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Ren-Chieh Wu, Ping-Tse Chou, Li-Kuang Chen
BACKGROUND: Thrombosis and coagulopathy are the commonest hematological manifestations of envenomation of Russell's viper venom (RVV). Factor X is activated by a factor X-activating enzyme from Russell's viper venom (RVV-X) to start the coagulation cascade. We established an animal model with local ischemic effects induced by RVV. We tried to treat RVV envenomation with antiplatelets and anticoagulants without recourse to antivenom. METHODS: RVV was injected into the foot pad of mice...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Yukio Ozaki, Shogo Tamura, Katsue Suzuki-Inoue
Platelets play a key role in the pathophysiological processes of hemostasis and thrombus formation. However, platelet functions beyond thrombosis and hemostasis have been increasingly identified in recent years. A large body of evidence now exists which suggests that platelets also play a key role in inflammation, immunity, malignancy, and furthermore in organ development and regeneration, such as the liver. We have recently identified CLEC-2 on the platelet membrane, which induces intracellular activation signals upon interaction of a snake venom, rhodocytin...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Tur-Fu Huang, Chun-Chieh Hsu, Yu-Ju Kuo
Snake venoms affect blood coagulation and platelet function in a complex manner. However, two classes of venom proteins, snaclecs and disintegrins have been shown to specifically target receptors including GPIb, α2β1, GPVI, CLEC-2 and integrins αIIbβ3, αvβ3, α5β1 expressed on platelets, endothelial cells, phagocytes, tumor cells, thus affecting cell-matrices and cell-cell interactions. Here, we focus on disintegrins, a class of low molecular mass Arg-Gly-Asp(RGD)/Lys-Gly-Asp(KGD)-containing, cysteine-rich polypeptide derived from various viper snake venoms...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Christian M Felix, Marc H Levin, Alan S Verkman
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, is often associated with retinal abnormalities including thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer and microcystic changes. Here, we demonstrate that passive transfer of an anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody (AQP4-IgG) produces primary retinal pathology. METHODS: AQP4-IgG was delivered to adult rat retinas by intravitreal injection. Rat retinas and retinal explant cultures were assessed by immunofluorescence...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Daryl C Yang, Jennifer R Deuis, Daniel Dashevsky, James Dobson, Timothy N W Jackson, Andreas Brust, Bing Xie, Ivan Koludarov, Jordan Debono, Iwan Hendrikx, Wayne C Hodgson, Peter Josh, Amanda Nouwens, Gregory J Baillie, Timothy J C Bruxner, Paul F Alewood, Kelvin Kok Peng Lim, Nathaniel Frank, Irina Vetter, Bryan G Fry
Millions of years of evolution have fine-tuned the ability of venom peptides to rapidly incapacitate both prey and potential predators. Toxicofera reptiles are characterized by serous-secreting mandibular or maxillary glands with heightened levels of protein expression. These glands are the core anatomical components of the toxicoferan venom system, which exists in myriad points along an evolutionary continuum. Neofunctionalisation of toxins is facilitated by positive selection at functional hotspots on the ancestral protein and venom proteins have undergone dynamic diversification in helodermatid and varanid lizards as well as advanced snakes...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
Anjana Silva, Wayne C Hodgson, Geoffrey K Isbister
There is limited information on the cross-neutralisation of neurotoxic venoms with antivenoms. Cross-neutralisation of the in vitro neurotoxicity of four Asian and four Australian snake venoms, four post-synaptic neurotoxins (α-bungarotoxin, α-elapitoxin-Nk2a, α-elapitoxin-Ppr1 and α-scutoxin; 100 nM) and one pre-synaptic neurotoxin (taipoxin; 100 nM) was studied with five antivenoms: Thai cobra antivenom (TCAV), death adder antivenom (DAAV), Thai neuro polyvalent antivenom (TNPAV), Indian Polyvalent antivenom (IPAV) and Australian polyvalent antivenom (APAV)...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
Syafiq Asnawi Zainal Abidin, Pathmanathan Rajadurai, Md Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury, Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad Rusmili, Iekhsan Othman, Rakesh Naidu
