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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094288/predator-personality-and-prey-behavioural-predictability-jointly-determine-foraging-performance
#1
Chia-Chen Chang, Huey Yee Teo, Y Norma-Rashid, Daiqin Li
Predator-prey interactions play important roles in ecological communities. Personality, consistent inter-individual differences in behaviour, of predators, prey or both are known to influence inter-specific interactions. An individual may also behave differently under the same situation and the level of such variability may differ between individuals. Such intra-individual variability (IIV) or predictability may be a trait on which selection can also act. A few studies have revealed the joint effect of personality types of both predators and prey on predator foraging performance...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094244/a-bioinspired-adaptive-spider-web
#2
L Zheng, M Behrooz, F Gordaninejad
This work presents an adaptive structure inspired by spider webs' behavior. To investigate the dynamic properties and performance of this system, numerical models are developed to examine the effects of pretension in radial strings, and Young's modulus, and damping ratio on the natural frequency and total energy of the system. An experimental study was conducted to validate theoretical results. Stepper motors controlled by a microcontroller are utilized to increase the pretension in the radial strings of the web in order to tune the web's energy absorption ability...
January 17, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088326/acute-kidney-injury-due-to-tropical-infectious-diseases-and-animal-venoms-a-tale-of-2-continents
#3
REVIEW
Emmanuel A Burdmann, Vivekanand Jha
South and Southeast Asia and Latin American together comprise 46 countries and are home to approximately 40% of the world population. The sociopolitical and economic heterogeneity, tropical climate, and malady transitions characteristic of the region strongly influence disease behavior and health care delivery. Acute kidney injury epidemiology mirrors these inequalities. In addition to hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in tertiary care centers, these countries face a large preventable burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury secondary to tropical infectious diseases or animal venoms, affecting previously healthy young individuals...
January 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088215/non-associative-versus-associative-learning-by-foraging-predatory-mites
#4
Peter Schausberger, Stefan Peneder
BACKGROUND: Learning processes can be broadly categorized into associative and non-associative. Associative learning occurs through the pairing of two previously unrelated stimuli, whereas non-associative learning occurs in response to a single stimulus. How these two principal processes compare in the same learning task and how they contribute to the overall behavioural changes brought about by experience is poorly understood. We tackled this issue by scrutinizing associative and non-associative learning of prey, Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, by the predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus...
January 14, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087360/the-synthetic-peptide-pnpp-19-induces-peripheral-antinociception-via-activation-of-no-cgmp-katp-pathway-role-of-enos-and-nnos
#5
A C N Freitas, G Silva, D F Pacheco, V Lemos, I D G Duarte, M E de Lima
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The peptide PnPP-19, derived from the spider toxin PnTx2-6, potentiates erectile function by activating the nitrergic system. Since NO has been studied as an antinociceptive molecule and PnPP-19 is known to induce peripheral antinociception, we intended to evaluate whether PnPP-19 could induce peripheral antinociception through activation of this pathway. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Nociceptive thresholds were measured by paw pressure test. PGE2 (2 μg/paw) was administered intraplantarly together with PnPP-19 and inhibitors/blockers of NOS, guanylyl cyclase and KATP channels...
January 10, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076814/gsmtx4-mechanism-of-inhibiting-mechanosensitive-ion-channels
#6
Radhakrishnan Gnanasambandam, Chiranjib Ghatak, Anthony Yasmann, Kazuhisa Nishizawa, Frederick Sachs, Alexey S Ladokhin, Sergei I Sukharev, Thomas M Suchyna
GsMTx4 is a spider venom peptide that inhibits cationic mechanosensitive channels (MSCs). It has six lysine residues that have been proposed to affect membrane binding. We synthesized six analogs with single lysine-to-glutamate substitutions and tested them against Piezo1 channels in outside-out patches and independently measured lipid binding. Four analogs had ∼20% lower efficacy than the wild-type (WT) peptide. The equilibrium constants calculated from the rates of inhibition and washout did not correlate with the changes in inhibition...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076265/nonbacterial-causes-of-lymphangitis-with-streaking
#7
Brandon E Cohen, Arielle R Nagler, Miriam Keltz Pomeranz
BACKGROUND: Lymphangitic streaking, characterized by linear erythema on the skin, is most commonly observed in the setting of bacterial infection. However, a number of nonbacterial causes can result in lymphangitic streaking. We sought to elucidate the nonbacterial causes of lymphangitic streaking that may mimic bacterial infection to broaden clinicians' differential diagnosis for patients presenting with lymphangitic streaking. METHODS: We performed a review of the literature, including all available reports pertaining to nonbacterial causes of lymphangitic streaking...
