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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411932/arthropod-envenomation-in-north-america
#1
REVIEW
Timothy B Erickson, Navneet Cheema
Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Arthropods are also nocturnal and often bite unsuspecting victims while they are sleeping. Encounters with humans are generally defensive, accidental, or reactive...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302585/development-and-evolution-of-segmentation-assessed-by-geometric-morphometrics-the-centipede-strigamia-maritima-as-a-case-study
#2
Yoland Savriama, Sylvain Gerber, Matteo Baiocco, Vincent Debat, Giuseppe Fusco
Using the centipede model species Strigamia maritima as a subject of study, we illustrate the potential of geometric morphometrics for investigating the development and evolution of segmentation, with a specific focus on post-embryonic segmental patterning. We show how these techniques can contribute detailed descriptive data for comparative purposes, but also precious information on some features of the developmental system that are considered relevant for the evolvability of a segmented body architecture, such as developmental stability and canalization...
May 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247497/centipede-venom-peptide-ssmtx-i-with-two-intramolecular-disulfide-bonds-shows-analgesic-activities-in-animal-models
#3
Ying Wang, Xiaojie Li, Meifeng Yang, Chunyun Wu, Zhirong Zou, Jing Tang, Xinwang Yang
Pain is a major symptom of many diseases and results in enormous pressures on human body or society. Currently, clinically used analgesic drugs, including opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, have adverse reactions, and thus, the development of new types of analgesic drug candidates is urgently needed. Animal venom peptides have proven to have potential as new types of analgesic medicine. In this research, we describe the isolation and characterization of an analgesic peptide from the crude venom of centipede, Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242227/insects-arachnids-and-centipedes-venom-a-powerful-weapon-against-bacteria-a-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
Filippo Fratini, Giovanni Cilia, Barbara Turchi, Antonio Felicioli
Currently, new antimicrobial molecules extracted or obtained by natural sources, could be a valide alternative to traditional antibiotics. Most of these molecules are represented by antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are essential compounds of insect, arachnids and centipedes venom. AMPs, due to their strong effectiveness, low resistance rates and peculiar mode of action, seem to have all the suitable features to be a powerful weapon against several bacteria, especially considering the increasing antibiotic-resistance phenomena...
May 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152103/decentralized-control-scheme-for-myriapod-robot-inspired-by-adaptive-and-resilient-centipede-locomotion
#5
Kotaro Yasui, Kazuhiko Sakai, Takeshi Kano, Dai Owaki, Akio Ishiguro
Recently, myriapods have attracted the attention of engineers because mobile robots that mimic them potentially have the capability of producing highly stable, adaptive, and resilient behaviors. The major challenge here is to develop a control scheme that can coordinate their numerous legs in real time, and an autonomous decentralized control could be the key to solve this problem. Therefore, we focus on real centipedes and aim to design a decentralized control scheme for myriapod robots by drawing inspiration from behavioral experiments on centipede locomotion under unusual conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089338/lymphangitis-from-scolopendra-heros-envenomation-the-texas-redheaded-centipede
#6
Shannon E Essler, Maneesha Julakanti, Andrew L Juergens
Envenomation by Scolopendra heros, the Texas redheaded centipede, can present variably. Although transient pain and erythema are often treated conservatively, complications may include cellulitis, necrosis, myocardial infarction, and rhabdomyolysis. We present a case of an elderly man who came to the emergency department with lymphangitis and dermatitis secondary to a centipede sting that awoke him from sleep. It is important to recognize the potential of centipede envenomation to have severe local and systemic manifestations...
January 11, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025226/response-of-pemphigus-betae-hemiptera-aphididae-and-beneficial-epigeal-arthropod-communities-to-sugarbeet-plant-density-and-seed-applied-insecticide-in-western-nebraska
#7
R J Pretorius, G L Hein, E E Blankenship, F F Purrington, J D Bradshaw
This study investigated the impact of a neonicotinoid seed-applied insecticide (Poncho Beta) and two plant densities (86,487 and 61,776 plants per hectare) on the sugarbeet root aphid (Pemphigus betae Doane), beneficial epigeal arthropods, and selected crop yield parameters in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L. var. vulgaris). Ground beetles and centipedes were the most commonly collected taxa during 2012 and 2013, respectively. Centipede, spider, and rove beetle activity densities were not affected by the seed-applied insecticide, whereas plant density had a marginal effect on centipede activity density during 2012...