Tropidolaemus wagleri and Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus are venomous pit viper species commonly found in Malaysia. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the crude venoms has detected different proteins in T. wagleri and C. purpureomaculatus. They were classified into 13 venom protein families consisting of enzymatic and nonenzymatic proteins. Enzymatic families detected in T. wagleri and C. purpureomaculatus venom were snake venom metalloproteinase, phospholipase A₂, ʟ-amino acid oxidase, serine proteases, 5'-nucleotidase, phosphodiesterase, and phospholipase B...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
J C Menon, J K Joseph, M P Jose, B L Dhananjaya, O V Oommen
INTRODUCTION: Snakebite is an occupational hazard causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly so in tropical countries like India. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to (i) review the demographic, clinical and laboratory findings in patients (1051) admitted with venomous snakebite (ii) to correlate mortality, morbidity and duration of hospital stay with clinical signs, symptoms and laboratory parameters. METHODS: A retrospective study of 1051 patients treated for snakebite over 10 years (2000 - 2009) in Little Flower Hospital, Angamaly, Kerala...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Raquel Tonello, Camilla Fusi, Serena Materazzi, Ilaria M Marone, Francesco De Logu, Silvia Benemei, Muryel C Gonçalves, Elisabetta Coppi, Celio J Castro-Junior, Marcus Vinicius Gomez, Pierangelo Geppetti, Juliano Ferreira, Romina Nassini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Peptides from venomous animals have long been important tools for understanding pain mechanisms and for the discovery of pain treatments. Here, we hypothesized that Phα1β, a peptide purified from the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer venom, produces analgesia by blocking the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, human IMR90 fibroblasts or HEK293 cells expressing the human TRPA1 (hTRPA1-HEK293), TRPV1 (hTRPV1-HEK293) or TRPV4 (hTRPV4-HEK293), were used for calcium imaging and electrophysiology...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Marymegan Daly, H Gibbs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Sanjeev K Singh, Shripad B Deshpande
OBJECTIVE: Intra-arterial injection of Mesobuthus tamulus (BT) venom produces reflex vasosensory responses modulating cardiorespiratory parameters in albino rats. The present study was conducted to understand the role of kinin receptors in modulating vasosensory reflexes evoked by BT venom. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In urethane-anesthetized rats, tracheostomy was performed to keep the airway patent. The femoral artery was cannulated proximally, as well as distally, to record the blood pressure (BP) and to inject the chemicals, respectively...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Emmanuel Bourinet, Gerald W Zamponi
Venoms from various predatory species, such as fish hunting mollusks scorpions, snakes and arachnids contain a large spectrum of toxins that include blockers of voltage-gated calcium channels. These peptide blockers act by two principal manners - physical occlusion of the pore and prevention of activation gating. Many of the calcium channel-blocking peptides have evolved to tightly occupy their binding pocket on the principal pore forming subunit of the channel, often rendering block poorly reversible. Moreover, several of the best characterized blocking peptides have developed a high degree of channel subtype selectivity...
October 15, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Sanad Alonezi, Jonans Tusiimire, Jennifer Wallace, Mark J Dufton, John A Parkinson, Louise C Young, Carol J Clements, Jin Kyu Park, Jong Woon Jeon, Valerie A Ferro, David G Watson
In the present study, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was employed to characterise the metabolic profiles of two human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive) and A2780CR (cisplatin-resistant) in response to their exposure to melittin, a cytotoxic peptide from bee venom. In addition, the metabolomics data were supported by application of Biolog microarray technology to examine the utilisation of carbon sources by the two cell lines. Data extraction with MZmine 2.14 and database searching were applied to provide metabolite lists...
