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Brian S Peters, Priscila R Armijo, Crystal Krause, Songita A Choudhury, Dmitry Oleynikov
BACKGROUND: The use of laparoscopic and robotic procedures has increased in general surgery. Minimally invasive robotic surgery has made tremendous progress in a relatively short period of time, realizing improvements for both the patient and surgeon. This has led to an increase in the use and development of robotic devices and platforms for general surgery. The purpose of this review is to explore current and emerging surgical robotic technologies in a growing and dynamic environment of research and development...
February 13, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Yu Zeng, Sarah Crews
Many ambush predators attack prey using rapid strikes, but these strikes are typically only anteriorly directed. However, a predator may attack laterally- and posteriorly-oriented prey if it can couple the strikes with rapid body reorientation. Here, we examined omnidirectional strikes in flattie spiders (Selenopidae), a group of sit-and-wait ambush predators found on open surfaces. These spiders attack prey throughout their entire peripheral range using rapid strikes that consist of rapid translation and rotation toward the prey...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Flore Zélé, Mylène Weill, Sara Magalhães
Spider mites of the genus Tetranychidae are severe crop pests. In the Mediterranean a few species coexist, but they are difficult to identify based on morphological characters. Additionally, spider mites often harbour several species of endosymbiotic bacteria, which may affect the biology of their hosts. Here, we propose novel, cost-effective, multiplex diagnostic methods allowing a quick identification of spider-mite species as well as of the endosymbionts they carry. First, we developed, and successfully multiplexed in a single PCR, primers to identify Tetranychus urticae, T...
February 12, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Dakota M Spear, William A Foster, Andreas Dwi Advento, Mohammad Naim, Jean-Pierre Caliman, Sarah H Luke, Jake L Snaddon, Sudharto Ps, Edgar C Turner
Expansion of oil palm agriculture is currently one of the main drivers of habitat modification in Southeast Asia. Habitat modification can have significant effects on biodiversity, ecosystem function, and interactions between species by altering species abundances or the available resources in an ecosystem. Increasing complexity within modified habitats has the potential to maintain biodiversity and preserve species interactions. We investigated trophic interactions between Argyrodes miniaceus, a cleptoparasitic spider, and its Nephila spp...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Troy Munro, Tristan Putzeys, Cameron G Copeland, Changhu Xing, Randolph V Lewis, Heng Ban, Christ Glorieux, Michael Wubbenhorst
The processes used to create synthetic spider silk greatly affect the properties of the produced fibers. This paper investigates the effect of process variations during artificial spinning on the thermal and mechanical properties of the produced silk. Property values are also compared to the ones of the natural dragline silk of the N. clavipes spider, and to unprocessed (as-spun) synthetic silk. Structural characterization by scanning pyroelectric microscopy is employed to provide insight into the axial orientation of the crystalline regions of the fiber and is supported by XRD data...
April 2017: Macromolecular Materials and Engineering
Jeremy D Wilson, Jane M Hughes, Robert J Raven, Michael G Rix, Daniel J Schmidt
Spiders of the infraorder Mygalomorphae are fast becoming model organisms for the study of biogeography and speciation. However, these spiders can be difficult to study in the absence of fundamental life history information. In particular, their cryptic nature hinders comprehensive sampling, and linking males with conspecific females can be challenging. Recently discovered differences in burrow entrance architecture and male morphology indicated that these challenges may have impeded our understanding of the trapdoor spider genus Euoplos in Australia's eastern mesic zone...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Junfeng Hou, Yu Xie, Aiguo Ji, Anyuan Cao, Ying Fang, Enzheng Shi
Combination of nanostructures with biomaterials offers great opportunities in constructing innovated functional devices such as bio-sensors and actuators. Here, we create a multifunctional fiber by wrapping a thin film of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on naturally found spider silks, which shows great flexibility and conductivity. The hybrid CNT-silk fiber demonstrates intimate contact with cardiomyocytes and can direct the cell growth and simultaneously record potential signals evoked from cell beating. Cell activities reflected in the form of potential signals have been monitored clearly and reliably through the CNT-silks, without degradation over a long term...
