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Jui-Lung Chao, Kwen-Shen Lee, Hsueh-Wen Chang
Lithobius (Monotarsobius) meifengensis sp. n. occurring at Mei-Feng Farm, Highland Experimental Farm of National Taiwan University, Nantou, Taiwan, is characterised by a male secondary sexual character on leg 15, a very large ventral swelling occupying almost 50% of the ventral surface of the femur; the gently curved apical region bearing approximately 20 short setae and numerous very small pores of flexo-canal epidermal glands. This male secondary sexual character is described for the first time in the genus Lithobius ...
2018: ZooKeys
Amazonas Chagas-Jr, Maria Elina Bichuette
This study revises centipede fauna found in Brazilian caves, focusing on troglomorphic taxa and emphasizing conservation status. We present 563 centipede specimens from 274 caves across eleven Brazilian states. Of these, 22 records were derived from existing literature and 252 are newly collected. Specimens represent four orders, ten families, 18 genera, and 47 morphospecies. Together, the cave records represent 21 % of Brazil's centipede fauna. Scolopendromorpha was the most representative order (41 %), followed by Geophilomorpha (26 %), Scutigeromorpha (23 %), and Lithobiomorpha (10 %)...
2018: ZooKeys
Weili Yan, Jia Lu, Guiting Li, Huiyuan Wei, Wen-H Ua Ren
This study aimed to investigate the effect of Scolopin-2, a cationic antimicrobial peptide from centipede venoms, and amidated Scolopin-2 on Hela cell viability in vitro and in vivo. The cellular proliferation was investigated with MTT assay. Confocal laser scanning, flow cytometry, and Western Blot analysis were employed to localize Scolopin-2-NH2 in Hela cells and to study the caused cells apoptosis. We subcutaneously (s.c.) injected Hela cells into BALB/c nude mice and studied if Scolopin-2-NH2 suppressed tumor growth in the mice...
April 12, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Małgorzata Leśniewska, Filip Skwierczyński
The study was carried out in the years 2016-2017, five years after a windstorm which destroyed 1/3 of the protected beech forest area in the west of Poland. The community of centipedes in the area affected by the windstorm was depleted in terms of the species richness, diversity, and population density. The dominance structures were shortened and the species composition was rebuilt. The areas that proved to be the richest in terms of species richness and diversity among the sites affected by the windstorm were the one where windfallen trees were left and the other where beech trees had been planted by humans...
2018: Biologia
Eva M Krockow, Andrew M Colman, Briony D Pulford
Experimental games have previously been used to study principles of human interaction. Many such games are characterized by iterated or repeated designs that model dynamic relationships, including reciprocal cooperation. To enable the study of infinite game repetitions and to avoid endgame effects of lower cooperation toward the final game round, investigators have introduced random termination rules. This study extends previous research that has focused narrowly on repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games by conducting a controlled experiment of two-player, random termination Centipede games involving probabilistic reinforcement and characterized by the longest decision sequences reported in the empirical literature to date (24 decision nodes)...
March 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Steve Peigneur, Jan Tytgat
Venoms from marine and terrestrial animals (cone snails, scorpions, spiders, snakes, centipedes, cnidarian, etc.) can be seen as an untapped cocktail of biologically active compounds, being increasingly recognized as a new emerging source of peptide-based therapeutics.
March 16, 2018: Toxins
Senanayake A M Kularatne, Seyed Shahmy, Shantha S Rathnayake, Andrew H Dawson
OBJECTIVE: Arthropod stinging and bites are common environmental hazards in Sri Lanka. However, their medical importance has not been fully evaluated yet. This study aims to study the burden, epidemiology, and outcome of stings and bites in primary hospitals in the Kurunegala district in North Western Province (NWP) of Sri Lanka. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted one year from 25th May 2013 to 25th May 2014. Details of all stings and bites admissions and their outcomes were retrospectively extracted from hospital records in all 44 primary hospitals in the district...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Jennifer J Smith, Eivind A B Undheim
Centipede venoms have emerged as a rich source of novel bioactive compounds. However, most centipede species are commonly considered too small for venom extraction and transcriptomics is likely to be an attractive way of probing the molecular diversity of these venoms. Examining the venom composition of Scolopendra subspinipes , we test the accuracy of this approach. We compared the proteomically determined venom profile with four common toxin transcriptomic toxin annotation approaches: BLAST search against toxins in UniProt, lineage-specific toxins, or species-specific toxins and comparative expression analyses of venom and non-venom producing tissues...