October 13, 2016: Metabolites
Erika Camacho, Libia Sanz, Teresa Escalante, Alicia Pérez, Fabián Villalta, Bruno Lomonte, Ana Gisele C Neves-Ferreira, Andrés Feoli, Juan J Calvete, José María Gutiérrez, Alexandra Rucavado
Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) play key biological roles in prey immobilization and digestion. The majority of these activities depend on the hydrolysis of relevant protein substrates in the tissues. Hereby, we describe several isoforms and a cDNA clone sequence, corresponding to PII SVMP homologues from the venom of the Central American pit viper Bothriechis lateralis, which have modifications in the residues of the canonical sequence of the zinc-binding motif HEXXHXXGXXH. As a consequence, the proteolytic activity of the isolated proteins was undetectable when tested on azocasein and gelatin...
October 12, 2016: Toxins
Kyle Mikals, Douglas Beakes, Taylor A Banks
Hymenoptera venom allergy accounts for approximately 17% of all cases of anaphylaxis. Insect stings are a common occurrence across the world, with significant impact on active duty personnel. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) provides an effective treatment for those with systemic reactions to insect stings and other similar indications. We present a case of severe reaction to hymenoptera venom requiring an epinephrine drip and provide an overview for primary care providers on who should be referred to allergy or an allergist, carry an epinephrine auto-injector, and be a candidate for VIT...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Teresa Stemeseder, Eva Klinglmayr, Stephanie Moser, Lisa Lueftenegger, Roland Lang, Martin Himly, Gertie J Oostingh, Joerg Zumbach, Arne C Bathke, Thomas Hawranek, Gabriele Gadermaier
BACKGROUND: Allergen specific IgE antibodies are a hallmark of type I allergy. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the sensitization profiles of an Austrian adolescent population utilizing molecule-based IgE diagnosis. METHODS: Serum samples of 501 non-selected pupils from Salzburg, Austria, were tested in ImmunoCAP ISAC(®) for IgE reactivity to 112 single allergens. Sensitization profiles were assessed and statistically coordinated with reported allergies...
October 18, 2016: Allergy
Ranga M Weerakkody, Pushpa N Lokuliyana, Ruchika D Lanerolle
Hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale; HNV) is one of the six major snake species in Sri Lanka that cause envenomation. Nephrotoxicity, coagulopathy, and neurotoxicity are wellrecognized features of its envenomation. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA4) has only once been described previously in this condition, and we report two further cases. Two patients aged 53 and 51 presented following HNV bites with acute kidney injury and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Both underwent multiple cycles of hemodialysis until the polyuric phase was reached...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Bert Avau, Vere Borra, Philippe Vandekerckhove, Emmy De Buck
BACKGROUND: The worldwide burden of snakebite is high, especially in remote regions with lesser accessibility to professional healthcare. Therefore, adequate first aid for snakebite is of the utmost importance. A wide range of different first aid techniques have been described in literature, and are being used in practice. This systematic review aimed to summarize the best available evidence concerning effective and feasible first aid techniques for snakebite. METHODS: A systematic literature screening, performed independently by two authors in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Embase resulted in 14 studies, fulfilling our predefined selection criteria, concerning first aid techniques for snakebite management...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nikele Nadur-Andrade, Camila Squarzoni Dale, Victoria Regina da Silva Oliveira, Elaine Flamia Toniolo, Regiane Dos Santos Feliciano, José Antonio da Silva, Stella Regina Zamuner
BACKGROUND: Envenoming induced by Bothrops snakebites is characterized by drastic local tissue damage that involves an intense inflammatory reaction and local hyperalgesia which are not neutralized by conventional antivenom treatment. Herein, the effectiveness of photobiomodulation to reduce inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Bothrops moojeni venom (Bmv), as well as the mechanisms involved was investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bmv (1 μg) was injected through the intraplantar route in the right hind paw of mice...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ronelle E Welton, David J Williams, Danny Liew
BACKGROUND: This study provides the first contemporary epidemiological insight into venomous injuries based on demographics and geography in Australia in the timeframe 2000-2013. METHODS: Analysis of national hospitalisation and mortality data to examine the incidence of injury and death due to envenoming in Australia. Rates were calculated using the intercensal population for all Australian age groups. RESULTS: Over the study period, deaths were due to an anaphylactic event (0...
October 17, 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
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