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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051358/untangling-spider-biology
#1
Elizabeth Pennisi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050615/investigation-of-optimal-conditions-for-production-of-highly-crystalline-nanocellulose-with-increased-yield-via-novel-cr-iii-catalyzed-hydrolysis-response-surface-methodology
#2
You Wei Chen, Hwei Voon Lee, Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid
For the first time, a highly efficient Cr(NO3)3 catalysis system was proposed for optimization the yield and crystallinity of nanocellulose end product. A five-level three-factor central composite design coupled with response surface methodology was employed to elucidate parameters interactions between three design factors, namely reaction temperature (x1), reaction time (x2) and concentration of Cr(NO3)3 (x3) over a broad range of process conditions and determine the effect on crystallinity index and product yield...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047812/polarization-singularity-index-sign-inversion-by-a-half-wave-plate
#3
Sushanta Kumar Pal, Ruchi, P Senthilkumaran
Inhomogeneous polarization distributions can host polarization singularities such as lemons, monstars, stars, flowers, spider webs, and higher-order C-points in optical beams. Singularities in ellipse fields are characterized by a C-point index and singularities in vector fields by the Poincare-Hopf index. These singularities can be generated by diffractive or interference methods. In this paper, we show that a half-wave plate (HWP) can be used for polarization singularity index sign inversion. The result presented here is powerful, and it shows the importance of a HWP in the study of polarization singularities...
August 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045856/direction-of-stimulus-movement-alters-fear-linked-individual-differences-in-attentional-vigilance-to-spider-stimuli
#4
Julian Basanovic, Laurence Dean, John H Riskind, Colin MacLeod
Researchers have proposed that high spider-fearful individuals are characterised by heightened attentional vigilance to spider stimuli, as compared to low spider-fearful individuals. However, these findings have arisen from methodologies that have uniformly employed only static stimuli. Such findings do not inform upon the patterns of fear-linked attentional selectivity that occur in the face of moving feared stimuli. Hence, the present study developed a novel methodology designed to examine the influence of stimulus movement on attentional vigilance to spider and non-spider stimuli...
October 13, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045411/mating-induced-sexual-inhibition-in-the-jumping-spider-servaea-incana-araneae-salticidae-a-fast-acting-and-long-lasting-effect
#5
Vivian Mendez, Rowan H McGinley, Phillip W Taylor
Mating-induced sexual inhibition has been studied extensively as an important facet of many insect mating systems but remains little understood in spiders. Once mated, females of many spider species become unreceptive and aggressive toward males, but the speed of onset and persistence of this effect are not known. Addressing this gap, the present study considers (1) mating tendency of virgins, latency to remating, and lifetime mating frequency and (2) how quickly sexual inhibition is expressed after the first mating in female Servaea incana jumping spiders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044179/the-effect-of-insecticide-synergist-treatment-on-genome-wide-gene-expression-in-a-polyphagous-pest
#6
Simon Snoeck, Robert Greenhalgh, Luc Tirry, Richard M Clark, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Wannes Dermauw
Synergists can counteract metabolic insecticide resistance by inhibiting detoxification enzymes or transporters. They are used in commercial formulations of insecticides, but are also frequently used in the elucidation of resistance mechanisms. However, the effect of synergists on genome-wide transcription in arthropods is poorly understood. In this study we used Illumina RNA-sequencing to investigate genome-wide transcriptional responses in an acaricide resistant strain of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae upon exposure to synergists such as S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), diethyl maleate (DEM), piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and cyclosporin A (CsA)...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043472/biotoxicity-of-cry1ab-protein-on-wolf-spider-pardosa-pseudoannulata
#7
Juan Wang, Yuande Peng, Huilin Yang, Zhenzhen Yan, Qinjin Li, Yixue Shi, Chunliang Xie, Yunshan Liang, Zhi Wang, Qisheng Song
In this research, we carried out a tritrophic bioassay to assess the potential effect of Cry1Ab-expressing rice on the foraging behavior of the common wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata and its underlying molecular mechanism. Results indicated the Bt-containing spiders expressed a higher foraging range when compared to controls. The high throughput de novo transcriptome sequencing was further carried out for central nervous system (CNS) of P. pseudoannulata with and without Cry1Ab intake. We obtained 120, 985 unigenes with a mean length of 529...