February 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Daniel E Martin, Mohamed A Latheef
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an important pest of cotton in mid-southern USA and causes yield reduction and deprivation in fiber fitness. Cotton and pinto beans grown in the greenhouse were infested with spider mites at the three-leaf and trifoliate stages, respectively. Spider mite damage on cotton and bean canopies expressed as normalized difference vegetation index indicative of changes in plant health was measured for 27 consecutive days. Plant health decreased incrementally for cotton until day 21 when complete destruction occurred...
February 8, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Akira Naito, Keiko Okushita, Katsuyuki Nishimura, Gregory Steven Boutis, Akihiro Aoki, Tetsuo Asakura
Poly-L-alanine (PLA) sequences are a key element in the structure of the crystalline domains of spider dragline silks, wild silkworm silks, antifreeze proteins and amyloids. To date, no atomic level structures of AP-PLA longer than Ala4 have been reported using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In this work, dipolar assisted rotational resonance (DARR) solid-state NMR spectra were observed to determine the effective inter-nuclear distances of 13C uniformly labeled alanine tetramer with antiparallel (AP) β-sheet structure, whose atomic co-ordinates are determined from the X-ray crystallographic analysis...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Sudhakar Basetty, Ajay Kumar Mishra, Sowmya Sathyendra
Amitraz is a triazapentadiene compound belonging to amidine family. As an insecticide and acaricide, it has been used to control red spider mites, scale insects, aphids, leaf worms, whitefly, bollworms, and pear psylla on Oregon pear crops. Poisoning is secondary to accidental or suicidal inhalation and ingestion of the compound. The toxicity profile is mostly in the form of alteration of the nervous system resulting in various clinical manifestations. We describe a case report of amitraz poisoning presenting with coma...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Antonio D Brescovit, Igor Cizauskas, Leandro P Mota
Seven new species of the spider genus Ochyrocera from cave areas in Floresta Nacional de Carajás (state of Pará, northern Brazil) are described: Ochyrocera varyssp. n., Ochyrocera atlachnachasp. n., Ochyrocera laracnasp. n., Ochyrocera aragoguesp. n., Ochyrocera misspidersp. n., Ochyrocera charlottesp. n., and Ochyrocera ungoliantsp. n. Two groups of the species are discussed, the quinquivittata group that include specimens with an apparently bifid retrolateral apophysis in the cymbium of the male palp and the arietina group, here proposed, that include those specimens with an entire cymbium, with no retrolateral apophysis, in the male palp...
2018: ZooKeys
Thiago Castro, Jørgen Eilenberg, Italo Delalibera
The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is an important pest of strawberry crops in Brazil and many other countries. Focus for biocontrol studies involving entomopathogenic fungi has been on three species from the genus Metarhizium: M. anisopliae sensu stricto (s.s.), M. brunneum and M. robertsii. Also, the species Beauveria bassiana has been studied for spider mite control and one isolate (ESALQPL63) is commercially available in Brazil. New and undescribed Metarhizium species have been found recently in Brazil and provide a pool of isolates with potential for biocontrol in Brazil and probably also elsewhere...
February 6, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Laura M Bolt, Amy L Schreier, Kristofor A Voss, Elizabeth A Sheehan, Nancy L Barrickman, Nathaniel P Pryor, Matthew C Barton
When a forest is fragmented, this increases the amount of forest edge relative to the interior. Edge effects can lead to loss of animal and plant species and decreased plant biomass near forest edges. We examined the influence of an anthropogenic forest edge comprising cattle pasture, coconut plantations, and human settlement on the mantled howler (Alouatta palliata), white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus), Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), and plant populations at La Suerte Biological Research Station (LSBRS), Costa Rica...
February 6, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
James Sparkes, Chris Holland
Unlike spider silk, spinning silkworm silk has the added intricacy of being both fibre and micron-thick glue-like coating. Whilst the natural flow properties of the fibre feedstock fibroin are now becoming more established, our understanding of the coating, sericin is extremely limited and thus presents both a gap in our knowledge and a hindrance to successful exploitation of these materials. In this study we characterise sericin feedstock in its native state from the silkworm Bombyx mori, and by employing both biochemical, rheological and spectroscopic tools, define a natural gold standard...
