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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434960/targeting-breast-cancer-cells-with-a-cuins2-zns-quantum-dot-labeled-ki-67-bioprobe
#1
Guang Sun, Wanying Xing, Ren Xing, Liu Cong, Sun Tong, Siyao Yu
The aim of the present study was to develop a water-soluble biomarker for the detection of breast cancer using quantum dots (QDs) conjugated to Ki-67, a nuclear protein associated with the cell cycle. Ki-67 is also a marker of cell proliferation, with expression levels categorizing good and poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer. Ki-67 is a clinically used biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Owing to the optical and chemical advantages of QDs, QD-based nanotechnology may aid the construction of a biomedical imaging platform for the study of cancer cell behavior...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358396/centipedes-subdue-giant-prey-by-blocking-kcnq-channels
#2
Lei Luo, Bowen Li, Sheng Wang, Fangming Wu, Xiaochen Wang, Ping Liang, Rose Ombati, Junji Chen, Xiancui Lu, Jianmin Cui, Qiumin Lu, Longhua Zhang, Ming Zhou, Changlin Tian, Shilong Yang, Ren Lai
Centipedes can subdue giant prey by using venom, which is metabolically expensive to synthesize and thus used frugally through efficiently disrupting essential physiological systems. Here, we show that a centipede (Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, ∼3 g) can subdue a mouse (∼45 g) within 30 seconds. We found that this observation is largely due to a peptide toxin in the venom, SsTx, and further established that SsTx blocks KCNQ potassium channels to exert the lethal toxicity. We also demonstrated that a KCNQ opener, retigabine, neutralizes the toxicity of a centipede's venom...
January 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355708/juvenile-hormone-and-sesquiterpenoids-in-arthropods-biosynthesis-signaling-and-role-of-microrna
#3
REVIEW
Zhe Qu, William G Bendena, Stephen S Tobe, Jerome H L Hui
Arthropod molting and reproduction are precisely controlled by the levels of sesquiterpenoids, a class of C15 hormones derived from three isoprene units. The two major functional arthropod sesquiterpenoids are juvenile hormone (JH) and methyl farnesoate (MF). In hemimetabolous insects (such as the aphids, bugs, and cockroaches) and holometabolous insects (such as beetles, bees, butterflies, and flies), dramatic decrease in the titers of JH and/or MF promote metamorphosis from larvae to adults either directly or through an intermediate pupal stage, respectively...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339413/proteotranscriptomic-analysis-and-discovery-of-the-profile-and-diversity-of-toxin-like-proteins-in-centipede
#4
Feng Zhao, Xinqiang Lan, Tao Li, Yang Xiang, Fang Zhao, Yun Zhang, Wenhui Lee
Centipedes are one of the oldest venomous animals and use their venoms as weapons to attack prey or protect themselves. Their venoms contain various components with different biomedical and pharmacological properties. However, little attention has been paid to the profiles and diversity of their toxin-like proteins/peptides. In this study, we used a proteotranscriptomic approach to uncover the diversity of centipede toxin-like proteins in Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans Nine hundred twenty-three and 6,736 peptides, which were separately isolated from venom and torso tissues, respectively, were identified by ESI-MS/MS and deduced from their transcriptomes...
