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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548111/corrigendum-pharmacological-characterisation-of-the-highly-nav1-7-selective-spider-venom-peptide-pn3a
#1
Jennifer R Deuis, Zoltan Dekan, Joshua S Wingerd, Jennifer J Smith, Nehan R Munasinghe, Rebecca F Bhola, Wendy L Imlach, Volker Herzig, David A Armstrong, K Johan Rosengren, Frank Bosmans, Stephen G Waxman, Sulayman D Dib-Hajj, Pierre Escoubas, Michael S Minett, Macdonald J Christie, Glenn F King, Paul F Alewood, Richard J Lewis, John N Wood, Irina Vetter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543028/correlated-evolution-between-colouration-and-ambush-site-in-predators-with-visual-prey-lures
#2
F M Gawryszewski, M A Calero-Torralbo, R G Gillespie, M A Rodríguez-Gironés, M E Herberstein
The evolution of a visual signal will be affected by signaller and receiver behaviour, and by the physical properties of the environment where the signal is displayed. Crab spiders are typical sit-and-wait predators found in diverse ambush sites, such as tree bark, foliage and flowers. Some of the flower-dweller species present a UV(+) -white visual lure that makes them conspicuous and attractive to their prey. We hypothesised that UV(+) -white colouration was associated with the evolution of a flower-dwelling habit...
May 23, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542706/modulatory-features-of-the-novel-spider-toxin-%C3%AE-trtx-df1a-isolated-from-the-venom-of-the-spider-davus-fasciatus
#3
Fernanda C Cardoso, Zoltan Dekan, Jennifer J Smith, Jennifer R Deuis, Irina Vetter, Volker Herzig, Paul F Alewood, Glenn F King, Richard J Lewis
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Naturally occurring dysfunction in NaV channels results in complex disorders such as chronic pain, making these channels an attractive target for new therapies. In the pursuit of novel NaV modulators, we investigated spider venoms for new inhibitors of NaV channels. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used high-throughput screens to identify a NaV modulator in venom of the spider Davus fasciatus. Further characterization of this venom peptide was undertaken using fluorescent and electrophysiological assays, molecular modeling and a rodent pain model...
May 24, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542539/a-leishmania-secretion-system-for-the-expression-of-major-ampullate-spidroin-mimics
#4
Todd A Lyda, Elizabeth L Wagner, Andre X Bourg, Congyue Peng, Golnaz Najaf Tomaraei, Delphine Dean, Marian S Kennedy, William R Marcotte
Spider major ampullate silk fibers have been shown to display a unique combination of relatively high fracture strength and toughness compared to other fibers and show potential for tissue engineering scaffolds. While it is not possible to mass produce native spider silks, the potential ability to produce fibers from recombinant spider silk fibers could allow for an increased innovation rate within tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this pilot study, we improved upon a prior fabrication route by both changing the expression host and additives to the fiber pulling precursor solution to improve the performance of fibers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540455/yellow-sac-spider-cheiracanthium-punctorium-bites-in-slovenia-case-series-and-review
#5
REVIEW
Tanja Varl, Damjan Grenc, Rok Kostanjšek, Miran Brvar
In Central Europe, reports of human envenomation by Cheiracanthium punctorium, commonly known as the yellow sac spider, are sporadic, despite the fact that this species is widespread in Europe. However, in recent years, C. punctorium has been repeatedly described globally in medical and toxicological literature. Its venom was found to possess insecticidal, haemolytic, cytotoxic, and membrane-damaging activities. Its bite is often very painful, frequently associated with local and transient cutaneous and neurotoxic effects, but sometimes also with systemic symptoms which require medical help...