January 31, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Dimitri Theuerkauff, Georgina A Rivera-Ingraham, Yann Mercky, Mathilde Lejeune, Jehan-Hervé Lignot, Elliott Sucré
Mangroves are increasingly used as biofiltering systems of (pre-treated) domestic effluents. However, these wastewater discharges may affect local macrofauna. This laboratory study investigates the effects of wastewater exposure on the mangrove spider crab Neosarmatium meinerti, a key engineering species which is known to be affected by waste waters in effluent-impacted areas. These effects were quantified by monitoring biological markers of physiological state, namely oxygen consumption, the branchial cavity ventilation rate, gill physiology and morphology, and osmoregulatory and redox balance...
January 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Jun Zhu, Yao Li, Hua Jiang, Chen Liu, Weiwei Lu, Wei Dai, Jianxiang Xu, Fang Liu
The novel mesoionic insecticide triflumezopyrim was highly effective in controlling both imidacloprid-susceptible and resistant planthopper populations in Malaysia. However, the toxicity of triflumezopyrim to planthopper populations and their natural enemies has been under-investigated in China. In this study, the median lethal concentrations (LC50) of triflumezopyrim were determined in eight field populations of Nilaparvata lugens and one population of Sogatella furcifera from China under laboratory conditions...
February 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Diying Huang, Gustavo Hormiga, Chenyang Cai, Yitong Su, Zongjun Yin, Fangyuan Xia, Gonzalo Giribet
Understanding the genealogical relationships among the arachnid orders is an onerous task, but fossils have aided in anchoring some branches of the arachnid tree of life. The discovery of Palaeozoic fossils with characters found in both extant spiders and other arachnids provided evidence for a series of extinctions of what was thought to be a grade, Uraraneida, that led to modern spiders. Here, we report two extraordinarily well-preserved Mesozoic members of Uraraneida with a segmented abdomen, multi-articulate spinnerets with well-defined spigots, modified male palps, spider-like chelicerae and a uropygid-like telson...
February 5, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Bo Wang, Jason A Dunlop, Paul A Selden, Russell J Garwood, William A Shear, Patrick Müller, Xiaojie Lei
Spiders (Araneae) are a hugely successful lineage with a long history. Details of their origins remain obscure, with little knowledge of their stem group and few insights into the sequence of character acquisition during spider evolution. Here, we describe Chimerarachne yingi gen. et sp. nov., a remarkable arachnid from the mid-Cretaceous (approximately 100 million years ago) Burmese amber of Myanmar, which documents a key transition stage in spider evolution. Like uraraneids, the two fossils available retain a segmented opisthosoma bearing a whip-like telson, but also preserve two traditional synapomorphies for Araneae: a male pedipalp modified for sperm transfer and well-defined spinnerets resembling those of modern mesothele spiders...
February 5, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Yu Wang, Jianchuan Wen, Bo Peng, Bingwen Hu, Xin Chen, Zhengzhong Shao
Like most major ampullate silks of spider, the length of Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silkworm silk can shrink to a certain degree when the fiber is in contact with water. However, what happens in terms of molecule chain level and how it correlates to the mechanical properties of the silk during its contraction is not yet being fully understood. Here, we investigate the water induced mechanical properties change as well as structure transition of two kinds of A. pernyi silk fibre, which are forcibly reeled from two different individuals (silkworm a and silkworm b, the silk fibre from either one represents the lower and upper limit of the distribution of mechanical properties, respectively)...
February 5, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Jiao Chen, Xiao-Ming Liu, Yuan Zhang
Different types of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expected to occur in vivo, most structure-activity relationship studies have been carried out for just a few neuronal subtypes. The present review enlightens current aspects of venom modulators of nAChRs. Important electronic databases such as PubMed or Google scholar were explored for the collection of latest studies in the field. Clinical and basic research has shown that cholinergic receptors play a role in several disorders of the nervous system such as chronic pain, Alzheimers disease and addiction to nicotine, alcohol and drugs...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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