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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896920/fusion-of-ssm6a-with-a-protein-scaffold-retains-selectivity-on-nav-1-7-and-improves-its-therapeutic-potential-against-chronic-pain
#1
Chuan Wang, Bin Shan, Qiong Wang, Qunyuan Xu, Hailin Zhang, Huimeng Lei
Voltage gated sodium channel NaV 1.7 serves an attractive target for chronic pain treatment. Several venom peptides were found to selectively inhibit NaV 1.7 but with intrinsic problems. Among them, Ssm6a, a recently discovered centipede venom peptide, shows the greatest selectivity against NaV 1.7, but dissociates from the target too fast and loses bioactivity in synthetic forms. As a disulfide-rich venom peptide, it is difficult to optimize Ssm6a by artificial mutagenesis and produce the peptide with common industrial manufacturing methods...
November 29, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780954/antimicrobial-activity-of-the-scolopendrasin-v-peptide-identified-from-the-centipede-scolopendra-subspinipes-mutilans
#2
Joon Ha Lee, In-Woo Kim, Mi-Ae Kim, Mi-Young Ahn, Eun-Young Yun, Jae Sam Hwang
In a previous study, we analyzed the transcriptome of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans using next generation sequencing technology and identified several antimicrobial peptide candidates. One of peptides, scolopendrasin V, was selected based on the physicochemical properties of antimicrobial peptides using a bioinformatics strategy. In this study, we assessed the antimicrobial activities of scolopendrasin V by using radial diffusion assay and colony count assay. We also investigated the mode of action of scolopendrasin V using flow cytometry...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770928/in-situ-chitin-isolation-from-body-parts-of-a-centipede-and-lysozyme-adsorption-studies
#3
Esra Bulut, Idris Sargin, Ozlem Arslan, Mehmet Odabasi, Bahar Akyuz, Murat Kaya
Isolation of structurally intact chitin samples for biotechnological applications has gained much recent attention. So far, three-dimensional chitin isolates have been obtained from only diplopods and sponges. In this study, three-dimensional chitin isolates were obtained from the body parts of centipede Scolopendra sp. (antennae, head, forcipule, collum, trunk, trunk legs and last pair of legs) without leading to structural failure. FT-IR spectra of chitin isolates confirmed that chitin samples are in α allomorph...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701308/lithobius-ezembius-multispinipes-n-sp-a-new-species-of-centipede-from-northwest-china-lithobiomorpha-lithobiidae
#4
Sujian Pei, Yanmin Lu, Haipeng Liu, Xiaojie Hou, Huiqin Ma, Marzio Zapparoli
The centipede subgenus Lithobius (Ezembius) Chamberlin, 1919 comprises a group of about 60 species known from the Near East across Siberia and Central Asia to China, and Japan, and Southwards into the Northern Indian subcontinent and the Northern part of the Oriental region (Eason 1992, Zapparoli 1999). It is also known from Alaska in Western North America (Zapparoli & Edgecombe 2011). Although the subgenus was formally proposed as new and described in 1923 (Chamberlin 1923), according to Jeekel (2005) its name had been already validated in 1919 (Chamberlin 1919)...
September 20, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697042/animal-venom-peptides-potential-for-new-antimicrobial-agents
#5
Muriel Primon-Barros, Alexandre José Macedo
Microbial infections affect people worldwide, causing diseases with significant impact on public health, indicating the need for research and development of new antimicrobial agents. Animal venoms represent a vast and largely unexploited source of biologically active molecules with attractive candidates for the development of novel therapeutics. Venoms consist of complex mixtures of molecules, including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Since the discovery of AMPs, they have been studied as promising new antimicrobial drugs...
September 30, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671869/ultrastructure-of-the-salivary-glands-in-lithobius-forficatus-myriapoda-chilopoda-lithobiidae-according-to-seasonal-and-circadian-rhythms
#6
K Kamińska, A Włodarczyk, L Sonakowska, A Ostróżka, A Marchewka, M Rost-Roszkowska
The salivary glands (mandibular epidermal glands) of adult males and females of Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) were isolated during spring, summer and autumn. In addition, the organs were isolated at different times of the day - at about 12:00 (noon) and about 00:00 (midnight). The ultrastructure of these organs depending on seasonal and circadian rhythms was analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histochemical methods. The paired salivary glands of L. forficatus are situated in the vicinity of the foregut and they are formed by numerous acini that are surrounded by the fat body, hemocytes and tracheolae...
November 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639275/understanding-biological-roles-of-venoms-among-the-caenophidia-the-importance-of-rear-fanged-snakes
#7
Stephen P Mackessy, Anthony J Saviola
Snake venoms represent an adaptive trophic response to the challenges confronting a limbless predator for overcoming combative prey, and this chemical means of subduing prey shows several dominant phenotypes. Many front-fanged snakes, particularly vipers, feed on various vertebrate and invertebrate prey species, and some of their venom components (e.g., metalloproteinases, cobratoxin) appear to have been selected for "broad-brush" incapacitation of different prey taxa. Using proteomic and genomic techniques, the compositional diversity of front-fanged snakes is becoming well characterized; however, this is not the case for most rear-fanged colubroid snakes...
