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Alan H Zhang, Gagan Sharma, Eivind A B Undheim, Xinying Jia, Mehdi Mobli
Voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) are specialised ion channels that have a voltage dependent mode of action, where ion conduction, or gating, is controlled by a voltage-sensing mechanism. VGICs are critical for electrical signalling and are therefore important pharmacological targets. Among these, voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV s) have attracted particular attention as potential analgesic targets. NaV s, however, comprise several structurally similar subtypes with unique localisations and distinct functions, ranging from amplification of action potentials in nociception (e...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
M E Santamaria, Isabel Diaz, Manuel Martinez
Under natural conditions, plants suffer different stresses simultaneously or in a sequential way. At present, the combined effect of biotic and abiotic stressors is one of the most important threats to crop production. Understanding how plants deal with the panoply of potential stresses affecting them is crucial to develop biotechnological tools to protect plants. As well as for drought stress, the economic importance of the spider mite on agriculture is expected to increase due to climate change. Barley is a host of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae and drought produces important yield losses...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Pablo V M Reis, Daiane Boff, Rodrigo M Verly, Marcella N Melo-Braga, María E Cortés, Daniel M Santos, Adriano M de C Pimenta, Flávio A Amaral, Jarbas M Resende, Maria E de Lima
The antimicrobial peptide LyeTxI isolated from the venom of the spider Lycosa erythrognatha is a potential model to develop new antibiotics against bacteria and fungi. In this work, we studied a peptide derived from LyeTxI, named LyeTxI-b, and characterized its structural profile and its in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities. Compared to LyeTxI, LyeTxI-b has an acetylated N-terminal and a deletion of a His residue, as structural modifications. The secondary structure of LyeTxI-b is a well-defined helical segment, from the second amino acid to the amidated C-terminal, with no clear partition between hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Anke M Klein, Emmelie Flokstra, Rianne van Niekerk, Steven Klein, Ronald M Rapee, Jennifer L Hudson, Susan M Bögels, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck
We investigated the role of self-reports and behavioral measures of interpretation biases and their content-specificity in children with varying levels of spider fear and/or social anxiety. In total, 141 selected children from a community sample completed an interpretation bias task with scenarios that were related to either spider threat or social threat. Specific interpretation biases were found; only spider-related interpretation bias and self-reported spider fear predicted unique variance in avoidance behavior on the Behavior Avoidance Task for spiders...
April 21, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Mosharrof Mondal, Kody Mansfield, Alex Flynt
RNAi has revolutionized genetic research, and is being commercialized as an insect pest control technology. Mechanisms exploited for this purpose are antiviral and therefore rapidly evolving. Ideally, RNAi will also be used for non-insect pests, however, differences in RNAi biology makes this uncertain. Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite) is a destructive non-insect pest, which has a proclivity to develop pesticide resistance. Here we provide a comprehensive study of the endogenous RNAi pathways of spider mites to inform design of exogenous RNAi triggers...
April 20, 2018: RNA
Wolfgang Denzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Paolo Giovanni Ghislandi, Stano Pekár, Magdalena Matzke, Sarah Schulte-Döinghaus, Trine Bilde, Cristina Tuni
The expression of alternative reproductive tactics can be plastic and occur simultaneously depending on cues that vary spatially or temporally. For example, variation in resources and sexual selection intensity is expected to influence the pay-off of each tactic and shape the decision of which tactic to employ. Males of the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis can adopt three tactics: offering a genuine prey gift, a 'worthless' non-nutritious gift, or no gift. We hypothesized that resources and/or male body condition, and mating opportunity and sexual selection intensity, vary over the course of the mating season to shape the coexistence of alternative traits...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Huifeng Zhao, Pham Dinh-Sac, Yang Song, Thi-Duyen Do, Shuqiang Li
Seven new species of the spider genus Pinelema Wang & Li, 2012, from Vietnam are reported: P. damtaoensis Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), P. nuocnutensis Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), P. laensis Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), P. pacchanensis Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), P. spirulata Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), P. xiezi Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), and P. zhenzhuang Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀). Prior to the current study, this genus contained eight species and was known only from southwestern China...
2018: ZooKeys
Natalie Ann Welden, Bexultan Abylkhani, Leigh Michael Howarth
Microplastic pollution is apparent throughout the marine environment from deep ocean sediments to coastal habitats. Most of this is believed to originate on land, although marine activities, such as fishing and shipping, also contribute to the release and redistribution of microplastic. The relative importance of these maritime plastic sources, the manner by which they are distributed in the environment, and their effect on uptake by marine organisms are yet to be fully quantified. In this study, the relative impact of fishing activities on microplastic uptake by demersal fish and crustaceans was explored...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Bartosz Jachimczyk, Damian Dziak, Jacek Czapla, Pawel Damps, Wlodek J Kulesza
The assessment of skills is essential and desirable in areas such as medicine, security, and other professions where mental, physical, and manual skills are crucial. However, often such assessments are performed by people called “experts” who may be subjective and are able to consider a limited number of factors and indicators. This article addresses the problem of the objective assessment of driving style independent of circumstances. The proposed objective assessment of driving style is based on eight indicators, which are associated with the vehicle’s speed, acceleration, jerk, engine rotational speed and driving time...
