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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905914/development-of-a-gene-synthesis-platform-for-the-efficient-large-scale-production-of-small-genes-encoding-animal-toxins
#1
Ana Filipa Sequeira, Joana L A Brás, Catarina I P D Guerreiro, Renaud Vincentelli, Carlos M G A Fontes
BACKGROUND: Gene synthesis is becoming an important tool in many fields of recombinant DNA technology, including recombinant protein production. De novo gene synthesis is quickly replacing the classical cloning and mutagenesis procedures and allows generating nucleic acids for which no template is available. In addition, when coupled with efficient gene design algorithms that optimize codon usage, it leads to high levels of recombinant protein expression. RESULTS: Here, we describe the development of an optimized gene synthesis platform that was applied to the large scale production of small genes encoding venom peptides...
December 1, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904261/the-north-south-divide-in-snake-bite-envenomation-in-india
#2
REVIEW
Vivek Chauhan, Suman Thakur
Snake bite envenomations are common in rural areas and the incidence peaks during monsoons in India. Prominent venomous species have been traditionally labeled as the 'big four' that includes Cobra, Krait, Russel's viper and Saw scaled viper. Systematic attempts for identification and classification of prevalent snakes in various states of India are missing till now and there is no concrete data on this aspect. The published literature however shows that some species of snakes are more prevalent in a particular region than the other parts of India e...
October 2016: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903075/australian-taipan-oxyuranus-spp-envenoming-clinical-effects-and-potential-benefits-of-early-antivenom-therapy-australian-snakebite-project-asp-25
#3
Christopher I Johnston, Nicole M Ryan, Margaret A O'Leary, Simon G A Brown, Geoffrey K Isbister
CONTEXT: Taipans (Oxyuranus spp.) are medically important venomous snakes from Australia and Papua New Guinea. The objective of this study was to describe taipan envenoming in Australian and its response to antivenom. METHODS: Confirmed taipan bites were recruited from the Australian Snakebite Project. Data were collected prospectively on all snakebites, including patient demographics, bite circumstances, clinical effects, laboratory results, complications and treatment...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902669/an-anaphylactoid-reaction-to-rattlesnake-envenomation-in-a-pediatric-patient
#4
Logan Rencher, Joanna Schwartz, Alexandra Wilson
Rattlesnake envenomation causes a spectrum of symptoms and signs, many of which closely resemble an anaphylactic reaction. Development of airway compromise after a snake bite to an extremity is unusual, but has been previously reported. The majority of such reports detail a history of probable sensitization from previous contact with snakes or snake venom. Few reports exist without such previous contact; no reports are of pediatric cases. Here we present a 14-year-old boy with no history of prior snake exposure who presents with an anaphylactoid reaction after a rattlesnake bite...
November 29, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901080/block-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-by-philanthotoxins-is-strongly-dependent-on-their-subunit-composition
#5
Hamid S Kachel, Rohit N Patel, Henrik Franzyk, Ian R Mellor
Philanthotoxin-433 (PhTX-433) is an active component of the venom from the Egyptian digger wasp, Philanthus triangulum. PhTX-433 inhibits several excitatory ligand-gated ion channels, and to improve selectivity two synthetic analogues, PhTX-343 and PhTX-12, were developed. Previous work showed a 22-fold selectivity of PhTX-12 over PhTX-343 for embryonic muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in TE671 cells. We investigated their inhibition of different neuronal nAChR subunit combinations as well as of embryonic muscle receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901009/occupational-asthma-caused-by-inhalable-royal-jelly-and-its-cross-reactivity-with-honeybee-venom
#6
Li-Sha Li, Kai Guan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900054/scorpion-venoms-in-gastric-cancer
#7
Xiao-Ying Zhang, Pei-Ying Zhang
Venom secretions from snakes, scorpions, spiders and bees, have been widely applied in traditional medicine and current biopharmaceutical research. Possession of anticancer potential is another novel discovery for animal venoms and toxins. An increasing number of studies have shown the anticancer effects of venoms and toxins of snakes, and scorpions in vitro and in vivo, which were achieved mainly through the inhibition of cancer growth, arrest of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis and suppression of cancer metastasis...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898108/monotreme-glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-venom-and-gut-one-gene-two-very-different-functions
#8
Enkhjargal Tsend-Ayush, Chuan He, Mark A Myers, Sof Andrikopoulos, Nicole Wong, Patrick M Sexton, Denise Wootten, Briony E Forbes, Frank Grutzner
The importance of Glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) for metabolic control and insulin release sparked the evolution of genes mimicking GLP-1 action in venomous species (e.g. Exendin-4 in Heloderma suspectum (gila monster)). We discovered that platypus and echidna express a single GLP-1 peptide in both intestine and venom. Specific changes in GLP-1 of monotreme mammals result in resistance to DPP-4 cleavage which is also observed in the GLP-1 like Exendin-4 expressed in Heloderma venom. Remarkably we discovered that monotremes evolved an alternative mechanism to degrade GLP-1...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896920/fusion-of-ssm6a-with-a-protein-scaffold-retains-selectivity-on-nav-1-7-and-improves-its-therapeutic-potential-against-chronic-pain
#9
Chuan Wang, Bin Shan, Qiong Wang, Qunyuan Xu, Hailin Zhang, Huimeng Lei
Voltage gated sodium channel NaV 1.7 serves an attractive target for chronic pain treatment. Several venom peptides were found to selectively inhibit NaV 1.7 but with intrinsic problems. Among them, Ssm6a, a recently discovered centipede venom peptide, shows the greatest selectivity against NaV 1.7, but dissociates from the target too fast and loses bioactivity in synthetic forms. As a disulfide-rich venom peptide, it is difficult to optimize Ssm6a by artificial mutagenesis and produce the peptide with common industrial manufacturing methods...
