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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735001/characterization-of-full-length-tubuliform-spidroin-gene-from-araneus-ventricosus
#1
Rui Wen, Xiangqin Liu, Qing Meng
Orb-web spiders produce at least seven different protein-based silk that exhibit different mechanical properties. Egg case silk is spun by tubuliform glands and used to form the outer shell of egg case. To date, only two complete cDNA sequences have been reported for tubuliform spidroin (TuSp, also known as CySp for cylindrical spidroin). Here, we report the complete genomic DNA sequence for a tubuliform spidroin (TuSp1) gene from orb-web weaving spider species Araneus ventricosus, which was obtained by using a long distance PCR approach...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734237/the-spider-and-the-snake-a-psychometric-study-of-two-phobias-and-insights-from-the-hungarian-validation
#2
Andras N Zsido
Specific phobias-particularly zoophobias-are prevalent worldwide and can have fairly dramatic health consequences. Self-report measurements play a crucial role in phobia research studies; thus, it is important to have a reliable tool in different languages. The present investigation examined the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of two commonly used measures of fear: the Spider Phobia Questionnaire (i.e. SPQ) and the Snake Questionnaire (i.e. SNAQ). The SPQ and SNAQ scores both demonstrated excellent reliability, including a test-retest over a 4-week period...
July 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725404/age-dependent-male-mating-tactics-in-a-spider-mite-a-life-history-perspective
#3
Yukie Sato, Peter T Rühr, Helmut Schmitz, Martijn Egas, Alexander Blanke
Males often fight with rival males for access to females. However, some males display nonfighting tactics such as sneaking, satellite behavior, or female mimicking. When these mating tactics comprise a conditional strategy, they are often thought to be explained by resource holding potential (RHP), that is, nonfighting tactics are displayed by less competitive males who are more likely to lose a fight. The alternative mating tactics, however, can also be explained by life-history theory, which predicts that young males avoid fighting, regardless of their RHP, if it pays off to wait for future reproduction...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724739/distinct-spinning-patterns-gain-differentiated-loading-tolerance-of-silk-thread-anchorages-in-spiders-with-different-ecology
#4
Jonas O Wolff, Arie van der Meijden, Marie E Herberstein
Building behaviour in animals extends biological functions beyond bodies. Many studies have emphasized the role of behavioural programmes, physiology and extrinsic factors for the structure and function of buildings. Structure attachments associated with animal constructions offer yet unrealized research opportunities. Spiders build a variety of one- to three-dimensional structures from silk fibres. The evolution of economic web shapes as a key for ecological success in spiders has been related to the emergence of high performance silks and thread coating glues...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724730/stacked-bt-maize-and-arthropod-predators-exposure-to-insecticidal-cry-proteins-and-potential-hazards
#5
Zdeňka Svobodová, Yinghua Shu, Oxana Skoková Habuštová, Jörg Romeis, Michael Meissle
Genetically engineered (GE) crops with stacked insecticidal traits expose arthropods to multiple Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). One concern is that the different Cry proteins may interact and lead to unexpected adverse effects on non-target species. Bi- and tri-trophic experiments with SmartStax maize, herbivorous spider mites (Tetranychus urticae), aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi), predatory spiders (Phylloneta impressa), ladybeetles (Harmonia axyridis) and lacewings (Chrysoperla carnea) were conducted...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721663/influence-of-direct-or-indirect-contact-for-the-cytotoxicity-and-blood-compatibility-of-spider-silk
#6
J W Kuhbier, V Coger, J Mueller, C Liebsch, F Schlottmann, V Bucan, P M Vogt, S Strauss
Spider silk became one of the most-researched biomaterials in the last years due to its unique mechanical strength and most favourable chemical composition for tissue engineering purposes. However, standardized analysis of cytocompatibility is missing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate hemolysis, cytotoxicity of native spider silk as well as influences on the cell culture medium. Changes of cell culture medium composition, osmolarity as well as glucose and lactate content were determined via ELISA measurement...
August 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721519/variations-of-cocoon-external-lipids-during-wolf-spiderlings-development
#7
F Ruhland, S Schulz, Marie Trabalon
This study presents the first characterisation of the silk lipids of the cocoons of a wolf spider (Pardosa saltans). Wolf spiders' maternal behaviour is complex and involves guarding a cocoon for several weeks, and so cocoons must emit cues to ensure their care and the development of juveniles. We investigated cues associated with the cocoon silk. We assessed qualitative changes of the lipid contents and the composition of cocoon silk in relation to the development of P. saltans wolf spider juveniles. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of P...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719809/assessing-participants-perceptions-on-group-based-principles-for-action-in-community-based-health-enhancing-physical-activity-programmes-the-apef-tool
#8
Marion Herens, Annemarie Wagemakers
In community-based health enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programmes, group-based principles for action such as active participation, enjoyment, and fostering group processes are widely advocated. However, not much is known about participants' perceptions of these principles as there are no assessment tools available. Therefore, this article describes the development of the APEF (Active Participation, Enjoyment, and Fostering group processes) tool and reports on its implementation in a Dutch CBHEPA programme...
