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Tissue or origin cancer

Linda G Rikkert, Edwin van der Pol, Ton G van Leeuwen, Rienk Nieuwland, Frank A W Coumans
Biomarkers in the blood of cancer patients include circulating tumor cells (CTCs), tumor-educated platelets (TEPs), tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (tdEVs), EV-associated miRNA (EV-miRNA), and circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA). Because the size and density of biomarkers differ, blood is centrifuged to isolate or concentrate the biomarker of interest. Here, we applied a model to estimate the effect of centrifugation on the purity of a biomarker according to published protocols. The model is based on the Stokes equation and was validated using polystyrene beads in buffer and plasma...
December 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Christiani A Amorim, Jacques Donnez, Jean-Paul Dehoux, Sarah R Scalercio, Jean Squifflet, Marie-Madeleine Dolmans
STUDY QUESTION: Can vitrified baboon ovarian tissue survive >5 months after autotransplantation and subsequently restore fertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our results show that ovarian tissue grafts can survive at least 18 months, but fertility restoration could not be confirmed due to lack of pregnancy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Ovarian function in baboons can be re-established after autografting of vitrified-warmed ovarian tissue fragments. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Ovaries from five adult female baboons were used for this study...
December 14, 2018: Human Reproduction
Zhennan Zhao, Xiang Zhang, Chang-E Li, Tianfeng Chen
The effective design of a targeted drug delivery system could improve the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs by reducing their undesirable adsorption and toxic side effects. Here, an RGD-peptide functionalized and bioresponsive ruthenium prodrug (Ru-RGD) was designed for both cancer therapy and clinical diagnosis. This prodrug can be selectively delivered to cervical tumor sites to enhance theranostic efficacy. The benzimidazole-based ligand of the complex is susceptible to acidic conditions so, after reaching the tumor microenvironment, ligand substitution occurs and the therapeutic drug is released...
December 5, 2018: Biomaterials
Nayoung Kim, Ji-Wan Choi, Ah Young Song, Woo Seon Choi, Hye-Ran Park, Sojung Park, Inki Kim, Hun Sik Kim
This study identified 8-azaguanine (8-AG) as a novel immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) through a high-throughput screen of the Preswick Chemical Library in a model of human NK cell cytotoxicity against blood cancer cells. 8-AG, originally developed as an antineoplastic agent, significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells and was superior in this activity to previously known IMiDs, such as fluoxetine and amphotericin B, identified from the same library. IFN-γ expression was also slightly increased by 8-AG...
December 11, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Esther Arnaiz, Carla Sole, Lorea Manterola, Leire Iparraguirre, David Otaegui, Charles H Lawrie
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of regulatory RNAs that despite being relatively abundant have only recently begun to be explored. There are many thousands of genes that appear capable of producing circRNAs, however the function of all but a handful remain to be determined. What is emerging about these highly conserved molecules is that they play important roles in biology and cancer biology in particular. The most explored function of circRNAs is as master regulators of gene expression that act to sequester or ´sponge´ other gene expression regulators, in particular miRNAs...
December 11, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Man Kyu Shim, Jooho Park, Hong Yeol Yoon, Sangmin Lee, Wooram Um, Jong-Ho Kim, Sun-Woong Kang, Joung-Wook Seo, Soo-Wang Hyun, Jae Hyung Park, Youngro Byun, Ick Chan Kwon, Kwangmeyung Kim
Cancer nanomedicine using nanoparticle-based delivery systems has shown outstanding promise in recent decades for improving anticancer treatment. However, limited targeting efficiency, low drug loading efficiency and innate toxicity of nanoparticles have caused severe problems, leaving only a few available in the clinic. Here, we newly developed carrier-free nanoparticles of cathepsin B-cleavable peptide (Phe-Arg-Arg-Gly; FRRG)-conjugated doxorubicin (DOX) prodrug (FRRG-DOX) that formed a stable nanoparticle structure with an average diameter of 213 nm in aqueous condition...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Silvia Galbiati, Francesco Damin, Valentina Burgio, Angela Brisci, Nadia Soriani, Bernadette Belcastro, Chiara Di Resta, Luca Gianni, Marcella Chiari, Monica Ronzoni, Maurizio Ferrari
A major effort has been focused on the detection of oncogenes' mutations in diverse types of clinical specimens including formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissues, presently the gold-standard samples, up to plasma, that constitute a noninvasive alternative source of tumor DNA. The reliable detection of mutations in circulating tumor DNA requires a high analytical sensitivity. Here, we applied three different highly sensitive methodologies (COLD-PCR, a microarray-based approach and the droplet digital PCR, ddPCR) to identify mutations in the plasma of 30 metastatic colorectal cancer patients previously genotyped on tissue biopsy...
