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M Zaupa, M Dalla Palma, E Sartori, M Brombin, R Pasqualotto
The beam power produced by the negative ion source for the production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma is mainly absorbed by the beam dump component which has been designed also for measuring the temperatures on the dumping panels for beam diagnostics. A finite element code has been developed to characterize, by thermo-hydraulic analysis, the sensitivity of the beam dump to the different beam parameters. The results prove the capability of diagnosing the beam divergence and the horizontal misalignment, while the entity of the halo fraction appears hardly detectable without considering the other foreseen diagnostics like tomography and beam emission spectroscopy...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
M Brombin, M Dalla Palma, R Pasqualotto, N Pomaro
The prototype radio frequency source of the ITER heating neutral beams will be first tested in SPIDER test facility to optimize H(-) production, cesium dynamics, and overall plasma characteristics. Several diagnostics will allow to fully characterise the beam in terms of uniformity and divergence and the source, besides supporting a safe and controlled operation. In particular, thermal measurements will be used for beam monitoring and system protection. SPIDER will be instrumented with mineral insulated cable thermocouples, both on the grids, on other components of the beam source, and on the rear side of the beam dump water cooled elements...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Jaime Pinzon, John R Spence, David W Langor, David P Shorthouse
The Ecosystem Management Emulating Natural Disturbances (EMEND) project tests the hypothesis that varying levels of green tree retention maintain and retain forest biodiversity better than conventional clear-cutting. We studied epigaeic spiders to assess biodiversity changes 2, 5, and 10 yr following a range of partial retention harvests (clear-cut, 10-75% retention) and unharvested controls in four boreal mixedwood cover types. A total of 56 371 adult spiders representing 220 species was collected using pitfall traps...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jörg Neubert, Katja Hillbrandt, Mathias Weymar, Alfons O Hamm, Julia Wendt
Inhibitory learning is an important factor for decreasing fear expression. We investigated conditioned inhibition of learned fear responses using conditioned excitors and inhibitors differing in fear-relevance in a sample of 48 healthy female students. To study the effect of stimulus fear-relevance, we used the fear potentiated startle paradigm in an AX+/BX- discrimination learning task with fear-relevant (spider) vs. fear-irrelevant (butterfly) pictures as CS+ (A) and CS- (B), respectively. We found that, during acquisition, participants with elevated fear of spiders showed stronger fear potentiated startle to AX+ compared to BX- when the inhibitor (B) was fear-irrelevant (butterfly) using both median split as well as correlational analyses...
November 26, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Hsuan-Chen Wu, David N Quan, Chen-Yu Tsao, Yi Liu, Jessica L Terrell, Xiaolong Luo, Jen-Chang Yang, Gregory F Payne, William E Bentley
Cover Legend The cover image, by William Bentley et al., is based on the Article Conferring biological activity to native spider silk: A biofunctionalized protein-based microfiber, DOI: 10.1002/bit.26065.
January 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Horacio Tapia-McClung, Helena Ajuria Ibarra, Dinesh Rao
Digital processing and analysis of high resolution images of 30 individuals of the orb web spider Verrucosa arenata were performed to extract and quantify human visible colors present on the dorsal abdomen of this species. Color extraction was performed with minimal user intervention using an unsupervised algorithm to determine groups of colors on each individual spider, which was then analyzed in order to quantify and classify the colors obtained, both spatially and using energy and entropy measures of the digital images...
2016: PloS One
Małgorzata Kwiatkowska, Adriana Rakowska, Irena Walecka, Lidia Rudnicka
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease, which is characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, presence of specific antibodies and vascular involvement. Capillaroscopy is a useful method for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with systemic sclerosis. Trichoscopy is a rapid, non-invasive technique, which has become a standard procedure in differential diagnosis of scalp and hair diseases. The aim of this study was to assess whether trichoscopy may be applied in imaging microvessels in patients with systemic sclerosis...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Case Reports
Xiao-Ying Zhang, Pei-Ying Zhang
Venom secretions from snakes, scorpions, spiders and bees, have been widely applied in traditional medicine and current biopharmaceutical research. Possession of anticancer potential is another novel discovery for animal venoms and toxins. An increasing number of studies have shown the anticancer effects of venoms and toxins of snakes, and scorpions in vitro and in vivo, which were achieved mainly through the inhibition of cancer growth, arrest of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis and suppression of cancer metastasis...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
Jun Woo Jeon, Se Youn Cho, Yu Jin Jeong, Dong Seok Shin, Na Rae Kim, Young Soo Yun, Hyun-Tae Kim, Soo Bong Choi, Won G Hong, Hae Jin Kim, Hyoung-Joon Jin, Byung Hoon Kim
Thermally reducible pyroprotein-based electronic textiles (e-textiles) are fabricated using graphene oxide and a pyroprotein such as cocoon silk and spider web without any chemical agents. The electrical conductivity of the e-textile is 11.63 S cm(-1) , which is maintained even in bending, washing, and temperature variation.