July 4, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718973/constructing-a-multidimensional-free-energy-surface-like-a-spider-weaving-a-web
#9
Changjun Chen
Complete free energy surface in the collective variable space provides important information of the reaction mechanisms of the molecules. But, sufficient sampling in the collective variable space is not easy. The space expands quickly with the number of the collective variables. To solve the problem, many methods utilize artificial biasing potentials to flatten out the original free energy surface of the molecule in the simulation. Their performances are sensitive to the definitions of the biasing potentials...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718819/akanthopyrones-a-d-%C3%AE-pyrones-bearing-a-4-o-methyl-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranose-moiety-from-the-spider-associated-ascomycete-akanthomyces-novoguineensis
#10
Wilawan Kuephadungphan, Soleiman E Helaly, Charuwan Daengrot, Souwalak Phongpaichit, Janet Jennifer Luangsa-Ard, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Marc Stadler
Hypocrealean fungi have proved to be prolific bioactive metabolite producers; they have caught the attention of mycologists throughout the world. However, only a few studies on the insect and spider parasitic genus Akanthomyces have so far been carried out. In this study, we report the isolation, structural elucidation and biological activities of four unprecedented glycosylated α-pyrone derivatives, akanthopyrones A-D (1-4), from a culture of Akanthomyces novoguineensis collected in Thailand. The chemical structures of the akanthopyrones were determined by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR, and HRMS spectroscopic analysis...
July 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712321/assessing-the-effectiveness-of-mitochondrial-coi-and-16s-rrna-genes-for-dna-barcoding-of-farmland-spiders-in-china
#11
Zheng Liang Wang, Xiao Qing Yang, Tian Zhao Wang, Xiaoping Yu
DNA barcoding has been widely used to identify and discover new species in a wide range of taxa. In order to assess the effectiveness of COI (cytochrome C oxidase subunit I) and 16S (16S ribosomal RNA) in the discrimination of spiders, we have generated 289 barcodes for a total of 56 farmland spider species from 14 different families for the first time in China. Our results reveal that the standard barcoding marker COI can be used to distinguish the farmland spiders both in species and family level by NJ tree-based method, despite the absence of a barcode gap between the intra- and inter-specific genetic divergences...
July 15, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709396/rapid-diversification-of-homothorax-expression-patterns-after-gene-duplication-in-spiders
#12
Natascha Turetzek, Sara Khadjeh, Christoph Schomburg, Nikola-Michael Prpic
BACKGROUND: Gene duplications provide genetic material for the evolution of new morphological and physiological features. One copy can preserve the original gene functions while the second copy may evolve new functions (neofunctionalisation). Gene duplications may thus provide new genes involved in evolutionary novelties. RESULTS: We have studied the duplicated homeobox gene homothorax (hth) in the spider species Parasteatoda tepidariorum and Pholcus phalangioides and have compared these data with previously published data from additional spider species...
July 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707033/impact-of-constant-versus-fluctuating-temperatures-on-the-development-and-life-history-parameters-of-tetranychus-urticae-acari-tetranychidae
#13
M S Y I Bayu, M S Ullah, Y Takano, T Gotoh
The impact of daily temperature fluctuations on arthropod life history parameters is inadequately studied compared with the ample amount of research that has been conducted on the effects of constant temperatures. Fluctuating temperatures are likely to be more realistic, as they are ecologically more similar to what these arthropods experience in nature. Here, we compared the impact of 11 constant temperatures that ranged from 10 to 35 °C with fluctuating temperatures with the same corresponding mean temperature and an amplitude of 10 °C between high (12 h) and low (12 h) temperatures on the development and life history parameters of Tetranychus urticae under continuous light conditions...