January 16, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311682/phylogenomics-illuminates-the-backbone-of-the-myriapoda-tree-of-life-and-reconciles-morphological-and-molecular-phylogenies
#5
Rosa Fernández, Gregory D Edgecombe, Gonzalo Giribet
The interrelationships of the four classes of Myriapoda have been an unresolved question in arthropod phylogenetics and an example of conflict between morphology and molecules. Morphology and development provide compelling support for Diplopoda (millipedes) and Pauropoda being closest relatives, and moderate support for Symphyla being more closely related to the diplopod-pauropod group than any of them are to Chilopoda (centipedes). In contrast, several molecular datasets have contradicted the Diplopoda-Pauropoda grouping (named Dignatha), often recovering a Symphyla-Pauropoda group (named Edafopoda)...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237851/micrornas-regulate-the-sesquiterpenoid-hormonal-pathway-in-drosophila-and-other-arthropods
#6
Zhe Qu, William G Bendena, Wenyan Nong, Kenneth W Siggens, Fernando G Noriega, Zhen-Peng Kai, Yang-Yang Zang, Alex C Koon, Ho Yin Edwin Chan, Ting Fung Chan, Ka Hou Chu, Hon Ming Lam, Michael Akam, Stephen S Tobe, Jerome Ho Lam Hui
Arthropods comprise the majority of all described animal species, and understanding their evolution is a central question in biology. Their developmental processes are under the precise control of distinct hormonal regulators, including the sesquiterpenoids juvenile hormone (JH) and methyl farnesoate. The control of the synthesis and mode of action of these hormones played important roles in the evolution of arthropods and their adaptation to diverse habitats. However, the precise roles of non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), controlling arthropod hormonal pathways are unknown...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167482/taxonomy-and-identification-of-the-genus-scolopendra-in-china-using-integrated-methods-of-external-morphology-and-molecular-phylogenetics
#7
Sihe Kang, Yimei Liu, Xiaoxuan Zeng, Haiying Deng, Ying Luo, Keli Chen, Shilin Chen
The centipede Scolopendra has important medicinal value and high toxicity, making it to be an interesting subject for evolutionary studies. However, species identification in China is difficult because of limited resource exploration and lack of recent taxonomic revision. To improve the identification and taxonomy of the genus Scolopendra in China, an in-depth investigation was conducted, and an integrated method that combined morphological characteristics with molecular data was applied. The identification key was revised to show the main difference among species...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158971/the-ultimate-legs-of-chilopoda-myriapoda-a-review-on-their-morphological-disparity-and-functional-variability
#8
Matthes Kenning, Carsten H G Müller, Andy Sombke
The arthropodium is the key innovation of arthropods. Its various modifications are the outcome of multiple evolutionary transformations, and the foundation of nearly endless functional possibilities. In contrast to hexapods, crustaceans, and even chelicerates, the spectrum of evolutionary transformations of myriapod arthropodia is insufficiently documented and rarely scrutinized. Among Myriapoda, Chilopoda (centipedes) are characterized by their venomous forcipules-evolutionarily transformed walking legs of the first trunk segment...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114162/a-new-cave-centipede-from-croatia-eupolybothrus-liburnicus-sp-n-with-notes-on-the-subgenus-schizopolybothrus-verhoeff-1934-chilopoda-lithobiomorpha-lithobiidae
#9
Nesrine Akkari, Ana Komerički, Alexander M Weigand, Gregory D Edgecombe, Pavel Stoev
A new species of Eupolybothrus Verhoeff, 1907 discovered in caves of Velebit Mountain in Croatia is described. E. liburnicussp. n. exhibits a few morphological differences from its most similar congeners, all of which are attributed to the subgenus Schizopolybothrus Verhoeff, 1934, and two approaches to species delimitation using the COI barcode region identify it as distinct from the closely allied E. cavernicolus Stoev & Komerički, 2013. E. spiniger (Latzel, 1888) is redescribed and a lectotype is designated for it as well as E...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093459/nigritoxin-is-a-bacterial-toxin-for-crustaceans-and-insects
#10
Yannick Labreuche, Sabine Chenivesse, Alexandra Jeudy, Sophie Le Panse, Viviane Boulo, Dominique Ansquer, Sylvie Pagès, Alain Givaudan, Mirjam Czjzek, Frédérique Le Roux
The Tetraconata (Pancrustacea) concept proposes that insects are more closely related to aquatic crustaceans than to terrestrial centipedes or millipedes. The question therefore arises whether insects have kept crustacean-specific genetic traits that could be targeted by specific toxins. Here we show that a toxin (nigritoxin), originally identified in a bacterial pathogen of shrimp, is lethal for organisms within the Tetraconata and non-toxic to other animals. X-ray crystallography reveals that nigritoxin possesses a new protein fold of the α/β type...