October 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042670/from-est-to-novel-spider-silk-gene-identification-for-production-of-spidroin-based-biomaterials
#8
Weidong Huang, Yan Zhang, Yifan Chen, Yin Wang, Wensu Yuan, Ning Zhang, Toong Jin Lam, Zhiyuan Gong, Daiwen Yang, Zhi Lin
A cDNA library from a pool of all the seven silk glands from a tropical spider species was constructed. More than 1000 expressed sequence tag (EST) clones were created. Almost 65% of the EST clones were identified and around 50% were annotated. The cellular and functional distribution of the EST clones indicated high protein synthesis activity in spider silk glands. Novel clones with repetitive amino acid sequences, which is one of the most important characteristics of spider silk genes, were isolated. One of these clones, namely TuSp2 in current research, contains two almost identical fragments with one short C-terminal domain...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038967/morphology-and-the-central-nervous-system-of-eratigena-atrica-affected-by-a-complex-anomaly-in-the-anterior-part-of-the-prosoma
#9
Teresa Napiórkowska, Julita Templin, Katarzyna Wołczuk
Spider embryogenesis is affected by a range of environmental factors. Any sudden, drastic change in the environment may impair spider development, leading to various body deformities. In the present study, we analyze changes in the morphology and structure of the central nervous system of an Eratigena atrica larva, obtained in a teratological experiment in which embryos were exposed to alternating temperatures of 14 and 32 °C for the first 10 days. The studied larva had three pedipalps on the right side of the prosoma (polymely), two of which were fused along their entire length (total heterosymely)...
October 17, 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034638/-construction-of-spider-silk-functional-platform-via-intein-trans-splicing
#10
Senzhu Lin, Gefei Chen, Qing Meng
To provide technical support for spider silk functional modification, we developed a simple and efficient functional platform via intein trans-splicing. Small ubiquitin-related modifier protein (SUMO) was fused to the recombinant spider silk protein (W2CT) by peptide bond via S0 split intein Ssp DnaB trans-splicing, resulting in a protein SUMOW2CT. However, incorporation of exogenous protein led to mechanical property defect and lower fiber yield, and also slowed down the fiber assembly velocity but no obvious differences in supercontraction and chemical resistance when compared with fibers from W2CT (W)...
December 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033979/participation-in-cooperative-prey-capture-and-the-benefits-gained-from-it-are-associated-with-individual-personality
#11
James L L Lichtenstein, Colin M Wright, Lauren P Luscuskie, Graham A Montgomery, Noa Pinter-Wollman, Jonathan N Pruitt
In animal societies, behavioral idiosyncrasies of the individuals often guide which tasks they should perform. Such personality-specific task participation can increase individual task efficiency, thereby improving group performance. While several recent studies have documented group-level benefits of within-group behavioral (i.e., personality) diversity, how these benefits are realized at the individual level is unclear. Here we probe the individual-level benefits of personality-driven task participation in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola...
October 1, 2017: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032777/acute-urinary-retention-after-black-widow-envenomation-a-case-report
#12
Matthew Carere, Russel Sterret, Nicholas Timmerman, Ian Taylor
Latrodectism following Black Widow envenomation is rare in Canada. We present the case of a previously healthy 50 year old male who presented with an acute abdomen, hypertension, and urinary retention. After a thorough work up it was determined to be as a result of a Black Widow spider bite. Due to climate change we may see more cases of Latrodectism in the future and it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in anyone presenting with an acute abdomen after an insect bite.
October 16, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029248/efficacy-of-nanoencapsulated-thymus-eriocalyx-and-thymus-kotschyanus-essential-oils-by-a-mesoporous-material-mcm-41-against-tetranychus-urticae-acari-tetranychidae
#13
Asgar Ebadollahi, Jalal Jalali Sendi, Alireza Aliakbar
Inspite of well-established potentiality of plant essential oils as biopesticides, their environmentally low persistence is considered as a hindering obstacle for its commercialization. In the present study, chemical composition and toxicity of essential oils isolated from leaves of Thymus eriocalyx and Thymus kotschyanus were evaluated against two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. The chemicals present in the crude oil were found to be thymol (28.83%), oleic acid (11.51%), palmitic acid (8.60%), borneol (5...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027956/combined-venom-gland-transcriptomic-and-venom-peptidomic-analysis-of-the-predatory-ant-odontomachus-monticola
#14
Kohei Kazuma, Keiichi Masuko, Katsuhiro Konno, Hidetoshi Inagaki
Ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae) have adapted to many different environments and have become some of the most prolific and successful insects. To date, 13,258 ant species have been reported. They have been classified into 333 genera and 17 subfamilies. Except for a few Formicinae, Dolichoderinae, and members of other subfamilies, most ant species have a sting with venom. The venoms are composed of formic acid, alkaloids, hydrocarbons, amines, peptides, and proteins. Unlike the venoms of other animals such as snakes and spiders, ant venoms have seldom been analyzed comprehensively, and their compositions are not yet completely known...
