause but the factors contributing to cancer onset are unclear. Most ovarian cancers originate in the fallopian tube with subsequent implantation of malignant cells into the ovary. However, the events and conditions that lead to cancer cell implantation are unknown. To quantify which conditions are conducive to the seeding of cancer cells in an immunocompetent mouse model, we surgically implanted mouse ovarian cancer cells into the oviducts of syngeneic mice and simulated conditions associated with ovulatory wound repair, incessant ovulation, ovarian surface scarring, and aging...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Radosław Chaber, Kornelia Łach, Christopher J Arthur, Anna Raciborska, Elżbieta Michalak, Krzysztof Ciebiera, Katarzyna Bilska, Katarzyna Drabko, Józef Cebulski
Ewing sarcoma is the second most common type of primary bone cancer and predominantly affects children and young people. Improved outcome prediction is key to delivering risk-adjusted, appropriate and effective care to cancer patients. Advances in the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of tissues enable it to be a non-invasive method to obtain information about the biochemical content of any biological sample. In this retrospective study, attenuated tissue reflection FTIR spectroscopy of biopsy samples from paediatric patients reveals spectral features that are diagnostic for Ewing Sarcoma...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Simon Braun, Mihaela Enculescu, Samarth T Setty, Mariela Cortés-López, Bernardo P de Almeida, F X Reymond Sutandy, Laura Schulz, Anke Busch, Markus Seiler, Stefanie Ebersberger, Nuno L Barbosa-Morais, Stefan Legewie, Julian König, Kathi Zarnack
Mutations causing aberrant splicing are frequently implicated in human diseases including cancer. Here, we establish a high-throughput screen of randomly mutated minigenes to decode the cis-regulatory landscape that determines alternative splicing of exon 11 in the proto-oncogene MST1R (RON). Mathematical modelling of splicing kinetics enables us to identify more than 1000 mutations affecting RON exon 11 skipping, which corresponds to the pathological isoform RON∆165. Importantly, the effects correlate with RON alternative splicing in cancer patients bearing the same mutations...
August 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Sandrine Silvente-Poirot, Florence Dalenc, Marc Poirot
Epidemiologic studies are controversial concerning the roles played by cholesterol in cancer risk and development, possibly as it is not cholesterol per se that is pathologic in cancers. Indeed, recent data reveal that the cholesterol metabolism in cancer cells can generate endogenous oncopromoter metabolites at higher levels compared with normal tissues and/or can be deregulated in the production of endogenous oncosuppressor metabolites in an opposite way. These metabolites are oxysterols, which are cholesterol oxygenation products generated by enzymatic and/or autoxidation processes...
August 17, 2018: Cancer Research
Adam T Hryniewicki, Claire Wang, Rebecca A Shatsky, Christopher J Coyne
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a novel class of drugs used in cancer immunotherapy that are becoming more commonly used among advanced-stage cancers. Unfortunately, these therapies are sometimes associated with often subtle, potentially fatal immune-related adverse events (irAEs). OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of relevant primary research and clinical guidelines in oncology, pharmacology, and other literature, and synthesized this information to address the needs of the emergency physician in the acute management of irAEs...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Mingxu Ma, Jianchun Zhao, Hejuan Cheng, Mengyan Deng, Zhongpeng Ding, Yingwei Hou, Feng Li, Guifang Dou, Wenbao Li
MBRI-001 was demonstrated preliminary better pharmacokinetics and antitumor effects than that of plinabulin in vivo. In this approach, we further carried out systematic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of MBRI-001 in vitro and in vivo. MBRI-001 was tested stable in rat plasma and more stable in liver microsomes than plinabulin in vitro. In vivo, MBRI-001 could be distributed rapidly and widely in various tissues, especially the concentration of MBRI-001 in lung was remarkably higher than other tissues...
August 4, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Inês Anselmo da Costa, Jörg Hennenlotter, Viktoria Stühler, Ursula Kühs, Marcus Scharpf, Tilman Todenhöfer, Arnulf Stenzl, Jens Bedke
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common nonepidermal cancer in elderly males. Due to its heterogeneity and high variability in regards to clinical outcome and therapeutic response, urologists' handling of this disease remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to assess Transketolase like 1 (TKTL1) expression in benign prostatic tissue, peritumoral tissue and in CaP (in different stages of disease), and its correlation with clinicopathological findings, in order to detect if TKTL1 expression is associated with CaP tumorigenesis...
August 14, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Ritesh Kumar, Sumit Kumar, Ajay Gogia, Aanchal Kakkar, Sandeep R Mathur
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in females. The common site for metastases is bone, lungs, liver, and regional lymph nodes. Larynx as a metastatic site from breast cancer is extremely rare. The authors report a 63-year-old female treated for carcinoma of right breast 5 years back who presented with hoarseness of voice. Clinicoradiological examination revealed a soft tissue lesion in larynx. Pathological evaluation of the laryngeal lesion revealed metastases secondary to breast cancer. The patient received systemic chemotherapy and local radiotherapy...
August 4, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Ying Xue, Xuebing Jia, Lei Li, Xiao Dong, Jing Ling, Jian Yuan, Qi Li
The DEAD-box-protein DDX5 is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase and also acts as co-activator that contributes to progression and metastasis of various tumours. However, its expression as well as prognostic roles of DDX5 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain elusive. In this study, we investigated clinical significance and biological functions of DDX5 in HCC. Our results suggested that DDX5 showed overexpression at both transcriptional and translational levels in HCC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues...
August 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Marije P van der Paardt, Jaap Stoker
Magnetic resonance colonography with its high tissue contrast and without the use of ionizing radiation was designed as a minimally invasive screening tool for colorectal cancer and its precursors. Nonetheless, heterogeneous data on diagnostic performance and patient burden have hindered its use in screening. This article provides an overview on the status and potential of magnetic resonance colonography in the setting of detection and screening of colorectal cancer and its precursors.
September 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
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