November 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622459/self-assembled-dna-nanocentipede-as-multivalent-drug-carrier-for-targeted-delivery
#8
Wenshan Li, Xiaohai Yang, Leiliang He, Kemin Wang, Qing Wang, Jin Huang, Jianbo Liu, Bin Wu, Congcong Xu
An idea drug carrier, with good binding affinity, selectivity, drug payload capacity, and cellular internalized capability, will greatly improve the efficiency of target delivery. Herein a self-assembled and multivalent DNA nanostructure was developed as drug carrier for efficient and targeted delivery. The DNA structure was similar to that of a centipede, composed of trunk and legs: The trunk was a self-assembled DNA scaffold via hybridization chain reaction (HCR) from two biotinylated hairpin monomers created upon initiation by a trigger DNA, and the legs were biotinylated aptamers conjugated to the trunk via streptavidin-biotin affinity interaction...
October 5, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615978/plateurytion-roigi-sp-nov-a-new-geophilid-centipede-myriapoda-chilopoda-geophilomorpha-from-southern-chile
#9
Luis Alberto Pereira
Plateurytion roigi sp. nov. (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Geophilidae) is fully described and illustrated from the holotype female from southern Chile (Region X (de Los Lagos region): Palena province). The new species seems particularly similar to P. gracilis (Gervais, 1849) (from Chile and Argentina), to which it is accordingly compared in detail for a confident identification. This is the sixth report of a species of the genus Plateurytion Attems, 1909, from Chile. The others are P. gracilis (Gervais, 1849); P...
2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611363/centipede-venoms-as-a-source-of-drug-leads
#10
Eivind A B Undheim, Ronald A Jenner, Glenn F King
INTRODUCTION: Centipedes are one of the oldest and most successful lineages of venomous terrestrial predators. Despite their use for centuries in traditional medicine, centipede venoms remain poorly studied. However, recent work indicates that centipede venoms are highly complex chemical arsenals that are rich in disulfide-constrained peptides that have novel pharmacology and three-dimensional structure. AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes what is currently known about centipede venom proteins, with a focus on disulfide-rich peptides that have novel or unexpected pharmacology that might be useful from a therapeutic perspective...
September 9, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604222/evolutionary-dynamics-of-abundant-stop-codon-readthrough
#11
Irwin Jungreis, Clara S Chan, Robert M Waterhouse, Gabriel Fields, Michael F Lin, Manolis Kellis
Translational stop codon readthrough emerged as a major regulatory mechanism affecting hundreds of genes in animal genomes, based on recent comparative genomics and ribosomal profiling evidence, but its evolutionary properties remain unknown. Here, we leverage comparative genomic evidence across 21 Anopheles mosquitoes to systematically annotate readthrough genes in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, and to provide the first study of abundant readthrough evolution, by comparison with 20 Drosophila species...
December 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602602/assembly-of-branched-colloidal-nanocrystals-in-polymer-films-leads-to-enhanced-viscous-deformation-resistance
#12
Milena P Arciniegas, Andrea Castelli, Luca Ceseracciu, Paolo Bianchini, Sergio Marras, Rosaria Brescia, Liberato Manna
Progress in the integration of nanocrystals with polymers has enabled the creation of materials for applications ranging from photovoltaics to biosensing. However, controlling the nanocrystal segregation and aggregation in the polymer phase remains a challenging task, especially because nanocrystals tend to form amorphous clusters inside the polymer matrix. Here, we present the ability of octapod-shaped particles to overcome their strong entropy-driven tendency to aggregate disorderly and form instead centipede-like linear arrays that are randomly oriented and fully embedded in polystyrene films upon controlled solvent evaporation...