October 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027122/hi1a-as-a-novel-neuroprotective-agent-for-ischemic-stroke-by-inhibition-of-acid-sensing-ion-channel-1a
#15
Yandong Ren, Chengchong Li, Jinlong Chang, Rui Wang, Yuhua Wang, Xiang-Ping Chu
Strokes are the second-leading cause of death worldwide, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying stroke-induced brain damage are still uncertain. The present therapy for acute ischemic stroke is limited to thrombolysis with the recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA). However, rtPA has a narrow therapeutic timeframe of 3-4.5 h, and only approximately 5% of stroke patients can benefit from rtPA treatment. Neuroprotective agents, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, have shown great promise in preclinical studies...
October 13, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026099/subcortical-facilitation-of-behavioral-responses-to-threat
#16
Mark D Vida, Marlene Behrmann
Behavioral responses to threat are critical to survival. Several cortical and subcortical brain regions respond selectively to threat. However, the relation of these neural responses and their underlying representations to behavior is unclear. We examined the contribution of lower-order subcortical representations to behavioral responses to threat in adult humans. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants viewed pairs of images presented to the same eye or to different eyes. We observed a monocular advantage, which indicates subcortical facilitation, for ancestral threats (snakes, spiders), but not for modern threats, positive images, or neutral images...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025444/first-report-of-clinical-presentation-of-a-bite-by-a-running-spider-philodromus-sp-araneae-philodromidae-with-recommendations-for-spider-bite-management
#17
Maureen Coetzee, Ansie Dippenaar, John Frean, Richard H Hunt
This article describes the clinical progression of symptoms over a period of 5 days of a bite inflicted by a Philodromus sp. spider. Commonly known as 'running spiders', these are not considered to be harmful to humans. This report, however, is the first description of an actual bite by a member of this group of spiders showing cytotoxic envenomation. Management of the bites should be as recommended for other cytotoxic spider bites.
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022958/unilateral-lattice-corneal-dystrophy-in-a-young-female-a-unique-case-report
#18
Anuradha Raj, Renu Dhasmana, Harsh Bahadur
BACKGROUND: Unilateral lattice corneal dystrophy is a rare entity. OBJECTIVE: To highlight the evidence of unilateral lattice corneal dystrophy in a young female. CASE: A young 28 years old female presented to the outpatient department of Ophthalmology with slowly progressive diminution of vision in left eye for one month. On ophthalmological examination best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 and 20/40 with refractive error of plano and -0...
January 2017: Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021149/the-envenomation-of-general-physiology-throughout-the-last-century
#19
Jon T Sack
Toxins are the poisonous products of organisms. Toxins serve vital defensive and offensive functions for those that harbor them: stinging scorpions, pesticidal plants, sanguinary snakes, fearless frogs, sliming snails, noxious newts, and smarting spiders. For physiologists, toxins are integral chemical tools that hijack life's fundamental processes with remarkable molecular specificity. Our understanding of electrophysiological phenomena has been transformed time and time again with the help of some terrifying toxins...
October 11, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020022/the-geological-record-and-phylogeny-of-spider-wasps-hymenoptera-pompilidae-a-revision-of-fossil-species-and-their-phylogenetic-placement
#20
Juanita Rodriguez, Cecilia Waichert, Carol D von Dohlen, James P Pitts
Accurate fossil identification has become increasingly relevant with the widespread use of phylogenetic divergence time estimation methods, which rely on fossil data to determine clade hard-minimum ages. Here we revise, diagnose and illustrate known spider wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) fossil species and place them within the latest Pompilidae phylogenetic hypothesis. Ceropalites infelix Cockerell, from the Florissant Fossil Beds (Priabonian), is no longer recognized as Pompilidae, but as Aulacidae. Agenioideus saxigenus (Cockerell) comb...
2017: PloS One
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