November 29, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894770/activity-based-targeting-of-secretory-phospholipase-a2-enzymes-a-fatty-acid-binding-protein-assisted-approach
#10
Amir Keshavarz, Ligia Zelaya, Jasmeet Singh, Radha Ranganathan, Joseph Hajdu
Syntheses and enzymological characterization of fluorogenic substrate probes targeting secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) for detection and quantitative assays are presented. Three fluorogenic phosphatidylcholine analogs PC-1, PC-2, and PC-3 each containing the duo of 7-mercapto-4-methyl-coumarin fluorophore and 2,4-dinitroanaline quencher on either tail were synthesized from (R)-3-amino-1,2-propanediol and R-(-)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol. These small reporter groups are advantageous in preserving natural membrane integrity...
November 25, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894263/erratum-to-a-new-transcriptome-and-transcriptome-profiling-of-adult-and-larval-tissue-in-the-box-jellyfish-alatina-alata-an-emerging-model-for-studying-venom-vision-and-sex
#11
Cheryl Lewis Ames, Joseph F Ryan, Alexandra E Bely, Paulyn Cartwright, Allen G Collins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890775/expanding-the-neutralization-scope-of-the-echitab-plus-icp-antivenom-to-include-venoms-of-elapids-from-southern-africa
#12
Andrés Sánchez, Álvaro Segura, Mariángela Vargas, María Herrera, Mauren Villalta, Ricardo Estrada, Francisco Wu, Thea Litschka, Michael Alfred Perry, Alberto Alape-Girón, Guillermo León
EchiTAb-plus-ICP is an antivenom prepared from plasma of horses hyperimmunized with the venoms of the carpet viper (Echis ocellatus), the puff adder (Bitis arietans) and the black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis). Therefore, the use of this antivenom has been limited to Western Africa. In order to expand the neutralization scope of EchiTAb-plus-ICP, we supplemented the immunogenic mixture with the venoms of B. arietans, the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis), the Mozambique spitting cobra (Naja mossambica), the snouted cobra (N...
November 24, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890774/inhibition-of-local-effects-induced-by-bothrops-erythromelas-snake-venom-assessment-of-the-effectiveness-of-brazilian-polyvalent-bothropic-antivenom-and-aqueous-leaf-extract-of-jatropha-gossypiifolia
#13
Juliana Félix-Silva, Jacyra A S Gomes, Jacinthia B Xavier-Santos, Júlia G R Passos, Arnóbio A Silva-Junior, Denise V Tambourgi, Matheus F Fernandes-Pedrosa
Bothrops erythromelas is a snake of medical importance responsible for most of the venomous incidents in Northeastern Brazil. However, this species is not included in the pool of venoms that are used in the Brazilian polyvalent bothropic antivenom (BAv) production. Furthermore, it is well known that antivenom therapy has limited efficacy against venom-induced local effects, making the search for complementary alternatives to treat snakebites an important task. Jatropha gossypiifolia is a medicinal plant widely indicated in folk medicine as an antidote for snakebites, whose effectiveness against Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) has been previously demonstrated in mice...
November 24, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890360/anti-tubercular-peptides-a-quest-of-future-therapeutic-weapon-to-combat-tuberculosis
#14
REVIEW
Ameer Khusro, Chirom Aarti, Paul Agastian
Tuberculosis (TB) is a symbolic menace to mankind, infecting almost one third of the world's populace and causing over a million mortalities annually. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the key pathogen of TB that invades and replicates inside the host's macrophage. With the emerging dilemma of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively-drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), the exigency for developing new TB drugs is an obligation now for worldwide researchers. Among the propitious antimycobacterial agents examined in last few decades, anti-tubercular peptides have been substantiated to be persuasive with multiple advantages such as low immunogenicity, selective affinity to bacterial negatively charged cell envelopes and most importantly divergent mechanisms of action...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889602/toxicity-evaluation-and-initial-characterization-of-the-venom-of-a-colombian-latrodectus-sp
#15
Alexandra Rueda, Emilio Realpe, Alfredo Uribe
The genus Latrodectus has not been studied in Colombia even though it is medically important worldwide; there are three species for the country, this study focused on a non-identified species found in the Tatacoa Desert in the Huila Department. This research is the first approximation to the extraction, composition analysis and toxicity evaluation of the venom of a species of the genus Latrodectus in Colombia; and aims to evaluate the toxicity by the initial characterization of its venom. The venom extraction was accomplished with electrostimulation and total protein concentration was determined by the Lowry method and BCA assays from crude venom; with these methods, high protein concentration of the samples was measured...