December 11, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Caitlin E Jones, Anisha M Hammer, YouJin Cho, Gina M Sizemore, Edna Cukierman, Lisa D Yee, Samir N Ghadiali, Michael C Ostrowski, Jennifer L Leight
The organization of the extracellular matrix has a profound impact on cancer development and progression. The matrix becomes aligned throughout tumor progression, providing "highways" for tumor cell invasion. Aligned matrix is associated with breast density and is a negative prognostic factor in several cancers; however, the underlying mechanisms regulating this reorganization remain poorly understood. Deletion of the tumor suppressor Pten in the stroma was previously shown to promote extracellular matrix expansion and tumor progression...
December 11, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Mavis Machirori, Christine Patch, Alison Metcalfe
Within the field of breast cancer care, women concerned about their family history are offered genetic testing and subsequent treatment options based on several factors which include but are not limited to personal and family cancer disease histories and clinical guidelines. Discussions around decision-making in genetics in Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) groups are rarely documented in literature, and information regarding interactions with genetics services is usually discussed and linked to lack of scientific knowledge...
December 11, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Daniel Triner, Samantha N Devenport, Sadeesh K Ramakrishnan, Xiaoya Ma, Ryan A Frieler, Joel K Greenson, Naohiro Inohara, Gabriel Nunez, Justin A Colacino, Richard M Mortensen, Yatrik M Shah
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Neutrophils are among the most prevalent immune cells in the microenvironment of colon tumors, are believed to promote growth of colon tumors, and their numbers correlate with outcomes of patients with colon cancer. Trials of inhibitors of neutrophil trafficking are under way in patients with cancer, but it is not clear how neutrophils contribute to colon tumorigenesis. METHODS: Colitis-associated colon cancer was induced mice with conditional deletion of neutrophils (LysMCre;Mcl1fl/fl ) and wild-type littermates (LysMCre;Mcl1+/+ , control mice) by administration of azoxythmethane and/or dextran sulfate sodium...
December 11, 2018: Gastroenterology
Joseph Carmicheal, Chihiro Hayashi, Xi Huang, Lei Liu, Yao Lu, Alexey Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexander Lushnikov, Prakash G Kshirsagar, Asish Patel, Maneesh Jain, Yuri L Lyubchenko, Yongfeng Lu, Surinder K Batra, Sukhwinder Kaur
Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy. Lack of early diagnostic markers makes timely detection of pancreatic cancer a highly challenging endeavor. Exosomes have emerged as information-rich cancer specific biomarkers. However, characterization of tumor-specific exosomes has been challenging. This study investigated the proof-of principal that exosomes could be used for the detection of pancreatic cancer. Label-free analysis of exosomes purified from normal and pancreatic cancer cell lines was performed using surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) and principal component differential function analysis (PC-DFA), to identify tumor-specific spectral signatures...
December 11, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
James T Neal, Xingnan Li, Junjie Zhu, Valeria Giangarra, Caitlin L Grzeskowiak, Jihang Ju, Iris H Liu, Shin-Heng Chiou, Ameen A Salahudeen, Amber R Smith, Brian C Deutsch, Lillian Liao, Allison J Zemek, Fan Zhao, Kasper Karlsson, Liora M Schultz, Thomas J Metzner, Lincoln D Nadauld, Yuen-Yi Tseng, Sahar Alkhairy, Coyin Oh, Paula Keskula, Daniel Mendoza-Villanueva, Francisco M De La Vega, Pamela L Kunz, Joseph C Liao, John T Leppert, John B Sunwoo, Chiara Sabatti, Jesse S Boehm, William C Hahn, Grace X Y Zheng, Mark M Davis, Calvin J Kuo
In vitro cancer cultures, including three-dimensional organoids, typically contain exclusively neoplastic epithelium but require artificial reconstitution to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment (TME). The co-culture of primary tumor epithelia with endogenous, syngeneic tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) as a cohesive unit has been particularly elusive. Here, an air-liquid interface (ALI) method propagated patient-derived organoids (PDOs) from >100 human biopsies or mouse tumors in syngeneic immunocompetent hosts as tumor epithelia with native embedded immune cells (T, B, NK, macrophages)...
December 13, 2018: Cell
Hui Chen, Zan Lin, Chao Tan
The feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with classifier ensemble for improving the diagnosis of colorectal cancer was explored. A total of 157 NIR spectra from the patients were recorded and partitioned into the training set and the test set. Four algorithms, i.e., Adaboost.M1, Totalboost and LPboost using decision tree as weak learners, together with random subspace method (RSM) using linear discriminant classifier (LDA) as weak learners, were used to construct diagnostic models. Some key parameters such as the size of ensemble, i...
