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Sujian Pei, Yanmin Lu, Haipeng Liu, Xiaojie Hou, Huiqin Ma, Marzio Zapparoli
The centipede subgenus Lithobius (Ezembius) Chamberlin, 1919 comprises a group of about 60 species known from the Near East across Siberia and Central Asia to China, and Japan, and Southwards into the Northern Indian subcontinent and the Northern part of the Oriental region (Eason 1992, Zapparoli 1999). It is also known from Alaska in Western North America (Zapparoli & Edgecombe 2011). Although the subgenus was formally proposed as new and described in 1923 (Chamberlin 1923), according to Jeekel (2005) its name had been already validated in 1919 (Chamberlin 1919)...
September 20, 2016: Zootaxa
Muriel Primon-Barros, Alexandre José Macedo
Microbial infections affect people worldwide, causing diseases with significant impact on public health, indicating the need for research and development of new antimicrobial agents. Animal venoms represent a vast and largely unexploited source of biologically active molecules with attractive candidates for the development of novel therapeutics. Venoms consist of complex mixtures of molecules, including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Since the discovery of AMPs, they have been studied as promising new antimicrobial drugs...
September 30, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
K Kamińska, A Włodarczyk, L Sonakowska, A Ostróżka, A Marchewka, M Rost-Roszkowska
The salivary glands (mandibular epidermal glands) of adult males and females of Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) were isolated during spring, summer and autumn. In addition, the organs were isolated at different times of the day - at about 12:00 (noon) and about 00:00 (midnight). The ultrastructure of these organs depending on seasonal and circadian rhythms was analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histochemical methods. The paired salivary glands of L. forficatus are situated in the vicinity of the foregut and they are formed by numerous acini that are surrounded by the fat body, hemocytes and tracheolae...
October 7, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Stephen P Mackessy, Anthony J Saviola
Snake venoms represent an adaptive trophic response to the challenges confronting a limbless predator for overcoming combative prey, and this chemical means of subduing prey shows several dominant phenotypes. Many front-fanged snakes, particularly vipers, feed on various vertebrate and invertebrate prey species, and some of their venom components (e.g., metalloproteinases, cobratoxin) appear to have been selected for "broad-brush" incapacitation of different prey taxa. Using proteomic and genomic techniques, the compositional diversity of front-fanged snakes is becoming well characterized; however, this is not the case for most rear-fanged colubroid snakes...
September 17, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Wenshan Li, Xiaohai Yang, Leiliang He, Kemin Wang, Qing Wang, Jin Huang, Jianbo Liu, Bin Wu, Congcong Xu
An idea drug carrier, with good binding affinity, selectivity, drug payload capacity, and cellular internalized capability, will greatly improve the efficiency of target delivery. Herein a self-assembled and multivalent DNA nanostructure was developed as drug carrier for efficient and targeted delivery. The DNA structure was similar to that of a centipede, composed of trunk and legs: The trunk was a self-assembled DNA scaffold via hybridization chain reaction (HCR) from two biotinylated hairpin monomers created upon initiation by a trigger DNA, and the legs were biotinylated aptamers conjugated to the trunk via streptavidin-biotin affinity interaction...
October 5, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Luis Alberto Pereira
Plateurytion roigi sp. nov. (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Geophilidae) is fully described and illustrated from the holotype female from southern Chile (Region X (de Los Lagos region): Palena province). The new species seems particularly similar to P. gracilis (Gervais, 1849) (from Chile and Argentina), to which it is accordingly compared in detail for a confident identification. This is the sixth report of a species of the genus Plateurytion Attems, 1909, from Chile. The others are P. gracilis (Gervais, 1849); P...
2016: Zootaxa
Eivind A B Undheim, Ronald A Jenner, Glenn F King
INTRODUCTION: Centipedes are one of the oldest and most successful lineages of venomous terrestrial predators. Despite their use for centuries in traditional medicine, centipede venoms remain poorly studied. However, recent work indicates that centipede venoms are highly complex chemical arsenals that are rich in disulfide-constrained peptides that have novel pharmacology and three-dimensional structure. AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes what is currently known about centipede venom proteins, with a focus on disulfide-rich peptides that have novel or unexpected pharmacology that might be useful from a therapeutic perspective...
September 9, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Irwin Jungreis, Clara S Chan, Robert M Waterhouse, Gabriel Fields, Michael F Lin, Manolis Kellis
Translational stop codon readthrough emerged as a major regulatory mechanism affecting hundreds of genes in animal genomes, based on recent comparative genomics and ribosomal profiling evidence, but its evolutionary properties remain unknown. Here, we leverage comparative genomic evidence across 21 Anopheles mosquitoes to systematically annotate readthrough genes in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, and to provide the first study of abundant readthrough evolution, by comparison with 20 Drosophila species...
September 7, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Milena P Arciniegas, Andrea Castelli, Luca Ceseracciu, Paolo Bianchini, Sergio Marras, Rosaria Brescia, Liberato Manna
Progress in the integration of nanocrystals with polymers has enabled the creation of materials for applications ranging from photovoltaics to biosensing. However, controlling the nanocrystal segregation and aggregation in the polymer phase remains a challenging task, especially because nanocrystals tend to form amorphous clusters inside the polymer matrix. Here, we present the ability of octapod-shaped particles to overcome their strong entropy-driven tendency to aggregate disorderly and form instead centipede-like linear arrays that are randomly oriented and fully embedded in polystyrene films upon controlled solvent evaporation...