November 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075435/formation-and-subdivision-of-the-head-field-in-the-centipede-strigamia-maritima-as-revealed-by-the-expression-of-head-gap-gene-orthologues-and-hedgehog-dynamics
#11
Vera S Hunnekuhl, Michael Akam
BACKGROUND: There have been few studies of head patterning in non-insect arthropods, and even in the insects, much is not yet understood. In the fly Drosophila three head gap genes, orthodenticle (otd), buttonhead (btd) and empty spiracles (ems) are essential for patterning the head. However, they do not act through the same pair-rule genes that pattern the trunk from the mandibular segment backwards. Instead they act through the downstream factors collier (col) and cap'n'collar (cnc), and presumably other unknown factors...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988115/a-novel-antimicrobial-peptide-isolated-from-centipede-scolopendra-subspinipes-mutilans-stimulates-neutrophil-activity-through-formyl-peptide-receptor-2
#12
Yoo Jung Park, Hyung Sik Kim, Ha Young Lee, Jae Sam Hwang, Yoe-Sik Bae
In this study, we identified scolopendrasin X, a novel antimicrobial peptide (AMP), from centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans. Scolopendrasin X strongly stimulated mouse neutrophils, resulting in intracellular calcium increase, chemotactic migration through pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein and phospholipase C pathway, and increased superoxide anion production in neutrophils. Target receptor for scolopendrasin X, formyl peptide receptor (FPR)2 mediated scolopendrasin X-induced neutrophil activation...
December 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941737/arthropod-toxins-acting-on-neuronal-potassium-channels
#13
REVIEW
Juana María Jiménez-Vargas, Lourival D Possani, Karen Luna-Ramírez
Arthropod venoms are a rich mixture of biologically active compounds exerting different physiological actions across diverse phyla and affecting multiple organ systems including the central nervous system. Venom compounds can inhibit or activate ion channels, receptors and transporters with high specificity and affinity providing essential insights into ion channel function. In this review, we focus on arthropod toxins (scorpions, spiders, bees and centipedes) acting on neuronal potassium channels. A brief description of the K(+) channels classification and structure is included and a compendium of neuronal K(+) channels and the arthropod toxins that modify them have been listed...
September 20, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769719/the-subgenus-monotarsobius-in-the-iberian-peninsula-with-a-description-of-a-new-pseudo-cryptic-species-from-northern-spain-revealed-by-an-integrative-revision-of-lithobius-crassipes-l-koch-1862-chilopoda-lithobiomorpha-lithobiidae
#14
Karin Voigtländer, Etienne Iorio, Peter Decker, Jörg Spelda
The widespread European centipede species Lithobius (Monotarsobius) crassipes L. Koch, 1862 was revised using an integrative approach incorporating sequence data and morphology. The partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding gene was amplified and sequenced for 21 individuals from northern Spain, France and Germany as well as for individuals of three other species of the subgenus Monotarsobius Verhoeff, 1905. The dataset was used for molecular phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance determination...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764892/expression-and-function-of-spineless-orthologs-correlate-with-distal-deutocerebral-appendage-morphology-across-arthropoda
#15
Emily V W Setton, Logan E March, Erik D Nolan, Tamsin E Jones, Holly Cho, Ward C Wheeler, Cassandra G Extavour, Prashant P Sharma
The deutocerebral (second) head segment is putatively homologous across Arthropoda, in spite of remarkable disparity of form and function of deutocerebral appendages. In Mandibulata this segment bears a pair of sensory antennae, whereas in Chelicerata the same segment bears a pair of feeding appendages called chelicerae. Part of the evidence for the homology of deutocerebral appendages is the conserved function of homothorax (hth), which has been shown to specify antennal or cheliceral fate in the absence of Hox signaling, in both mandibulate and chelicerate exemplars...