November 23, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889600/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-female-and-male-venoms-from-the-mexican-scorpion-centruroides-limpidus-novel-components-found
#16
Jimena Isaias Cid Uribe, Juana Maria Jiménez Vargas, Cesar Vicente Ferreira Batista, Fernando Zamudio Zuñiga, Lourival Domingos Possani
Venom from male and female scorpions of the species Centruroides limpidus were separated by HPLC and their molecular masses determined by mass spectrometry. The relative concentration of components eluting in equivalent retention times from the HPLC column shows some differences. A new peptide with 29 amino acids, cross-linked by three disulfide bonds was found in male scorpions and its structure determined. Another unknown peptide present in female venom, with sequence identity similar to K(+)-channel blocking peptide was isolated...
November 23, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888461/inhibitory-effects-of-bee-venom-and-its-components-against-viruses-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Md Bashir Uddin, Byeong-Hoon Lee, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Jae-Hoon Kim, Tae-Hwan Kim, Hyun-Cheol Lee, Choul Goo Kim, Jong-Soo Lee, Chul-Joong Kim
Bee venom (BV) from honey bee (Apis Melifera L.) contains at least 18 pharmacologically active components including melittin (MLT), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and apamin etc. BV is safe for human treatments dose dependently and proven to possess different healing properties including antibacterial and antiparasitidal properties. Nevertheless, antiviral properties of BV have not well investigated. Hence, we identified the potential antiviral properties of BV and its component against a broad panel of viruses. Co-incubation of non-cytotoxic amounts of BV and MLT, the main component of BV, significantly inhibited the replication of enveloped viruses such as Influenza A virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888371/protective-effect-of-the-sulfated-agaran-isolated-from-the-red-seaweed-laurencia-aldingensis-against-toxic-effects-of-the-venom-of-the-snake-lachesis-muta
#18
Ana Cláudia Rodrigues da Silva, Luciana Garcia Ferreira, Maria Eugênia Rabello Duarte, Mutue Toyota Fujii, Eladio Flores Sanchez, Miguel Daniel Noseda, André Lopes Fuly
Snakebite is a serious occupational hazard affecting mainly rural populations of tropical and subtropical developing countries. Lachesis muta (Bushmaster) bites are extremely serious but are rarely reported in the literature. Bushmaster envenomings are characterized by intense local pain, edema, neurotoxicity, hypotension, local hemorrhage, and dramatic systemic alterations. Antivenom treatment has regularly been used for more than a century; however, it fails to neutralize local tissue damage and hemorrhage, leading to morbidity or disabilities in victims...
November 25, 2016: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886129/insights-into-the-hypertensive-effects-of-tityus-serrulatus-scorpion-venom-purification-of-an-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-like-peptidase
#19
Daniela Cajado-Carvalho, Alexandre Kazuo Kuniyoshi, Bruno Duzzi, Leo Kei Iwai, Úrsula Castro de Oliveira, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles Junqueira de Azevedo, Roberto Tadashi Kodama, Fernanda Vieira Portaro
The number of cases of envenomation by scorpions has grown significantly in Brazil since 2007, with the most severe cases being caused by the Tityus serrulatus scorpion. Although envenomed patients mostly suffer neurotoxic manifestations, other symptoms, such as hypertension, cannot be exclusively attributed to neurotoxins. Omics analyses have detected plentiful amounts of metalloproteases in T. serrulatus venom. However, the roles played by these enzymes in envenomation are still unclear. Endeavoring to investigate the functions of scorpion venom proteases, we describe here for the first time an Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme-like peptidase (ACE-like) purified from T...
November 24, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886127/viperid-envenomation-wound-exudate-contributes-to-increased-vascular-permeability-via-a-damps-tlr-4-mediated-pathway
#20
Alexandra Rucavado, Carolina A Nicolau, Teresa Escalante, Junho Kim, Cristina Herrera, José María Gutiérrez, Jay W Fox
Viperid snakebite envenomation is characterized by inflammatory events including increase in vascular permeability. A copious exudate is generated in tissue injected with venom, whose proteomics analysis has provided insights into the mechanisms of venom-induced tissue damage. Hereby it is reported that wound exudate itself has the ability to induce increase in vascular permeability in the skin of mice. Proteomics analysis of exudate revealed the presence of cytokines and chemokines, together with abundant damage associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) resulting from both proteolysis of extracellular matrix and cellular lysis...
November 24, 2016: Toxins
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