November 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074624/assessing-the-sustainability-of-waiwai-subsistence-hunting-in-guyana-with-implications-for-co-management-in-amazonian-indigenous-reserves
#8
Christopher A Shaffer, Marissa S Milstein, Charakura Yukuma, Elisha Marawanaru, Phillip Suse
While hunting is a key component of the subsistence strategies of many Amazonians, it is also one of the most important threats to wildlife conservation throughout South America. As indigenous reserves now make up more than 20% of Amazonia, effective conservation often requires working closely with indigenous groups as shared stakeholders in the management of hunting. We present a novel approach to co-management that integrates hunter generated harvesting data with spatially explicit, biodemographic modeling to assess the sustainability of the subsistence hunting of indigenous Waiwai in Guyana...
January 11, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070066/molecular-structural-analysis-of-spider-s-capture-thread-and-viscid-droplets-studied-by-microscopic-ft-ir-spectroscopy
#9
Hironobu Yabe, Norihisa Katayama, Mitsuhiro Miyazawa
The molecular structural analysis of capture thread, including its viscid droplets of oriental golden orb-web spider Nephila clavata, has been performed by microscopic FT-IR spectroscopy. The obtained spectra of capture threads with and without viscid droplets indicate that the features in the region of 1400 - 1000 cm(-1) will be useful as marker bands for the degree of the dissolving of viscid droplet; further, the bands at 1395 and 1335 cm(-1) are attributable to the components of anchoring granules located at the inner side of viscid droplets...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068309/biomimetic-spinning-of-artificial-spider-silk-from-a-chimeric-minispidroin
#10
Marlene Andersson, Qiupin Jia, Ana Abella, Xiau-Yeen Lee, Michael Landreh, Pasi Purhonen, Hans Hebert, Maria Tenje, Carol V Robinson, Qing Meng, Gustavo R Plaza, Jan Johansson, Anna Rising
Herein we present a chimeric recombinant spider silk protein (spidroin) whose aqueous solubility equals that of native spider silk dope and a spinning device that is based solely on aqueous buffers, shear forces and lowered pH. The process recapitulates the complex molecular mechanisms that dictate native spider silk spinning and is highly efficient; spidroin from one liter of bacterial shake-flask culture is enough to spin a kilometer of the hitherto toughest as-spun artificial spider silk fiber.
January 9, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057598/complete-gene-sequence-of-spider-attachment-silk-protein-pysp1-reveals-novel-linker-regions-and-extreme-repeat-homogenization
#11
Ro Crystal Chaw, Christopher A Saski, Cheryl Y Hayashi
Spiders use a myriad of silk types for daily survival, and each silk type has a unique suite of task-specific mechanical properties. Of all spider silk types, pyriform silk is distinct because it is a combination of a dry protein fiber and wet glue. Pyriform silk fibers are coated with wet cement and extruded into "attachment discs" that adhere silks to each other and to substrates. The mechanical properties of spider silk types are linked to the primary and higher-level structures of spider silk proteins (spidroins)...
January 2, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043338/molecular-diagnostics-for-detecting-pyrethroid-and-abamectin-resistance-mutations-in-tetranychus-urticae
#12
Aris Ilias, Vassilis A Vassiliou, John Vontas, Anastasia Tsagkarakou
Avermectin and pyrethroid resistance mutations (the G314D and the G326E in the glutamate gated chloride channels, and the F1538I in the voltage gated sodium channel) have been reported in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, one of the most devastating pests of protected and open field crops worldwide. We developed three TaqMan molecular diagnostic assays for monitoring the presence and frequency of these mutations in T. urticae field populations. The TaqMan assays were validated against known genotypes and subsequently used to monitor the frequency of the resistance mutations in eleven T...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040863/male-spider-mites-use-chemical-cues-but-not-the-female-mating-interval-to-choose-between-mates
#13
Leonor R Rodrigues, Alexandre R T Figueiredo, Susana A M Varela, Isabelle Olivieri, Sara Magalhães
The choice of the partner an individual will mate with is expected to strongly impact its fitness. Hence, natural selection has favoured the evolution of cues to distinguish among mates that will provide different fitness benefits to the individual that is choosing. In species with first-male sperm precedence, this is particularly important for males, as mating with mated females will result in no offspring. In the spider mite Tetranychus urticae only the first mating is effective, except if the interval between first and second copulations is shorter than 24 h...