February 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008133/scolopendin-an-antimicrobial-peptide-from-centipede-attenuates-mitochondrial-functions-and-triggers-apoptosis-in-candida-albicans
#8
Heejeong Lee, Jae-Sam Hwang, Dong Gun Lee
Centipedes, a type of arthropod, reportedly produce antimicrobial peptides as part of an innate immune response. Scolopendin (SPSEKAGLQPVGRIGRMLKK) is a novel antimicrobial peptide derived from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans Many antifungal agents have more than one type of cell death mechanism. Although scolopendin is involved in membrane perturbation, the corresponding intracellular changes require further investigation. Therefore, we assessed the cell morphology and calcium ion concentration of the cytosol and mitochondria of scolopendin-treated cells...
February 20, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896920/fusion-of-ssm6a-with-a-protein-scaffold-retains-selectivity-on-nav-1-7-and-improves-its-therapeutic-potential-against%C3%A2-chronic-pain
#9
Chuan Wang, Bin Shan, Qiong Wang, Qunyuan Xu, Hailin Zhang, Huimeng Lei
Voltage-gated sodium channel NaV 1.7 serves as an attractive target for chronic pain treatment. Several venom peptides were found to selectively inhibit NaV 1.7 but with intrinsic problems. Among them, Ssm6a, a recently discovered centipede venom peptide, shows the greatest selectivity against NaV 1.7, but dissociates from the target too fast and loses bioactivity in synthetic forms. As a disulfide-rich venom peptide, it is difficult to optimize Ssm6a by artificial mutagenesis and produce the peptide with common industrial manufacturing methods...
November 29, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780954/antimicrobial-activity-of-the-scolopendrasin-v-peptide-identified-from-the-centipede-scolopendra-subspinipes-mutilans
#10
Joon Ha Lee, In-Woo Kim, Mi-Ae Kim, Mi-Young Ahn, Eun-Young Yun, Jae Sam Hwang
In a previous study, we analyzed the transcriptome of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans using next generation sequencing technology and identified several antimicrobial peptide candidates. One of peptides, scolopendrasin V, was selected based on the physicochemical properties of antimicrobial peptides using a bioinformatics strategy. In this study, we assessed the antimicrobial activities of scolopendrasin V by using radial diffusion assay and colony count assay. We also investigated the mode of action of scolopendrasin V using flow cytometry...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770928/in-situ-chitin-isolation-from-body-parts-of-a-centipede-and-lysozyme-adsorption-studies
#11
Esra Bulut, Idris Sargin, Ozlem Arslan, Mehmet Odabasi, Bahar Akyuz, Murat Kaya
Isolation of structurally intact chitin samples for biotechnological applications has gained much recent attention. So far, three-dimensional chitin isolates have been obtained from only diplopods and sponges. In this study, three-dimensional chitin isolates were obtained from the body parts of centipede Scolopendra sp. (antennae, head, forcipule, collum, trunk, trunk legs and last pair of legs) without leading to structural failure. FT-IR spectra of chitin isolates confirmed that chitin samples are in α allomorph...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701308/lithobius-ezembius-multispinipes-n-sp-a-new-species-of-centipede-from-northwest-china-lithobiomorpha-lithobiidae
#12
Sujian Pei, Yanmin Lu, Haipeng Liu, Xiaojie Hou, Huiqin Ma, Marzio Zapparoli
The centipede subgenus Lithobius (Ezembius) Chamberlin, 1919 comprises a group of about 60 species known from the Near East across Siberia and Central Asia to China, and Japan, and Southwards into the Northern Indian subcontinent and the Northern part of the Oriental region (Eason 1992, Zapparoli 1999). It is also known from Alaska in Western North America (Zapparoli & Edgecombe 2011). Although the subgenus was formally proposed as new and described in 1923 (Chamberlin 1923), according to Jeekel (2005) its name had been already validated in 1919 (Chamberlin 1919)...
September 20, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697042/animal-venom-peptides-potential-for-new-antimicrobial-agents
#13
REVIEW
Muriel Primon-Barros, Alexandre José Macedo
Microbial infections affect people worldwide, causing diseases with significant impact on public health, indicating the need for research and development of new antimicrobial agents. Animal venoms represent a vast and largely unexploited source of biologically active molecules with attractive candidates for the development of novel therapeutics. Venoms consist of complex mixtures of molecules, including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Since the discovery of AMPs, they have been studied as promising new antimicrobial drugs...
2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671869/ultrastructure-of-the-salivary-glands-in-lithobius-forficatus-myriapoda-chilopoda-lithobiidae-according-to-seasonal-and-circadian-rhythms
#14
K Kamińska, A Włodarczyk, L Sonakowska, A Ostróżka, A Marchewka, M Rost-Roszkowska
The salivary glands (mandibular epidermal glands) of adult males and females of Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) were isolated during spring, summer and autumn. In addition, the organs were isolated at different times of the day - at about 12:00 (noon) and about 00:00 (midnight). The ultrastructure of these organs depending on seasonal and circadian rhythms was analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histochemical methods. The paired salivary glands of L. forficatus are situated in the vicinity of the foregut and they are formed by numerous acini that are surrounded by the fat body, hemocytes and tracheolae...
