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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231872/a-deeper-examination-of-thorellius-atrox-scorpion-venom-components-with-omic-techonologies
#1
Teresa Romero-Gutierrez, Esteban Peguero-Sanchez, Miguel A Cevallos, Cesar V F Batista, Ernesto Ortiz, Lourival D Possani
This communication reports a further examination of venom gland transcripts and venom composition of the Mexican scorpion Thorellius atrox using RNA-seq and tandem mass spectrometry. The RNA-seq, which was performed with the Illumina protocol, yielded more than 20,000 assembled transcripts. Following a database search and annotation strategy, 160 transcripts were identified, potentially coding for venom components. A novel sequence was identified that potentially codes for a peptide with similarity to spider ω-agatoxins, which act on voltage-gated calcium channels, not known before to exist in scorpion venoms...
December 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229932/neutral-fitness-outcomes-contradict-inferences-of-sexual-coercion-derived-from-male-s-damaging-mating-tactic-in-a-widow-spider
#2
Luciana Baruffaldi, Maydianne C B Andrade
Sexual conflict over mating frequency has driven the evolution of morphological and behavioural traits across taxa. Interactions may be termed 'coercive' and assumed to arise from conflict when male mating behaviours cause physical injury to females and females appear to resist injurious matings.However, coercion per se occurs only if the behaviour reduces female fitness; and such outcomes are rarely measured. Here we show that a damaging mating tactic, apparently adaptive for males, is not coercive for females...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228236/spatial-niche-separation-on-the-periphery-range-of-argiope-bruennichi-and-its-effect-with-araneus-quadratus-araneae-araneidae
#3
Wioletta Wawer, Izabela Hajdamowicz
Recent decades have witnessed an intensified expansion of thermophilic organisms from southern into northern Europe. Argiope bruennichi, an orb-weaver spider species, is extending its range relatively fast and gradually becoming a common species in Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate how this relatively newly-come taxon is affecting another orb-weaver spider species and whether it demonstrates features of an invasive species. Interactions were examined between this species and another dominant species with similar body and web size, Araneus quadratus...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226958/masking-exposure-to-phobic-stimuli-reduces-fear-without-inducing-electrodermal-activity
#4
Paul Siegel, Richard Warren, Gabriella Jacobson, Edward Merritt
A series of experiments has shown that limiting awareness of exposure to feared stimuli through visual masking-or very brief exposure (VBE)-reduces avoidance of a live tarantula by spider-phobic participants. We investigated this process of fear reduction by directly relating the effects of VBE on electrodermal activity to its ensuing effects on phobic behavior. Sixty spider-phobic participants, identified by approaching a live tarantula and a questionnaire, were administered either VBE to masked spiders or control exposure to masked flowers...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224117/heated-communities-large-inter-and-intraspecific-variation-in-heat-tolerance-across-trophic-levels-of-a-soil-arthropod-community
#5
Oscar Franken, Milou Huizinga, Jacintha Ellers, Matty P Berg
Temperature extremes are predicted to increase in frequency, intensity and duration under global warming and are believed to significantly affect community composition and functioning. However, the effect of extreme climatic events on communities remains difficult to predict, especially because species can show dissimilar responses to abiotic changes, which may affect the outcome of species interactions. To anticipate community responses we need knowledge on within and among species variation in stress tolerance...
December 9, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220786/magnetic-susceptibility-of-spider-webs-as-a-proxy-of-airborne-metal-pollution
#6
Marzena Rachwał, Justyna Rybak, Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska
The purpose of this pilot study was to test spider webs as a fast tool for magnetic biomonitoring of air pollution. The study involved the investigation of webs made by four types of spiders: Pholcus phalangioides (Pholcidae), Eratigena atrica and Agelena labirynthica (Agelenidae) and Linyphia triangularis (Linyphiidae). These webs were obtained from outdoor and indoor study sites. Compared to the clean reference webs, an increase was observed in the values of magnetic susceptibility in the webs sampled from both indoor and outdoor sites, which indicates contamination by anthropogenically produced pollution particles that contain ferrimagnetic iron minerals...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210003/abscisic-acid-insensitive-4-transcription-factor-is-an-important-player-in-the-response-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-to-two-spotted-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae-feeding
#7
Anna Barczak-Brzyżek, Małgorzata Kiełkiewicz, Magdalena Górecka, Karol Kot, Barbara Karpińska, Marcin Filipecki
Plants growing in constantly changeable environmental conditions are compelled to evolve regulatory mechanisms to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. Effective defence to invaders is largely connected with phytohormone regulation, resulting in the production of numerous defensive proteins and specialized metabolites. In our work, we elucidated the role of the Abscisic Acid Insensitive 4 (ABI4) transcription factor in the plant response to the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM). This polyphagous mite is one of the most destructive herbivores, which sucks mesophyll cells of numerous crop and wild plants...