April 17, 2018: Sensors
Hanna Kuk, Caroline Arnold, Andreas H Wagner, Markus Hecker, Carsten Sticht, Thomas Korff
Development of spider veins is caused by the remodeling of veins located in the upper dermis and promoted by risk factors such as obesity or pregnancy that chronically increase venous pressure. We have repeatedly shown that the pressure-induced increase in biomechanical wall stress is sufficient to evoke the formation of enlarged corkscrew-like superficial veins in mice. Subsequent experimental approaches revealed that interference with endothelial- and/or smooth muscle cell (SMC) activation counteracts this remodeling process...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Cristina Anne Rheims, Giraldo Alayón
The monotypic genus Diminutella gen. n. is proposed to include the type species, Diminutella cortina sp. n. , described from San Diego de los Baños, based on male and female specimens. This species is amongst the smallest Sparianthinae known to date reaching only 4.4 mm body length. It can be distinguished from other Sparianthinae by the combination of eye arrangement, with anterior eye row recurved, posterior eye row straight, spination pattern of legs I-II, with three ventral pairs on tibiae and one on metatarsi, and by the peculiar genitalia, with male palps bearing a large, laminar, layered conductor that rests within a retrolateral depression in the cymbium, and a female vulva with long copulatory ducts coiled around the stalk of a globose blind ending appendage...
2018: ZooKeys
Yizhong Zhou, Anna Rising, Jan Johansson, Qing Meng
All spider silk proteins (spidroins) are composed of N- and C-terminal domains (NT and CT) that act as regulators of silk solubility and assembly, and a central repetitive region, which confers mechanical properties to the fiber. Among the seven types of spider silks, aciniform silk has the highest toughness. Herein, we fused NT and CT domains from major and minor ampullate spidroins (MaSps and MiSps), respectively, to 1-4 repeat domains (W) from another type of spidroin, aciniform spidroin 1(AcSp1). Although the three domains originate from distantly related spidroin types, they keep their respective characteristics in the chimeric spidroins...
April 18, 2018: Biomacromolecules
F Sara Ceccarelli, Nicolás Mongiardino Koch, Eduardo M Soto, Mariana L Barone, Miquel A Arnedo, Martín J Ramírez
While grasslands, one of Earth's major biomes, are known for their close evolutionary ties with ungulate grazers, these habitats are also paramount to the origins and diversification of other animals. Within the primarily South American spider subfamily Amaurobioidinae (Anyphaenidae), several species are found living in the continent's grasslands, with some displaying putative morphological adaptations to dwelling unnoticed in the grass blades. Here, a dated molecular phylogeny provides the backbone for analyses revealing the ecological and morphological processes behind these spiders' grassland adaptations...
April 14, 2018: Systematic Biology
Rodrigo B M Silva, Samuel Greggio, Gianina T Venturin, Jaderson C da Costa, Marcus V Gomez, Maria M Campos
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) play a critical role in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). CTK 01512-2 is a recombinant version of the peptide Phα1β derived from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, which inhibits N-type VGCC/TRPA1-mediated calcium influx. We investigated the effects of this molecule in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The effects of CTK 01512-2 were compared to those displayed by ziconotide-a selective N-type VGCC blocker clinically used for chronic pain-and fingolimod-a drug employed for MS treatment...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Sabrina de Almeida Lima, Clara Guerra-Duarte, Fernanda Costal-Oliveira, Thais Melo Mendes, Luís F M Figueiredo, Daysiane Oliveira, Ricardo A Machado de Avila, Valéria Pereira Ferrer, Dilza Trevisan-Silva, Silvio S Veiga, João C Minozzo, Evanguedes Kalapothakis, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui
Loxoscelism is the most important form of araneism in South America. The treatment of these accidents uses heterologous antivenoms obtained from immunization of production animals with crude loxoscelic venom. Due to the scarcity of this immunogen, new alternatives for its substitution in antivenom production are of medical interest. In the present work, three linear epitopes for Loxosceles astacin-like protease 1 (LALP-1) (SLGRGCTDFGTILHE, ENNTRTIGPFDYDSIMLYGAY, and KLYKCPPVNPYPGGIRPYVNV) and two for hyaluronidase (LiHYAL) (NGGIPQLGDLKAHLEKSAVDI and ILDKSATGLRIIDWEAWR) from Loxosceles intermedia spider venom were identified by SPOT-synthesis technique...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
A Dor, P Liedo
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a key element for the integrated management of pest populations of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Mexico. Its success depends on the survival of mass-reared sterile males and their ability to mate with wild females. However, colonization and mass-rearing conditions can adversely affect their ability to avoid predators. To test if colony management strategies could contribute to improve field survival abilities of mass-reared flies, we compared the survival of males exposed to the orb-weaver spider Argiope argentata...
April 18, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Kelly L Wormwood, Armand Gatien Ngounou Wetie, Marcus Vinicius Gomez, Yue Ju, Paul Kowalski, Marius Mihasan, Costel C Darie
Native Phα1β is a peptide purified from the venom of the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer that has been shown to have an extensive analgesic effect with fewer side effects than ω-conotoxin MVIIA. Recombinant Phα1β mimics the effects of the native Phα1β. Because of this, it has been suggested that Phα1β may have potential to be used as a therapeutic for controlling persistent pathological pain. The amino acid sequence of Phα1β is known; however, the exact structure and disulfide arrangement has yet to be determined...
April 16, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Bing Wu
BACKGROUND: In practice, online health communities have passed the adoption stage and reached the diffusion phase of development. In this phase, patients equipped with knowledge regarding the issues involved in health care are capable of switching between different communities to maximize their online health community activities. Online health communities employ doctors to answer patient questions, and high quality online health communities are more likely to be acknowledged by patients...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Skye M Long
The diversity of spider behavior and sensory systems provides an excellent opportunity for comparative studies of the relationship between the brain and behavior. However, the morphology of spiders poses a challenge for histologists since the spider cephalothorax contains heterogeneous tissues and has both tough external and internal sclerotized regions. Unlike the heads of insects, the cephalothorax is highly pressurized, which can cause tissues to shift during processing and can reduce tissue cohesion in thick sections...
April 2018: BioTechniques
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