November 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639275/understanding-biological-roles-of-venoms-among-the-caenophidia-the-importance-of-rear-fanged-snakes
#15
Stephen P Mackessy, Anthony J Saviola
Snake venoms represent an adaptive trophic response to the challenges confronting a limbless predator for overcoming combative prey, and this chemical means of subduing prey shows several dominant phenotypes. Many front-fanged snakes, particularly vipers, feed on various vertebrate and invertebrate prey species, and some of their venom components (e.g., metalloproteinases, cobratoxin) appear to have been selected for "broad-brush" incapacitation of different prey taxa. Using proteomic and genomic techniques, the compositional diversity of front-fanged snakes is becoming well characterized; however, this is not the case for most rear-fanged colubroid snakes...
November 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622459/self-assembled-dna-nanocentipede-as-multivalent-drug-carrier-for-targeted-delivery
#16
Wenshan Li, Xiaohai Yang, Leiliang He, Kemin Wang, Qing Wang, Jin Huang, Jianbo Liu, Bin Wu, Congcong Xu
An idea drug carrier, with good binding affinity, selectivity, drug payload capacity, and cellular internalized capability, will greatly improve the efficiency of target delivery. Herein a self-assembled and multivalent DNA nanostructure was developed as drug carrier for efficient and targeted delivery. The DNA structure was similar to that of a centipede, composed of trunk and legs: The trunk was a self-assembled DNA scaffold via hybridization chain reaction (HCR) from two biotinylated hairpin monomers created upon initiation by a trigger DNA, and the legs were biotinylated aptamers conjugated to the trunk via streptavidin-biotin affinity interaction...
October 5, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615978/plateurytion-roigi-sp-nov-a-new-geophilid-centipede-myriapoda-chilopoda-geophilomorpha-from-southern-chile
#17
Luis Alberto Pereira
Plateurytion roigi sp. nov. (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Geophilidae) is fully described and illustrated from the holotype female from southern Chile (Region X (de Los Lagos region): Palena province). The new species seems particularly similar to P. gracilis (Gervais, 1849) (from Chile and Argentina), to which it is accordingly compared in detail for a confident identification. This is the sixth report of a species of the genus Plateurytion Attems, 1909, from Chile. The others are P. gracilis (Gervais, 1849); P...
September 9, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611363/centipede-venoms-as-a-source-of-drug-leads
#18
Eivind A B Undheim, Ronald A Jenner, Glenn F King
INTRODUCTION: Centipedes are one of the oldest and most successful lineages of venomous terrestrial predators. Despite their use for centuries in traditional medicine, centipede venoms remain poorly studied. However, recent work indicates that centipede venoms are highly complex chemical arsenals that are rich in disulfide-constrained peptides that have novel pharmacology and three-dimensional structure. AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes what is currently known about centipede venom proteins, with a focus on disulfide-rich peptides that have novel or unexpected pharmacology that might be useful from a therapeutic perspective...
September 9, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604222/evolutionary-dynamics-of-abundant-stop-codon-readthrough
#19
Irwin Jungreis, Clara S Chan, Robert M Waterhouse, Gabriel Fields, Michael F Lin, Manolis Kellis
Translational stop codon readthrough emerged as a major regulatory mechanism affecting hundreds of genes in animal genomes, based on recent comparative genomics and ribosomal profiling evidence, but its evolutionary properties remain unknown. Here, we leverage comparative genomic evidence across 21 Anopheles mosquitoes to systematically annotate readthrough genes in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, and to provide the first study of abundant readthrough evolution, by comparison with 20 Drosophila species...
December 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602602/assembly-of-branched-colloidal-nanocrystals-in-polymer-films-leads-to-enhanced-viscous-deformation-resistance
#20
Milena P Arciniegas, Andrea Castelli, Luca Ceseracciu, Paolo Bianchini, Sergio Marras, Rosaria Brescia, Liberato Manna
Progress in the integration of nanocrystals with polymers has enabled the creation of materials for applications ranging from photovoltaics to biosensing. However, controlling the nanocrystal segregation and aggregation in the polymer phase remains a challenging task, especially because nanocrystals tend to form amorphous clusters inside the polymer matrix. Here, we present the ability of octapod-shaped particles to overcome their strong entropy-driven tendency to aggregate disorderly and form instead centipede-like linear arrays that are randomly oriented and fully embedded in polystyrene films upon controlled solvent evaporation...
October 12, 2016: Nano Letters
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