December 31, 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035974/a-novel-toxin-from-haplopelma-lividum-selectively-inhibits-the-nav1-8-channel-and-possesses-potent-analgesic-efficacy
#14
Ping Meng, Honggang Huang, Gan Wang, Shilong Yang, Qiuming Lu, Jingze Liu, Ren Lai, Mingqiang Rong
Spider venoms are a complex mixture of peptides with a large number of neurotoxins targeting ion channels. Although thousands of peptide toxins have been identified from venoms of numerous species of spiders, many unknown species urgently need to be investigated. In this study, a novel sodium channel inhibitor, µ-TRTX-Hl1a, was identified from the venom of Haplopelma lividum. It contained eight cysteines and formed a conserved cysteine pattern of ICK motif. µ-TRTX-Hl1a inhibited the TTX-resistant (TTX-r) sodium channel current rather than the TTX-sensitive (TTX-s) sodium channel current...
December 26, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035682/invasive-plant-alters-community-and-ecosystem-dynamics-by-promoting-native-predators
#15
Lauren M Smith-Ramesh
Placing invasion in a more complete food-web context expands our understanding of species invasions to reflect the inherent complexity of ecological networks. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) has traditionally been predicted to dominate native communities through mechanisms embodied in popular hypotheses such as direct plant-plant interactions (allelopathy) and plant-herbivore interactions (enemy escape). However, garlic mustard also interacts directly with native predators by providing habitat for web-building spiders, which colonize the dry fruit structures (siliques) that garlic mustard leaves behind after it senesces...
December 30, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031795/spatial-subsidies-in-spider-diets-vary-with-shoreline-structure-complementary-evidence-from-molecular-diet-analysis-and-stable-isotopes
#16
Peter A Hambäck, Elisabeth Weingartner, Love Dalén, Helena Wirta, Tomas Roslin
Inflow of matter and organisms may strongly affect the local density and diversity of organisms. This effect is particularly evident on shores where organisms with aquatic larval stages enter the terrestrial food web. The identities of such trophic links are not easily estimated as spiders, a dominant group of shoreline predator, have external digestion. We compared trophic links and the prey diversity of spiders on different shore types along the Baltic Sea: on open shores and on shores with a reed belt bordering the water...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028885/antibiotic-spider-silk-site-specific-functionalization-of-recombinant-spider-silk-using-click-chemistry
#17
David Harvey, Philip Bardelang, Sara L Goodacre, Alan Cockayne, Neil R Thomas
In a new, versatile approach to fun-ction-alizing recombinant spider silk, L-azidohomoalanine is introduced residue-specifically in the minispidroin protein 4RepCT through expression in an E. coli methionine auxotroph. Both fluorophores and the antibiotic levofloxacin are attached to this bio-orthogonal amino acid using copper-catalyzed click chemistry, either before or after the silk fibers are self-assembled.
December 28, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028122/evolution-of-chemosensory-gene-families-in-arthropods-insight-from-the-first-inclusive-comparative-transcriptome-analysis-across-spider-appendages
#18
Joel Vizueta, Cristina Frías-López, Nuria Macías-Hernández, Miquel A Arnedo, Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia, Julio Rozas
Unlike hexapods and vertebrates, in chelicerates, knowledge of the specific molecules involved in chemoreception comes exclusively from the comparative analysis of genome sequences. Indeed, the genomes of mites, ticks and spiders contain several genes encoding homologs of some insect membrane receptors and small soluble chemosensory proteins. Here, we conducted for the first time a comprehensive comparative RNA-Seq analysis across different body structures of a chelicerate: the nocturnal wandering hunter spider Dysdera silvatica Schmidt 1981...
December 27, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028106/imaginal-feeding-for-progression-of-diapause-phenotype-in-the-two-spotted-spider-mite-acari-tetranychidae
#19
Shoko Kawaguchi, Yuki Manabe, Tatsuya Sugawara, Masahiro Osakabe
Adult females of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) enter diapause under conditions of short-day length and low temperature. A conspicuous body color change, from greenish yellow to bright orange, accompanies diapause induction. This pigmentation is attributed to accumulation of keto-carotenoids produced internally from β-carotene, which is a precursor of vitamin A essential for inducing diapause. The quantity of β-carotene transferred from females to eggs has been considered sufficient to induce diapause...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028084/using-global-and-regional-species-distribution-models-sdm-to-infer-the-invasive-stage-of-latrodectus-geometricus-araneae-theridiidae-in-the-americas
#20
Andrés Taucare-Ríos, Gustavo Bizama, Ramiro O Bustamante
The brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841, is a large spider of the family Theridiidae that belongs to a genus of medical interest owing to its potent neurotoxic venom, which causes severe pain in humans. In America, this alien spider has been found in virtually all countries in the region, mainly associated with human dwellings, but also in agricultural sectors. However, the invasive process and potential distribution of this invasive species across the American continent are completely unknown...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
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