December 5, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209956/cross-sex-genetic-correlation-does-not-extend-to-sexual-size-dimorphism-in-spiders
#8
Eva Turk, Matjaž Kuntner, Simona Kralj-Fišer
Males and females are often subjected to different selection pressures for homologous traits, resulting in sex-specific optima. Because organismal attributes usually share their genetic architectures, sex-specific selection may lead to intralocus sexual conflict. Evolution of sexual dimorphism may resolve this conflict, depending on the degree of cross-sex genetic correlation (r MF) and the strength of sex-specific selection. In theory, high r MF implies that sexes largely share the genetic base for a given trait and are consequently sexually monomorphic, while low r MF indicates a sex-specific genetic base and sexual dimorphism...
December 5, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209865/short-and-fast-vs-long-and-slow-age-changes-courtship-in-male-orb-web-spiders-argiope-keyserlingi
#9
James C O'Hanlon, Anne E Wignall, Marie E Herberstein
Male reproductive performance can vary with condition, age and future reproductive opportunities. Web-building spiders are ideal models to examine the effects of senescence on fitness-related behaviours due to strong selection on male courtship to reduce pre-copulatory sexual cannibalism. Argiope keyserlingi spiders generate courtship vibrations, or 'shudders', that reduce female aggression. We found that male A. keyserlingi courtship slowed with chronological age. Older males took longer to travel across the courtship thread, and overall number of shudders increased...
December 5, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206569/application-of-miniature-heart-rate-data-loggers-for-use-in-large-free-moving-decapod-crustaceans-method-development-and-validation
#10
Iain J McGaw, S Clay Steell, Travis E Van Leeuwen, Erika J Eliason, Steven J Cooke
Cardiovascular responses of decapod crustaceans to environmental challenges have received extensive attention. However, nearly all of these studies have been restricted to lab-based experiments; here we describe a methodology that will enable measurement of heart rate (HR) in free-moving decapods in the field. Data storage tag heart rate and temperature loggers (DST micro-HRT; Star-Oddi) were used to record electrocardiograms (ECG) and HR in large decapod crustaceans. These loggers were originally designed for use in vertebrates and must be surgically implanted in the body cavity near the heart in order to function...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205540/structuring-of-functional-spider-silk-wires-coatings-and-sheets-by-self-assembly-on-superhydrophobic-pillar-surfaces
#11
Linnea Gustafsson, Ronnie Jansson, My Hedhammar, Wouter van der Wijngaart
Spider silk has recently become a material of high interest for a large number of biomedical applications. Previous work on structuring of silk has resulted in particles (0D), fibers (1D), films (2D), and foams, gels, capsules, or microspheres (3D). However, the manufacturing process of these structures is complex and involves posttreatment of chemicals unsuitable for biological applications. In this work, the self-assembly of recombinant spider silk on micropatterned superhydrophobic surfaces is studied. For the first time, structuring of recombinant spider silk is achieved using superhydrophobic surfaces under conditions that retain the bioactivity of the functionalized silk...
December 4, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204783/the-impact-of-rehabilitative-interventions-on-quality-of-life-a-qualitative-evidence-synthesis-of-personal-experiences-of-individuals-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#12
REVIEW
Ammarah Y Soofi, Vanina Dal Bello-Haas, Michelle E Kho, Lori Letts
BACKGROUND: The nature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is progressive and degenerative, thus influencing individuals physically, emotionally, and socially. A broad review of qualitative studies that describe the personal experiences of people with ALS with physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language pathology interventions, and how those affect QoL is warranted. PURPOSE: This study synthesizes qualitative research regarding the potential that rehabilitation interventions have to maintain and/or improve QoL from the perspective of people with ALS...
December 4, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203920/pan-arthropod-analysis-reveals-somatic-pirnas-as-an-ancestral-defence-against-transposable-elements
#13
Samuel H Lewis, Kaycee A Quarles, Yujing Yang, Melanie Tanguy, Lise Frézal, Stephen A Smith, Prashant P Sharma, Richard Cordaux, Clément Gilbert, Isabelle Giraud, David H Collins, Phillip D Zamore, Eric A Miska, Peter Sarkies, Francis M Jiggins
In animals, small RNA molecules termed PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence transposable elements (TEs), protecting the germline from genomic instability and mutation. piRNAs have been detected in the soma in a few animals, but these are believed to be specific adaptations of individual species. Here, we report that somatic piRNAs were probably present in the ancestral arthropod more than 500 million years ago. Analysis of 20 species across the arthropod phylum suggests that somatic piRNAs targeting TEs and messenger RNAs are common among arthropods...