February 28, 2018: Toxins
Guang Sun, Wanying Xing, Ren Xing, Liu Cong, Sun Tong, Siyao Yu
The aim of the present study was to develop a water-soluble biomarker for the detection of breast cancer using quantum dots (QDs) conjugated to Ki-67, a nuclear protein associated with the cell cycle. Ki-67 is also a marker of cell proliferation, with expression levels categorizing good and poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer. Ki-67 is a clinically used biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Owing to the optical and chemical advantages of QDs, QD-based nanotechnology may aid the construction of a biomedical imaging platform for the study of cancer cell behavior...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Lei Luo, Bowen Li, Sheng Wang, Fangming Wu, Xiaochen Wang, Ping Liang, Rose Ombati, Junji Chen, Xiancui Lu, Jianmin Cui, Qiumin Lu, Longhua Zhang, Ming Zhou, Changlin Tian, Shilong Yang, Ren Lai
Centipedes can subdue giant prey by using venom, which is metabolically expensive to synthesize and thus used frugally through efficiently disrupting essential physiological systems. Here, we show that a centipede ( Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans , ∼3 g) can subdue a mouse (∼45 g) within 30 seconds. We found that this observation is largely due to a peptide toxin in the venom, SsTx, and further established that SsTx blocks KCNQ potassium channels to exert the lethal toxicity. We also demonstrated that a KCNQ opener, retigabine, neutralizes the toxicity of a centipede's venom...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zhe Qu, William G Bendena, Stephen S Tobe, Jerome H L Hui
Arthropod molting and reproduction are precisely controlled by the levels of sesquiterpenoids, a class of C15 hormones derived from three isoprene units. The two major functional arthropod sesquiterpenoids are juvenile hormone (JH) and methyl farnesoate (MF). In hemimetabolous insects (such as the aphids, bugs, and cockroaches) and holometabolous insects (such as beetles, bees, butterflies, and flies), dramatic decrease in the titers of JH and/or MF promote metamorphosis from larvae to adults either directly or through an intermediate pupal stage, respectively...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Feng Zhao, Xinqiang Lan, Tao Li, Yang Xiang, Fang Zhao, Yun Zhang, Wen-Hui Lee
Centipedes are one of the oldest venomous animals and use their venoms as weapons to attack prey or protect themselves. Their venoms contain various components with different biomedical and pharmacological properties. However, little attention has been paid to the profiles and diversity of their toxin-like proteins/peptides. In this study, we used a proteotranscriptomic approach to uncover the diversity of centipede toxin-like proteins in Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans Nine hundred twenty-three and 6,736 peptides, which were separately isolated from venom and torso tissues, respectively, were identified by ESI-MS/MS and deduced from their transcriptomes...