May 24, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539648/three-dimensionally-conformal-porous-microstructured-fabrics-via-breath-figures-a-nature-inspired-approach-for-novel-surface-modification-of-textiles
#6
Jianliang Gong, Bingang Xu, Xiaoming Tao
Breath figures (BFs) are a kind of water droplet arrays that can be formed by condensing aqueous vapor onto a cold surface, such as dewy phenomenon on a spider web. This study developed a BF-inspired approach for direct introduction of desired materials onto the textile surfaces with three-dimensionally conformal porous microstructures by the evaporation of solution-coated fabric under high humidity environment, which brings a brand-new kind of modified textiles, three-dimensionally conformal porous microstructured fabrics (CPMFs)...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539461/contrasting-effects-of-aquatic-subsidies-on-a-terrestrial-trophic-cascade
#7
Nadin Graf, Roman Bucher, Ralf B Schäfer, Martin H Entling
Subsidies from adjacent ecosystems can alter recipient food webs and ecosystem functions, such as herbivory. Emerging aquatic insects from streams can be an important prey in the riparian zone. Such aquatic subsidies can enhance predator abundances or cause predators to switch prey, depending on the herbivores. This can lead to an increase or decrease of in situ herbivores and herbivory. We examined the effects of aquatic subsidies on a simplified terrestrial food web consisting of two types of herbivores, plants and predators (spiders)...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538926/students-health-an-integrative-review-on-family-and-bullying
#8
Wanderlei Abadio de Oliveira, Jorge Luiz da Silva, Julliane Messias Cordeiro Sampaio, Marta Angélica Iossi Silva
Bullying is a public health problem and this integrative review's aim was to assess the relationship between family context and the occurrence of such a phenomenon. Its original contribution is to broadly address this type of violence. The SPIDER strategy was used to develop the study, which was guided by the question: what is the role of the family in the development, perpetuation and prevention of bullying? The following databases were searched: PsycInfo and Lilacs, and the SciELO Virtual Library using the descriptors 1...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536006/silk-gene-expression-of-theridiid-spiders-implications-for-male-specific-silk-use
#9
Sandra M Correa-Garhwal, R Crystal Chaw, Thomas H Clarke, Nadia A Ayoub, Cheryl Y Hayashi
Spiders (order Araneae) rely on their silks for essential tasks, such as dispersal, prey capture, and reproduction. Spider silks are largely composed of spidroins, members of a protein family that are synthesized in silk glands. As needed, silk stored in silk glands is extruded through spigots on the spinnerets. Nearly all studies of spider silks have been conducted on females; thus, little is known about male silk biology. To shed light on silk use by males, we compared silk gene expression profiles of mature males to those of females from three cob-web weaving species (Theridiidae)...
April 26, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535384/invertebrate-biomechanics
#10
S N Patek, A P Summers
Invertebrate biomechanics focuses on mechanical analyses of non-vertebrate animals, which at root is no different in aim and technique from vertebrate biomechanics, or for that matter the biomechanics of plants and fungi. But invertebrates are special - they are fabulously diverse in form, habitat, and ecology and manage this without the use of hard, internal skeletons. They are also numerous and, in many cases, tractable in an experimental and field setting. In this Primer, we will probe three axes of invertebrate diversity: worms (Phylum Annelida), spiders (Class Arachnida) and insects (Class Insecta); three habitats: subterranean, terrestrial and airborne; and three integrations with other fields: ecology, engineering and evolution...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534479/efficient-protein-production-inspired-by-how-spiders-make-silk
#11
Nina Kronqvist, Médoune Sarr, Anton Lindqvist, Kerstin Nordling, Martins Otikovs, Luca Venturi, Barbara Pioselli, Pasi Purhonen, Michael Landreh, Henrik Biverstål, Zigmantas Toleikis, Lisa Sjöberg, Carol V Robinson, Nicola Pelizzi, Hans Jörnvall, Hans Hebert, Kristaps Jaudzems, Tore Curstedt, Anna Rising, Jan Johansson
Membrane proteins are targets of most available pharmaceuticals, but they are difficult to produce recombinantly, like many other aggregation-prone proteins. Spiders can produce silk proteins at huge concentrations by sequestering their aggregation-prone regions in micellar structures, where the very soluble N-terminal domain (NT) forms the shell. We hypothesize that fusion to NT could similarly solubilize non-spidroin proteins, and design a charge-reversed mutant (NT*) that is pH insensitive, stabilized and hypersoluble compared to wild-type NT...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533452/fluorescence-as-a-means-of-colour-signal-enhancement
#12
REVIEW
Justin Marshall, Sonke Johnsen
Fluorescence is a physico-chemical energy exchange where shorter-wavelength photons are absorbed by a molecule and are re-emitted as longer-wavelength photons. It has been suggested a means of communication in several taxa including flowers, pitcher plants, corals, algae, worms, squid, spiders, stomatopods, fish, reptiles, parrots and humans. The surface or object that the pigment molecule is part of appears to glow due to its setting rather than an actual production of light, and this may enhance both signals and, in some cases, camouflage...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530390/highly-sensitive-durable-and-multifunctional-sensor-inspired-by-spider
#13
Chengzhi Luo, Junji Jia, Youning Gong, Zhongchi Wang, Qiang Fu, Chunxu Pan
Sensitivity, durability, and multifunction are the essential requirements for a high- performance wearable sensor. Here, we report a novel multifunctional sensor with high sensitivity and durability by using a buckled spider silk-like single-walled carbon nanotubes (SSL-SWNTs) film as the conducting network and a crack-shaped Au film as the sensitive transducer. Its high sensitivity is inspired by the crack-shaped structure of the spider's slit organs, while the high durability is inspired by the mechanical robustness of the spider silk...