December 4, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197941/heterogeneous-functional-expression-of-the-sustained-inward-na-current-in-guinea-pig-sinoatrial-node-cells
#14
Futoshi Toyoda, Ding Wei-Guang, Hiroshi Matsuura
The sustained inward Na+ current (I st) identified in the sinoatrial node (SAN) cell has been suggested to play a pivotal role in cardiac pacemaking. However, the composition of cells in the SAN is heterogeneous and cell-to-cell variability in the magnitude of I st remains to be fully characterized. The present study investigated the current density of I st in morphologically different types of pacemaker cells dissociated from guinea pig SAN. I st was preferentially detected in spontaneously active spindle or spider-shaped cells, but was less well expressed in larger-sized elongated spindle-type cells and practically absent in clearly striated atrial-like cells, despite clear expression of the funny current (I f)...
December 3, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196631/conservation-of-folding-and-association-within-a-family-of-spidroin-n-terminal-domains
#15
Julia C Heiby, Suhaila Rajab, Charlotte Rat, Christopher M Johnson, Hannes Neuweiler
Web spiders synthesize silk fibres, nature's toughest biomaterial, through the controlled assembly of fibroin proteins, so-called spidroins. The highly conserved spidroin N-terminal domain (NTD) is a pH-driven self-assembly device that connects spidroins to super-molecules in fibres. The degree to which forces of self-assembly is conserved across spider glands and species is currently unknown because quantitative measures are missing. Here, we report the comparative investigation of spidroin NTDs originating from the major ampullate glands of the spider species Euprosthenops australis, Nephila clavipes, Latrodectus hesperus, and Latrodectus geometricus...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195362/a-novel-optical-rotary-encoder-with-eccentricity-self-detection-ability
#16
Xuan Li, Guoyong Ye, Hongzhong Liu, Yaowen Ban, Yongsheng Shi, Lei Yin, Bingheng Lu
Eccentricity error is the main error source of optical rotary encoders. Real-time detection and compensation of the eccentricity error is an effective way of improving the accuracy of rotary optical encoders. In this paper, a novel rotary optical encoder is presented to realize eccentricity self-detection. The proposed encoder adopts a spider-web-patterned scale grating as a measuring standard which is scanned by a dual-head scanning unit. Two scanning heads of the dual-head scanning unit, which are arranged orthogonally, have the function of scanning the periodic pattern of the scale grating along the angular and radial directions, respectively...
November 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190614/how-survey-design-affects-monkey-counts-a-case-study-on-individually-recognized-spider-monkeys-ateles-geoffroyi
#17
Denise Spaan, Gabriel Ramos-Fernández, Colleen M Schaffner, Braulio Pinacho-Guendulain, Filippo Aureli
The fast movement and high degree of fission-fusion dynamics of spider monkeys (Ateles spp.) make them notoriously difficult to survey. We examined which aspects of survey design affect spider monkey sightings along transects in a group of individually recognized spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Punta Laguna, Yucatan, Mexico. We calculated the number of monkeys and subgroups sighted per transect walk. Using generalized linear models, we found no effect of the number of observers, transect type (new vs. existing), walking speed, or time of day on individual monkey counts or subgroup counts...
December 1, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188403/maternal-acceptance-moderates-fear-ratings-and-avoidance-behavior-in-children
#18
Yaara Shimshoni, Wendy K Silverman, Simon P Byrne, Eli R Lebowitz
Avoidance is a hallmark feature of anxiety disorders, and avoidance-related impairment is often key to meeting diagnostic criteria. In children and adolescents with anxiety disorders, levels of avoidance vary considerably. Using a novel motion-tracking measure of avoidance behavior, we examined whether maternal acceptance, characterized by warm and accepting responses to child feelings and behaviors, moderates the association between fear of spiders and behavioral avoidance of spider stimuli in 103 clinically anxious children...
November 29, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187992/field-evidence-challenges-the-often-presumed-relationship-between-early-male-maturation-and-female-biased-sexual-size-dimorphism
#19
Marie-Claire Chelini, Eileen Hebets
Female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often considered an epiphenomenon of selection for the increased mating opportunities provided by early male maturation (i.e., protandry). Empirical evidence of the adaptive significance of protandry remains nonetheless fairly scarce. We use field data collected throughout the reproductive season of an SSD crab spider, Mecaphesa celer, to test two hypotheses: Protandry provides fitness benefits to males, leading to female-biased SSD, or protandry is an indirect consequence of selection for small male size/large female size...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186383/effects-of-low-temperature-on-spider-mite-control-by-intermittent-ultraviolet-b-irradiation-for-practical-use-in-greenhouse-strawberries
#20
Kazuhiro Nakai, Yasumasa Murata, Masahiro Osakabe
The application of ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to control spider mites is challenging as a key technology for integrated pest management (IPM) in greenhouse strawberries in Japan. To address this, concurrent use of phytoseiid mites and reduced UVB irradiance is desirable to ensure control effects in areas shaded from UVB radiation and to minimize the sunscald in winter, respectively. We designed experiments reproducing the UVB dose on the lower leaf surfaces in strawberry and evaluated the effects of intermittent UVB irradiation at midnight for practical application in the greenhouse and low temperature on the survival of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and damage to the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae)...
November 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
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