December 11, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Yao Wen-Jian, Tong Song, Tan Jun, Xu Kai-Ying, Wang Jian-Jun, Wang Si-Hua
Nuclear factor 45 (NF-45) has been found to be markedly upregulated in several cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its functions remain unclear. In this study, we confirm that overexpression of NF45 was frequently detected in ESCC tissues and was associated with poor outcome. Overexpression studies revealed that NF-45 promoted cell growth and invasion and upregulated Rac1/Tiam1 signalling via 14-3-3ε protein in ESCC cell lines. This novel mechanism linking upregulated NF45 expression to increased 14-3-3ε/Rac1/Tiam1 signalling and subsequent growth and invasion in ESCC may aid in identification of new therapeutic targets for this disease...
December 11, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
James Howard, Raghav C Dwivedi, Liam Masterson, Prasad Kothari, Harry Quon, F Christopher Holsinger
BACKGROUND: More than 400,000 cases of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC) are diagnosed every year worldwide and this is rising. Much of the increase has been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV-positive OPSCC patients are often younger and have significantly improved survival relative to HPV-negative patients. Traditional management of OPSCC has been with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, as this was shown to have similar survival to open surgery but with significantly lower morbidity...
December 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jianhan Zhang, Xu Han, Yihan Lin
Regulation of cellular ATP level is critical for diverse biological processes and may be defective in diseases such as cancer and mitochondrial disorders. While mitochondria play critical roles in ATP level regulation, we still lack a systematic and quantitative picture of how individual mitochondrial-related genes contribute to cellular ATP level and how dysregulated ATP levels may affect downstream cellular processes. Advances in genetically encoded ATP biosensors have provided new opportunities for addressing these issues...
December 14, 2018: PLoS Biology
Anais Malpica, Elizabeth D Euscher, Jonathan L Hecht, Rouba Ali-Fehmi, Charles M Quick, Naveena Singh, Lars-Christian Horn, Isabel Alvarado-Cabrero, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Lynn Hirschowitz, Máire Duggan, Jaume Ordi, Vinita Parkash, Yoshiki Mikami, M Ruhul Quddus, Richard Zaino, Annette Staebler, Charles Zaloudek, W Glenn McCluggage, Esther Oliva
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic neoplasm in developed countries; however, updated universal guidelines are currently not available to handle specimens obtained during the surgical treatment of patients affected by this disease. This article presents recommendations on how to gross and submit sections for microscopic examination of hysterectomy specimens and other tissues removed during the surgical management of endometrial cancer such as salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, and lymph node dissection-including sentinel lymph nodes...
January 2019: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Christina C Lawson, Candice Y Johnson, Feiby L Nassan, Thomas H Connor, James M Boiano, Carissa M Rocheleau, Jorge E Chavarro, Janet W Rich-Edwards
Findings from this cross-sectional study indicate a need for expanded training in safe handling practices. ABSTRACT: Background: Many antineoplastic (chemotherapeutic) drugs are known or probable human carcinogens, and many have been shown to be reproductive toxicants in cancer patients. Evidence from occupational exposure studies suggests that health care workers who have long-term, low-level occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs have an increased risk of adverse reproductive outcomes...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Nursing
Anthony M Villano, Alexander Zeymo, James McDermott, Dany Barrak, Keith R Unger, Nawar M Shara, Kitty S Chan, Waddah B Al-Refaie
PURPOSE: Surgery continues to be the dominant therapy for the management of retroperitoneal soft-tissue sarcoma (RPS). Many groups advocate performing these resections at high-volume hospitals (HVHs), given their complexity. We therefore sought to explore whether RPS surgery has indeed begun to regionalize to HVHs in the same manner as pancreatic cancer (PC) surgery during the last decade. METHODS: We identified 70,763 patients who underwent surgical resection for RPS or PC using the National Cancer Database (2004 to 2015)...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
Nicolas Marcoux, Scott N Gettinger, Grainne O'Kane, Kathryn C Arbour, Joel W Neal, Hatim Husain, Tracey L Evans, Julie R Brahmer, Alona Muzikansky, Philip D Bonomi, Salvatore Del Prete, Anna Wurtz, Anna F Farago, Dora Dias-Santagata, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Karen L Reckamp, Helena A Yu, Heather A Wakelee, Frances A Shepherd, Zofia Piotrowska, Lecia V Sequist
PURPOSE: Approximately 3% to 10% of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) -mutant non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) undergo transformation to small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), but their clinical course is poorly characterized. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with EGFR-mutant SCLC and other high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas seen at our eight institutions. Demographics, disease features, and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: We included 67 patients-38 women and 29 men; EGFR mutations included exon 19 deletion (69%), L858R (25%), and other (6%)...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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