May 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528674/sodium-channels-and-venom-peptide-pharmacology
#14
Mathilde R Israel, Bryan Tay, Jennifer R Deuis, Irina Vetter
Venomous animals including cone snails, spiders, scorpions, anemones, and snakes have evolved a myriad of components in their venoms that target the opening and/or closing of voltage-gated sodium channels to cause devastating effects on the neuromuscular systems of predators and prey. These venom peptides, through design and serendipity, have not only contributed significantly to our understanding of sodium channel pharmacology and structure, but they also represent some of the most phyla- and isoform-selective molecules that are useful as valuable tool compounds and drug leads...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528669/modulation-of-ion-channels-by-cysteine-rich-peptides-from-sequence-to-structure
#15
Mehdi Mobli, Eivind A B Undheim, Lachlan D Rash
Venom peptides are natural ligands of ion channels and have been used extensively in pharmacological characterization of various ion channels and receptors. In this chapter, we survey all known venom peptide ion-channel modulators. Our survey reveals that the majority of venom peptides characterized to date target voltage-gated sodium or potassium channels. We further find that the majority of these peptides are found in scorpion and spider venoms. We discuss the influence of the pharmacological tools available in biasing discovery and the classical "toxin-to-sequence" approach to venom peptide biodiscovery...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526335/the-spider-toxin-ph%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-recombinant-possesses-strong-analgesic-activity
#16
Flavia Karine Rigo, Gabriela Trevisan, Samira Dal-Toé De Prá, Marta Nascimento Cordeiro, Marcia Helena Borges, Juliana Figueiredo Silva, Flavia Viana Santa Cecilia, Alessandra Hubner de Souza, Gabriela de Oliveira Adamante, Alessandra Marcon Milioli, Célio José de Castro Junior, Juliano Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius Gomez
The native Phα1β - a Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel (VGCC) blocker - and its Recombinant Version - were both tested in rodent pain models with an intraplantar injections of capsaicin or formalin, a chronic constriction injury, and melanoma cancer related pain. The formalin nociceptive behaviour in the neurogenic phase was not affected by the toxin pre-treatments, while in the inflammatory phase, Phα1β and the Recombinant form caused a significant reduction. The nociception that was triggered by capsaicin, an agonist of the TRPV1 vanilloid receptor, was totally blocked by 100 pmol/site, i...
May 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518067/remote-sensing-evaluation-of-two-spotted-spider-mite-damage-on-greenhouse-cotton
#17
Daniel E Martin, Mohamed A Latheef
The objective of this study was to evaluate a ground-based multispectral optical sensor as a remote sensing tool to assess foliar damage caused by the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, on greenhouse grown cotton. TSSM is a polyphagous pest which occurs on a variety of field and horticultural crops. It often becomes an early season pest of cotton in damaging proportions as opposed to being a late season innocuous pest in the mid-southern United States. Evaluation of acaricides is important for maintaining the efficacy of and preventing resistance to the currently available arsenal of chemicals and newly developed control agents...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512299/transgenic-bt-rice-lines-producing-cry1ac-cry2aa-or-cry1ca-have-no-detrimental-effects-on-brown-planthopper-and-pond-wolf-spider
#18
Lin Niu, Amani Mannakkara, Lin Qiu, Xiaoping Wang, Hongxia Hua, Chaoliang Lei, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes, Weihua Ma
Transgenic rice expressing cry genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice) is highly resistant to lepidopteran pests. The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) is the main non-target sap-sucking insect pest of Bt transgenic rice. The pond wolf spider (PWS, Pardosa pseudoannulata) is one of the most dominant predators of BPH in rice fields. Consequently, the safety evaluation of Bt rice on BPH and PWS should be conducted before commercialization. In the current study, two experiments were performed to assess the potential ecological effects of Bt rice on BPH and PWS: (1) a tritrophic experiment to evaluate the transmission of Cry1Ac, Cry2Aa and Cry1Ca protein in the food chain; and (2) binding assays of Cry1Ac, Cry2Aa and Cry1Ca to midgut brush border membrane proteins from BPH and PWS...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510702/linking-vegetation-structure-and-spider-diversity-in-riparian-and-adjacent-habitats-in-two-rivers-of-central-argentina-an-analysis-at-two-conceptual-levels
#19
Mariana Griotti, Christian Muñoz-Escobar, Nelson E Ferretti
The link between vegetation structure and spider diversity has been well explored in the literature. However, few studies have compared spider diversity and its response to vegetation at two conceptual levels: assemblage (species diversity) and ensemble (guild diversity). Because of this, we studied spider diversity in riparian and adjacent habitats of a river system from the Chacoan subregion in central Argentina and evaluated their linkage with vegetation structure at these two levels. To assess vegetation structure, we measured plant species richness and vegetation cover in the herb and shrub - tree layers...
May 15, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509945/ant-mediated-indirect-negative-effects-of-aphids-on-spider-mites-living-on-the-same-plant
#20
Masaaki Adachi, Shuichi Yano
Some aphid species are known to have mutualistic relationships with tending ants; that is, the aphids supply the ants with honeydew and are protected by the ants. Although spider mites and honeydew-producing aphids often live on the same host plant, it has not previously been determined whether the ants tending these aphids affect spider mite survival. Using replicated microcosms, each containing an artificial ant nest, we compared experimentally the survival of two-spotted spider mites on kidney bean plants with and without cowpea aphids...
May 16, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
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