October 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763453/trophic-niches-diversity-and-community-composition-of-invertebrate-top-predators-chilopoda-as-affected-by-conversion-of-tropical-lowland-rainforest-in-sumatra-indonesia
#16
Bernhard Klarner, Helge Winkelmann, Valentyna Krashevska, Mark Maraun, Rahayu Widyastuti, Stefan Scheu
Conversion of tropical rainforests into plantations fundamentally alters ecological niches of animal species. Generalist predators such as centipedes (Chilopoda) may be able to persist in converted ecosystems due to their ability to adapt and switch to alternative prey populations. We investigated variations in community composition and trophic niches of soil and litter living centipedes in a range of ecosystems including rainforests, jungle rubber agroforests, and rubber and oil palm monocultures in two landscapes in Sumatra, Indonesia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690866/serotonergic-neurons-in-the-ventral-nerve-cord-of-chilopoda-a-mandibulate-pattern-of-individually-identifiable-neurons
#17
Andy Sombke, Torben Stemme
BACKGROUND: Given the numerous hypotheses concerning arthropod phylogeny, independent data are needed to supplement knowledge based on traditional external morphology and modern molecular sequence information. One promising approach involves comparisons of the structure and development of the nervous system. Along these lines, the morphology of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the ventral nerve cord has been investigated in numerous tetraconate taxa (Crustacea and Hexapoda). It has been shown that these neurons can be identified individually due to their comparably low number, characteristic soma position, and neurite morphology, thus making it possible to establish homologies at the single cell level...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609923/revision-of-i-disphaerobius-i-attems-1926-chilopoda-lithobiomorpha-lithobiidae-pterygoterginae-a-centipede-genus-with-remarkable-sexual-dimorphism
#18
Gyulli Sh Farzalieva, Pavel S Nefediev, Ivan H Tuf
Disphaerobius Attems, 1926, the sole constituent genus of the subfamily Pterygoterginae, is synonymized with Pterygotergum Verhoeff, 1934 syn. nov., and is shown to comprise only two species: D. svenhedini (Verhoeff, 1934) comb. nov. ex Pterygotergum, and D. loricatus (Sseliwanoff, 1881) (= Lithobius magnificus Trotzina, 1895), both syn. nov. and comb. nov. ex Lithobius Leach, 1814. Disphaerobius is rediagnosed, both of its basically Central Asian species are redescribed from fresh material of both sexes, and their distributions are mapped...
April 27, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609857/new-records-of-millipedes-and-centipedes-from-bulgaria-with-an-annotated-checklist-of-the-bulgarian-myriapods
#19
Darina Bachvarova, Boyan Vagalinski, Aleksandar Doichinov, Pavel Stoev
The present paper records new and poorly known myriapods (Diplopoda, Chilopoda) collected in Bulgaria in the last 10 years. Four new species are reported as new to the Bulgarian fauna: Lithobius melanops Newport, 1845 (Chilopoda: Lithobiomorpha: Lithodiidae), Polydesmus collaris C.L. Koch, 1847, Polydesmus inconstans Latzel, 1884 and Polydesmus schaessburgensis Verhoeff, 1898 (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Polydesmidae). Scanning electron micrographs of the gonopods and male leg-pairs 5 and 6 are provided for the first time for Bulgarosoma superficiei Strasser, 1975, a species hitherto known only from its original description...
May 10, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584727/the-presumed-oldest-flying-insect-more-likely-a-myriapod
#20
Carolin Haug, Joachim T Haug
The early fossil record of insects is scarce, with only few finds in the Devonian. All these finds appear problematic and controversial, partly due to incomplete preservation and challenging interpretation of many structures. We provide details of one of these important forms, Rhyniognatha hirsti from the famous Rhynie Chert Lagerstätte with up-to-date 3D imaging techniques. The fossil has been interpreted as the remains of one of the earliest flying insects. The specimen mainly preserves the remains of the head...
2017: PeerJ
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