November 29, 2016: Advanced Materials
Diana L Zuza-Alves, Sayama S T Q de Medeiros, Luanda B F C de Souza, Walicyranison P Silva-Rocha, Elaine C Francisco, Maria C B de Araújo, Reginaldo G Lima-Neto, Rejane P Neves, Analy S de Azevedo Melo, Guilherme M Chaves
Several studies have been developed regarding human health risks associated with the recreational use of beaches contaminated with domestic sewage. These wastes contain various micro-organisms, including Candida tropicalis. In this context, the objective of this study was to characterize C. tropicalis isolates from the sandy beach of Ponta Negra, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, regarding the expression of in vitro virulence factors, adaptation to osmotic stress and susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We analyzed 62 environmental isolates and observed a great variation among them for the various virulence factors evaluated...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yucheng Lin, Francesco Ballarin, Shuqiang Li
Forty-three new species of Nesticidae are described from China, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam and Madagascar, and two new junior synonyms are suggested. A new genus, Speleoticusgen. n., is described with Nesticus navicellatus Liu & Li, 2013 as the type species, and four species are transferfed from Nesticus, i.e., Speleoticus globosus (Liu & Li, 2013), comb. n., Speleoticus libo (Chen & Zhu, 2005), comb. n., Speleoticus navicellatus (Liu & Li, 2015), comb. n. and Speleoticus uenoi (Yaginuma, 1972), comb...
2016: ZooKeys
Alexandra Rueda, Emilio Realpe, Alfredo Uribe
The genus Latrodectus has not been studied in Colombia even though it is medically important worldwide; there are three species for the country, this study focused on a non-identified species found in the Tatacoa Desert in the Huila Department. This research is the first approximation to the extraction, composition analysis and toxicity evaluation of the venom of a species of the genus Latrodectus in Colombia; and aims to evaluate the toxicity by the initial characterization of its venom. The venom extraction was accomplished with electrostimulation and total protein concentration was determined by the Lowry method and BCA assays from crude venom; with these methods, high protein concentration of the samples was measured...
November 23, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Justin A Jones, Thomas I Harris, Paula F Oliveira, Brianne E Bell, Abdulrahman Alhabib, Randolph V Lewis
The production of recombinant spider silk proteins continues to be a key area of interest for a number of research groups. Several key obstacles exist in their production as well as in their formulation into useable products. The original reported method to solubilize recombinant spider silk proteins (rSSp) in an aqueous solution involved using microwaves to quickly generate heat and pressure inside of a sealed vial containing rSSp and water. Fibers produced from this system are remarkable in their mechanical ability and demonstrate the ability to be stretched and recover 100 times...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Edilene S Soares, Leila M Stávale, Monique C P Mendonça, Andressa Coope, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
We have previously demonstrated that Phoneutria nigriventer venom (PNV) causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, swelling of astrocytes end-feet and fluid permeation into brain interstitium in rats. Caveolae and water channels respond to BBB alterations by co-participation in shear stress response and edema formation/resolution. Herein, we showed post-natal developmental-related changes of two BBB-associated transporter proteins: the endothelial caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the major scaffolding protein from caveolae frame, and the astroglial aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel protein expressed in astrocytic peri-vascular end-feet processes, in the hippocampus of rats intraperitoneally-administered PNV...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Eugene McSorley, Jayne Morriss, Carien M van Reekum
Visual stimuli may be selected for priority at different stages within the processing stream, depending on how motivationally relevant they are to the perceiver. Here we examine the extent to which individual differences in motivational relevance of task-irrelevant images (spider, crash, baby, food and neutral) guide eye-movements to a simple "follow the cross" task in 96 participants. We found affective images vs. neutral images to be generally more distracting, as shown by faster first saccade latencies and greater deviation in the final landing position from the target cross...
November 21, 2016: Biological Psychology
N Ferretti, G Pompozzi, S Copperi, A Wehitt, E Galíndez, A González, F Pérez-Miles
Many adult male spiders have silk glands which are not associated with the spinnerets. They occur on the anterior margin of the genital furrow and are used during the building of the sperm web and sperm droplet induction. These epiandrous glands exit the body through ducts which lead to specialized spigots. In the taxon Mygalomorphae, the presence of epiandrous spigots is just reported for a couple of species but their morphology has not been investigated. In this paper we provide a detailed study of the ultrastructure morphology of eighteen species belonging to eight families using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
November 15, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Raffaella Pascale, Gerarda Grossi, Gabriele Cruciani, Giansalvatore Mecca, Donatello Santoro, Renzo Sarli Calace, Patrizia Falabella, Giuliana Bianco
Sequence protein identification by a randomized sequence database and transcriptome mass spectrometry software package has been developed at the University of Basilicata in Potenza (Italy) and designed to facilitate the determination of the amino acid sequence of a peptide as well as an unequivocal identification of proteins in a high-throughput manner with enormous advantages of time, economical resource and expertise. The software package is a valid tool for the automation of a de novo sequencing approach, overcoming the main limits and a versatile platform useful in the proteomic field for an unequivocal identification of proteins, starting from tandem mass spectrometry data...
2016: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Henrik Krehenwinkel, Dennis Rödder, Magdalena Năpăruş-Aljančič, Matjaž Kuntner
Although poleward range expansions are commonly attributed to global change, a complex interaction of ecological and evolutionary factors might contribute to expansion success. Here, we study the expansion of the yellow sac spider Cheiracanthium punctorium, a medically important species in Central Europe. Using microsatellite markers and DNA sequences, morphological and climate niche analyses, we identify factors associated with the spider's expansion success. Our results indicate that the species' initial expansion has been triggered by environmental change and preadaptation in the source populations...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
Yasumasa Murata, Masahiro Osakabe
Ambient ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation induces lethal effects in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, whereas photoreactivation by irradiation with ultraviolet-A and visible light (VIS) plays an important role to increase survival of mites irradiated by UVB. The physiological mechanisms and ecological significance of photoreactivation in terrestrial arthropods have not been shown clearly. We verified the biological impact and accumulation of DNA lesions by UVB irradiation and the repair of them by photoreactivation in T...
November 21, 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
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