October 12, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567703/involvement-of-mast-cells-and-histamine-in-edema-induced-in-mice-by-scolopendra-viridicornis-centipede-venom
#13
Bianca C L F Távora, Louise F Kimura, Marta M Antoniazzi, Thiago M Chiariello, Eliana L Faquim-Mauro, Katia C Barbaro
Bites caused by Scolopendra viridicornis centipede are mainly characterized by burning pain, paresthesia and edema. On this regard, the aim of this work was to study the involvement of mast cells and histamine in edema induced by Scolopendra viridicornis (Sv) centipede venom. The edema was analyzed on mice paws. The mice were pretreated with cromolyn (mast cell degranulation inhibitor) and antagonists of histamine receptors, such as promethazine (H1R), cimetidine (H2R) and thioperamide (H3/H4R). The analyses were carried out at different times after the injection of Sv venom (15 μg) or PBS in the footpad of mice...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551212/the-first-geophilid-centipedes-from-malesia-a-new-genus-with-two-new-species-from-sumatra-chilopoda-geophilidae
#14
Lucio Bonato, Bernhard Klarner, Rahayu Widyastuti, Stefan Scheu
A new genus Sundageophilus is here described for two new species of geophilid centipedes (Chilopoda: Geophilidae) from Sumatra, Indonesia. Both Sundageophilus bidentatus sp. n. and Sundageophilus poriger sp. n. feature a minute body size (less than 1 cm long with 31-35 pairs of legs), a similar structure of the maxillae, elongated forcipules, and few coxal organs. Sundageophilus bidentatus is unique among geophilids because the ultimate article of the forcipule is armed with two conspicuous denticles, one dorsal to the other, instead of a single one or none...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515618/scolopendromorpha-of-new-guinea-and-adjacent-islands-myriapoda-chilopoda
#15
Arkady A Schileyko, Pavel E Stoev
The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20<sup>th</sup> century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings...
2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470821/geophilus-pygmaeus-chilopoda-geophilidae-clarifying-morphology-variation-and-geographic-distribution
#16
Emiliano Peretti, Lucio Bonato
The European centipede Geophilus pygmaeus (Chilopoda: Geophilidae) has been known since 1880. It has been repeatedly reported since then and its validity has never been questioned. Nevertheless, a complete description of the species and an unambiguous diagnosis are still lacking. Based on the examination of one of the syntypes and > 110 specimens from 28 other localities, we provide here a full description and illustration of the morphology of G. pygmaeus and a revised and updated overview of the geographic range of the species...
2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451089/lacrain-the-first-antimicrobial-peptide-from-the-body-extract-of-the-brazilian-centipede-scolopendra-viridicornis
#17
E Chaparro, P I da Silva
Antimicrobial activities have previously been described by traditional Eastern medicine in Chilopoda body extracts, but until now no bioactive peptides have been described. In this study, a novel antimicrobial peptide, lacrain, was isolated from the body extract of the Brazilian Chilopoda Scolopendra viridicornis. The peptide was isolated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Its activity was tested using a liquid growth inhibition assay and the peptide was characterised using mass spectrometry...
September 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444746/advantage-of-straight-walk-instability-in-turning-maneuver-of-multilegged-locomotion-a-robotics-approach
#18
Shinya Aoi, Takahiro Tanaka, Soichiro Fujiki, Tetsuro Funato, Kei Senda, Kazuo Tsuchiya
Multilegged locomotion improves the mobility of terrestrial animals and artifacts. Using many legs has advantages, such as the ability to avoid falling and to tolerate leg malfunction. However, many intrinsic degrees of freedom make the motion planning and control difficult, and many contact legs can impede the maneuverability during locomotion. The underlying mechanism for generating agile locomotion using many legs remains unclear from biological and engineering viewpoints. The present study used a centipede-like multilegged robot composed of six body segments and twelve legs...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408540/a-taxonomic-review-of-the-centipede-genus-scolopendra-linnaeus-1758-scolopendromorpha-scolopendridae-in-mainland-southeast-asia-with-description-of-a-new-species-from-laos
#19
Warut Siriwut, Gregory D Edgecombe, Chirasak Sutcharit, Piyoros Tongkerd, Somsak Panha
The centipede genus Scolopendra in mainland Southeast Asia is reviewed taxonomically based on morphological characters, informed by a molecular phylogenetic analysis using sequences from three mitochondrial and nuclear genes (COI, 16S rRNA and 28S rRNA). Eight nominal species of Scolopendra, namely Scolopendra morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1816, Scolopendra dehaani Brandt, 1840, Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844, Scolopendra calcarata Porat, 1876, Scolopendra japonica Koch, 1878, Scolopendra pinguis Pocock, 1891, and Scolopendra dawydoffi Kronmüller, 2012, are redescribed together with some revision of type materials...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395899/out-of-africa-the-first-introduced-african-geophilomorph-centipede-record-from-a-european-greenhouse-chilopoda-geophilidae
#20
László Dányi, Ivan Hadrián Tuf
In Europe, 184 species of Geophilomorpha are recognised (Bonato & Minelli 2014) of which eight are evaluated as alien to the region (Stoev et al. 2010, Decker et al. 2014). Four of these have been reported from greenhouses exclusively: Mecistocephalus guildingii Newport, 1843, Mecistocephalus maxillaris (Gervais, 1837), Tygarrup javanicus Attems, 1929 and Pectiniunguis pauperatus Silvestri, 1907. In this paper, we report another species, Polygonarea silvicola Lawrence, 1955, which is the first Geophilomorpha species of unambiguous African origin in Europe...
2016: Zootaxa
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