April 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Rosa Fernández, Gregory D Edgecombe, Gonzalo Giribet
The interrelationships of the four classes of Myriapoda have been an unresolved question in arthropod phylogenetics and an example of conflict between morphology and molecules. Morphology and development provide compelling support for Diplopoda (millipedes) and Pauropoda being closest relatives, and moderate support for Symphyla being more closely related to the diplopod-pauropod group than any of them are to Chilopoda (centipedes). In contrast, several molecular datasets have contradicted the Diplopoda-Pauropoda grouping (named Dignatha), often recovering a Symphyla-Pauropoda group (named Edafopoda)...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhe Qu, William G Bendena, Wenyan Nong, Kenneth W Siggens, Fernando G Noriega, Zhen-Peng Kai, Yang-Yang Zang, Alex C Koon, Ho Yin Edwin Chan, Ting Fung Chan, Ka Hou Chu, Hon Ming Lam, Michael Akam, Stephen S Tobe, Jerome Ho Lam Hui
Arthropods comprise the majority of all described animal species, and understanding their evolution is a central question in biology. Their developmental processes are under the precise control of distinct hormonal regulators, including the sesquiterpenoids juvenile hormone (JH) and methyl farnesoate. The control of the synthesis and mode of action of these hormones played important roles in the evolution of arthropods and their adaptation to diverse habitats. However, the precise roles of non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), controlling arthropod hormonal pathways are unknown...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Sihe Kang, Yimei Liu, Xiaoxuan Zeng, Haiying Deng, Ying Luo, Keli Chen, Shilin Chen
The centipede Scolopendra has important medicinal value and high toxicity, making it to be an interesting subject for evolutionary studies. However, species identification in China is difficult because of limited resource exploration and lack of recent taxonomic revision. To improve the identification and taxonomy of the genus Scolopendra in China, an in-depth investigation was conducted, and an integrated method that combined morphological characteristics with molecular data was applied. The identification key was revised to show the main difference among species...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Matthes Kenning, Carsten H G Müller, Andy Sombke
The arthropodium is the key innovation of arthropods. Its various modifications are the outcome of multiple evolutionary transformations, and the foundation of nearly endless functional possibilities. In contrast to hexapods, crustaceans, and even chelicerates, the spectrum of evolutionary transformations of myriapod arthropodia is insufficiently documented and rarely scrutinized. Among Myriapoda, Chilopoda (centipedes) are characterized by their venomous forcipules-evolutionarily transformed walking legs of the first trunk segment...
2017: PeerJ
Nesrine Akkari, Ana Komerički, Alexander M Weigand, Gregory D Edgecombe, Pavel Stoev
A new species of Eupolybothrus Verhoeff, 1907 discovered in caves of Velebit Mountain in Croatia is described. E. liburnicus sp. n. exhibits a few morphological differences from its most similar congeners, all of which are attributed to the subgenus Schizopolybothrus Verhoeff, 1934, and two approaches to species delimitation using the COI barcode region identify it as distinct from the closely allied E. cavernicolus Stoev & Komerički, 2013. E. spiniger (Latzel, 1888) is redescribed and a lectotype is designated for it as well as E...
2017: ZooKeys
Yannick Labreuche, Sabine Chenivesse, Alexandra Jeudy, Sophie Le Panse, Viviane Boulo, Dominique Ansquer, Sylvie Pagès, Alain Givaudan, Mirjam Czjzek, Frédérique Le Roux
The Tetraconata (Pancrustacea) concept proposes that insects are more closely related to aquatic crustaceans than to terrestrial centipedes or millipedes. The question therefore arises whether insects have kept crustacean-specific genetic traits that could be targeted by specific toxins. Here we show that a toxin (nigritoxin), originally identified in a bacterial pathogen of shrimp, is lethal for organisms within the Tetraconata and non-toxic to other animals. X-ray crystallography reveals that nigritoxin possesses a new protein fold of the α/β type...
November 1, 2017: Nature Communications
Vera S Hunnekuhl, Michael Akam
BACKGROUND: There have been few studies of head patterning in non-insect arthropods, and even in the insects, much is not yet understood. In the fly Drosophila three head gap genes, orthodenticle ( otd ), buttonhead ( btd ) and empty spiracles ( ems ) are essential for patterning the head. However, they do not act through the same pair-rule genes that pattern the trunk from the mandibular segment backwards. Instead they act through the downstream factors collier ( col ) and cap ' n ' collar ( cnc ), and presumably other unknown factors...
2017: EvoDevo
Yoo Jung Park, Hyung Sik Kim, Ha Young Lee, Jae Sam Hwang, Yoe-Sik Bae
In this study, we identified scolopendrasin X, a novel antimicrobial peptide (AMP), from centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans. Scolopendrasin X strongly stimulated mouse neutrophils, resulting in intracellular calcium increase, chemotactic migration through pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein and phospholipase C pathway, and increased superoxide anion production in neutrophils. Target receptor for scolopendrasin X, formyl peptide receptor (FPR)2 mediated scolopendrasin X-induced neutrophil activation...
December 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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