October 12, 2016: Nano Letters
Bianca C L F Távora, Louise F Kimura, Marta M Antoniazzi, Thiago M Chiariello, Eliana L Faquim-Mauro, Katia C Barbaro
Bites caused by Scolopendra viridicornis centipede are mainly characterized by burning pain, paresthesia and edema. On this regard, the aim of this work was to study the involvement of mast cells and histamine in edema induced by Scolopendra viridicornis (Sv) centipede venom. The edema was analyzed on mice paws. The mice were pretreated with cromolyn (mast cell degranulation inhibitor) and antagonists of histamine receptors, such as promethazine (H1R), cimetidine (H2R) and thioperamide (H3/H4R). The analyses were carried out at different times after the injection of Sv venom (15 μg) or PBS in the footpad of mice...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Lucio Bonato, Bernhard Klarner, Rahayu Widyastuti, Stefan Scheu
A new genus Sundageophilus is here described for two new species of geophilid centipedes (Chilopoda: Geophilidae) from Sumatra, Indonesia. Both Sundageophilus bidentatus sp. n. and Sundageophilus poriger sp. n. feature a minute body size (less than 1 cm long with 31-35 pairs of legs), a similar structure of the maxillae, elongated forcipules, and few coxal organs. Sundageophilus bidentatus is unique among geophilids because the ultimate article of the forcipule is armed with two conspicuous denticles, one dorsal to the other, instead of a single one or none...
2016: ZooKeys
Arkady A Schileyko, Pavel E Stoev
The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20<sup>th</sup> century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings...
2016: Zootaxa
Emiliano Peretti, Lucio Bonato
The European centipede Geophilus pygmaeus (Chilopoda: Geophilidae) has been known since 1880. It has been repeatedly reported since then and its validity has never been questioned. Nevertheless, a complete description of the species and an unambiguous diagnosis are still lacking. Based on the examination of one of the syntypes and > 110 specimens from 28 other localities, we provide here a full description and illustration of the morphology of G. pygmaeus and a revised and updated overview of the geographic range of the species...
2016: Zootaxa
E Chaparro, P I da Silva
Antimicrobial activities have previously been described by traditional Eastern medicine in Chilopoda body extracts, but until now no bioactive peptides have been described. In this study, a novel antimicrobial peptide, lacrain, was isolated from the body extract of the Brazilian Chilopoda Scolopendra viridicornis. The peptide was isolated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Its activity was tested using a liquid growth inhibition assay and the peptide was characterised using mass spectrometry...
September 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Shinya Aoi, Takahiro Tanaka, Soichiro Fujiki, Tetsuro Funato, Kei Senda, Kazuo Tsuchiya
Multilegged locomotion improves the mobility of terrestrial animals and artifacts. Using many legs has advantages, such as the ability to avoid falling and to tolerate leg malfunction. However, many intrinsic degrees of freedom make the motion planning and control difficult, and many contact legs can impede the maneuverability during locomotion. The underlying mechanism for generating agile locomotion using many legs remains unclear from biological and engineering viewpoints. The present study used a centipede-like multilegged robot composed of six body segments and twelve legs...
2016: Scientific Reports
Warut Siriwut, Gregory D Edgecombe, Chirasak Sutcharit, Piyoros Tongkerd, Somsak Panha
The centipede genus Scolopendra in mainland Southeast Asia is reviewed taxonomically based on morphological characters, informed by a molecular phylogenetic analysis using sequences from three mitochondrial and nuclear genes (COI, 16S rRNA and 28S rRNA). Eight nominal species of Scolopendra, namely Scolopendra morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1816, Scolopendra dehaani Brandt, 1840, Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844, Scolopendra calcarata Porat, 1876, Scolopendra japonica Koch, 1878, Scolopendra pinguis Pocock, 1891, and Scolopendra dawydoffi Kronmüller, 2012, are redescribed together with some revision of type materials...
2016: ZooKeys
László Dányi, Ivan Hadrián Tuf
In Europe, 184 species of Geophilomorpha are recognised (Bonato & Minelli 2014) of which eight are evaluated as alien to the region (Stoev et al. 2010, Decker et al. 2014). Four of these have been reported from greenhouses exclusively: Mecistocephalus guildingii Newport, 1843, Mecistocephalus maxillaris (Gervais, 1837), Tygarrup javanicus Attems, 1929 and Pectiniunguis pauperatus Silvestri, 1907. In this paper, we report another species, Polygonarea silvicola Lawrence, 1955, which is the first Geophilomorpha species of unambiguous African origin in Europe...
2016: Zootaxa
Stylianos Michail Simaiakis, Nesrine Akkari, Marzio Zapparoli
In this paper we summarize and critically revise the literature records of the centipedes of Peloponnisos in mainland Greece. Moreover, records on recently collected material in East Peloponnisos are included with a special focus on Mount Parnonas. Fifty centipede species are listed (1 Scutigeromorpha, 20 Lithobiomorpha, 6 Scolopendromorpha and 23 Geophilomorpha) belonging to 21 genera, 9 families and 4 orders. The species Eurygeophilus multistiliger (Verhoeff, 1899) is here reported for the first time not only from Greece but also from the East Mediterranean and the Balkan Peninsula...
2016: Zootaxa
Randy J Mercurio
Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood, 1862, and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure, 1860, from junior synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach, 1815, is proposed. A neotype specimen of Scolopendra longipes is designated. Scolopendra longipes has a restricted range from the Dry Tortugas up through the Florida Keys of Monroe County into the mainland Florida counties of Collier and Dade southeast to the Bahamas, while Scolopendra cubensis is endemic to Cuba. Characters distinguishing S. longipes, and S. cubensis from S...
2016: Zootaxa
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