July 13, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705500/development-and-characterization-of-bioactive-edible-films-from-spider-crab-maja-crispata-chitosan-incorporated-with-spirulina-extract
#14
Rafik Balti, Mohamed Ben Mansour, Nadhem Sayari, Lamia Yacoubi, Lotfi Rabaoui, Nicolas Brodu, Anthony Massé
Active food packaging films based on crab chitosan and Spirulina extract (SE) were developed. The effects of the SE incorporation at different levels on physical (color, opacity water vapor and oxygen permeability) and mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) properties of chitosan films were investigated. FTIR was carried out to observe the potential modifications of the chitosan films when incorporated with SE. The obtained results suggested that incorporation of SE into chitosan films improved mechanical and barrier properties...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704448/rnai-based-reverse-genetics-in-the-chelicerate-model-tetranychus-urticae-a-comparative-analysis-of-five-methods-for-gene-silencing
#15
Takeshi Suzuki, Maria Andreia Nunes, María Urizarna España, Hooman Hosseinzadeh Namin, Pengyu Jin, Nicolas Bensoussan, Vladimir Zhurov, Tawhid Rahman, Rebecca De Clercq, Pierre Hilson, Vojislava Grbic, Miodrag Grbic
RNA interference (RNAi) can be used for the protection against agricultural pests through the silencing of genes required for pest fitness. To assess the potential of RNAi approaches in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, we compared 5 methods for the delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). These methods include mite feeding on either (i) leaves floating on a dsRNA solution, (ii) dsRNA-expressing plants, (iii) artificial diet supplemented with dsRNA, or (iv) dsRNA-coated leaves, and (v) mite soaking in a dsRNA solution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701553/walking-like-an-ant-a-quantitative-and-experimental-approach-to-understanding-locomotor-mimicry-in-the-jumping-spider-myrmarachne-formicaria
#16
Paul S Shamble, Ron R Hoy, Itai Cohen, Tsevi Beatus
Protective mimicry, in which a palatable species avoids predation by being mistaken for an unpalatable model, is a remarkable example of adaptive evolution. These complex interactions between mimics, models and predators can explain similarities between organisms beyond the often-mechanistic constraints typically invoked in studies of convergent evolution. However, quantitative studies of protective mimicry typically focus on static traits (e.g. colour and shape) rather than on dynamic traits like locomotion...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696408/a-multi-protease-multi-dissociation-bottom-up-to-top-down-proteomic-view-of-the-loxosceles-intermedia-venom
#17
Dilza Trevisan-Silva, Aline V Bednaski, Juliana S G Fischer, Silvio S Veiga, Nuno Bandeira, Adrian Guthals, Fabricio K Marchini, Felipe V Leprevost, Valmir C Barbosa, Andrea Senff-Ribeiro, Paulo C Carvalho
Venoms are a rich source for the discovery of molecules with biotechnological applications, but their analysis is challenging even for state-of-the-art proteomics. Here we report on a large-scale proteomic assessment of the venom of Loxosceles intermedia, the so-called brown spider. Venom was extracted from 200 spiders and fractioned into two aliquots relative to a 10 kDa cutoff mass. Each of these was further fractioned and digested with trypsin (4 h), trypsin (18 h), pepsin (18 h), and chymotrypsin (18 h), then analyzed by MudPIT on an LTQ-Orbitrap XL ETD mass spectrometer fragmenting precursors by CID, HCD, and ETD...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696352/characterization-of-the-fifth-putative-acetylcholinesterase-in-the-wolf-spider-pardosa-pseudoannulata
#18
Xiangkun Meng, Xixia Xu, Haibo Bao, Jianjun Wang, Zewen Liu
Background: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important neurotransmitter hydrolase in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. The number of AChEs is various among invertebrate species, with different functions including the 'classical' role in terminating synaptic transmission and other 'non-classical' roles. Methods: Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology, a new putative AChE-encoding gene was cloned from Pardosa pseudoannulata, an important predatory natural enemy. Sequence analysis and in vitro expression were employed to determine the structural features and biochemical properties of this putative AChE...
July 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694238/functionalized-bioengineered-spider-silk-spheres-improve-nuclease-resistance-and-activity-of-oligonucleotide-therapeutics-providing-a-strategy-for-cancer-treatment
#19
Anna Karolina Kozlowska, Anna Florczak, Maciej Smialek, Ewelina Dondajewska, Andrzej Mackiewicz, Marcin Kortylewski, Hanna Dams-Kozlowska
Cell-selective delivery and sensitivity to serum nucleases remain major hurdles to the clinical application of RNA-based oligonucleotide therapeutics, such as siRNA. Spider silk shows great potential as a biomaterial due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Self-assembling properties of silk proteins allow for processing into several different morphologies such as fibers, scaffolds, films, hydrogels, capsules and spheres. Moreover, bioengineering of spider silk protein sequences can functionalize silk by adding peptide moieties with specific features including binding or cell recognition domains...
July 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693649/morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-tarantobelus-arachnicida-gen-n-sp-n-nematoda-rhabditida-brevibuccidae-a-parasitic-nematode-of-tarantulas
#20
J Abolafia, R Peña-Santiago
A new genus and new species, Tarantobelus arachnicida, was found in the oral opening of tarantula spiders bred in captivity in Poland. The new species is characterized by having a small body (0.77-0.95 mm long in females and 0.66-0.84 mm in males), cuticle poorly annulated by transverse incisures, lateral field inconspicuous, lips separated with small cuticular flaps topping each lip, stoma panagrolaimoid with gymnostom well developed with robust and refringent rhabdia, pharynx panagrolaimoid with isthmus slightly longer than the basal bulb, intestine with cardiac (anterior) and rectal (posterior) areas with narrower walls...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
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