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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350905/ampulexins-a-new-family-of-peptides-in-venom-of-the-emerald-jewel-wasp-ampulex-compressa
#1
Eugene Moore, Ryan Arvidson, Christopher Banks, Jean Urenda, Elizabeth Duong, Haroun Mohammad, Michael E Adams
The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa injects venom directly into the brain and subesophageal ganglion of the cockroach Periplaneta americana, inducing a seven to ten day lethargy termed hypokinesia. Hypokinesia presents as a significant reduction in both escape response and spontaneous walking. We examined aminergic and peptidergic components of milked venom with HPLC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. HPLC coupled with electrochemical detection confirmed presence of dopamine in milked venom, while mass spectrometry revealed that the venom gland and venom sac have distinct peptide profiles, with milked venom predominantly composed of venom sac peptides...
January 19, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342943/the-peptide-pnpp-19-a-spider-toxin-derivative-activates-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors-and-modulates-calcium-channels
#2
Ana C N Freitas, Steve Peigneur, Flávio H P Macedo, José E Menezes-Filho, Paul Millns, Liciane F Medeiros, Maria A Arruda, Jader Cruz, Nicholas D Holliday, Jan Tytgat, Gareth Hathway, Maria E de Lima
The synthetic peptide PnPP-19 comprehends 19 amino acid residues and it represents part of the primary structure of the toxin δ-CNTX-Pn1c (PnTx2-6), isolated from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer. Behavioural tests suggest that PnPP-19 induces antinociception by activation of CB1, μ and δ opioid receptors. Since the peripheral and central antinociception induced by PnPP-19 involves opioid activation, the aim of this work was to identify whether this synthetic peptide could directly activate opioid receptors and investigate the subtype selectivity for μ-, δ- and/or κ-opioid receptors...
January 15, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339413/proteotranscriptomic-analysis-and-discovery-of-the-profile-and-diversity-of-toxin-like-proteins-in-centipede
#3
Feng Zhao, Xinqiang Lan, Tao Li, Yang Xiang, Fang Zhao, Yun Zhang, Wenhui Lee
Centipedes are one of the oldest venomous animals and use their venoms as weapons to attack prey or protect themselves. Their venoms contain various components with different biomedical and pharmacological properties. However, little attention has been paid to the profiles and diversity of their toxin-like proteins/peptides. In this study, we used a proteotranscriptomic approach to uncover the diversity of centipede toxin-like proteins in Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans Nine hundred twenty-three and 6,736 peptides, which were separately isolated from venom and torso tissues, respectively, were identified by ESI-MS/MS and deduced from their transcriptomes...
January 16, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337270/the-cationic-tetradecapeptide-mastoparan-as-a-privileged-structure-for-drug-discovery-enhanced-antimicrobial-properties-of-mitoparan-analogues-modified-at-position-14
#4
John Howl, Lewis Howl, Sarah Jones
Mastoparan (MP) peptides, distributed in insect venoms, induce a local inflammatory response post envenomation. Most endogenous MPs share common structural elements within a tetradecapeptide sequence that adopts an amphipathic helix whilst traversing biological membranes and when bound to an intracellular protein target. Rational modifications to increase cationic charge density and amphipathic helicity engineered mitoparan (MitP), a mitochondriotoxic bioportide and potent secretagogue. Following intracellular translocation, MitP is accreted by mitochondria thus indicating additional utility as an antimicrobial agent...
January 11, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337221/venom-characterization-of-the-amazonian-scorpion-tityus-metuendus
#5
C V F Batista, J G Martins, R Restano-Cassulini, F I V Coronas, F Z Zamudio, R Procópio, L D Possani
The soluble venom from the scorpion Tityus metuendus was characterized by various methods. In vivo experiments with mice showed that it is lethal. Extended electrophysiological recordings using seven sub-types of human voltage gated sodium channels (hNav1.1 to 1.7) showed that it contains both α- and β-scorpion toxin types. Fingerprint analysis by mass spectrometry identified over 200 distinct molecular mass components. At least 60 sub-fractions were recovered from HPLC separation. Five purified peptides were sequenced by Edman degradation, and their complete primary structures were determined...
January 11, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337219/citrus-bioflavonoid-hesperetin-as-inhibitor-of-two-thrombin-like-snake-venom-serine-proteases-isolated-from-crotalus-simus
#6
Roney Vander Dos Santos, Fabian Villalta-Romero, Danijela Stanisic, Luiz Borro, Goran Neshich, Ljubica Tasic
Around 5.5 million people suffer from snakebites per year, with about 400,000 cases with some type of sequelae, such as amputation, and 20,000 to 125,000 cases with the fatal end. Usually, the victim outcome depends on correct, agile and many times in situ intervention based on the proper identification of the snake venom type and its potential effects, among other factors. Therefore, knowledge on the snake venom composition and a research on inhibitors of snake venom target components might ameliorate envenoming dangerous outcome...
January 11, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336144/nanostructured-peptidotoxins-as-natural-pro-oxidants-induced-cancer-cell-death-via-amplification-of-oxidative-stress
#7
Hongzhi Qiao, Dong Fang, Lei Zhang, Xiaochen Gu, Yin Lu, Minjie Sun, Chunmeng Sun, Qineng Ping, Junsong Li, Zhipeng Chen, Jun Chen, Lihong Hu, Liuqing Di
Melittin (Mel), one of the host defense peptides (HDPs) derived from venom of honeybees, demonstrates substantial anticancer properties, which is considered attributed to augmenting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, little has been reported on its pro-oxidation capacity in cancer oxidation therapy. In this study, a ROS amplifying nanodevice was fabricated through direct complexation of two natural pro-oxidants, Mel and condensed epigallocatechin gallate (pEGCG). The obtained nanocomplex (NC) was further covered with phenylboronic acid derivatized hyaluronic acid (pHA) through ROS-responsive boronate ester coordination bond to produce pHA-NC...
January 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331065/component-resolved-diagnostics-to-direct-in-venom-immunotherapy-important-steps-towards-precision-medicine
#8
Simon Blank, Maria Beatrice Bilò, Markus Ollert
Stings of Hymenoptera can induce IgE-mediated systemic and even fatal allergic reactions. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) is the only disease-modifying and curative treatment of venom allergy. However, choosing the correct venom for VIT represents a necessary prerequisite for efficient protection against further anaphylactic sting reactions after VIT. In the past, therapeutic decisions based on the measurement of specific IgE (sIgE) levels to whole venom extracts were not always straightforward, especially when the patient was not able to identify the culprit insect...
January 13, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329419/a-single-mutation-unlocks-cascading-exaptations-in-the-origin-of-a-potent-pitviper-neurotoxin
#9
A Carl Whittington, Andrew J Mason, Darin R Rokyta
Evolutionary innovations and complex phenotypes seemingly require an improbable amount of genetic change to evolve. Rattlesnakes display two dramatically different venom phenotypes. Type I venoms are hemorrhagic with low systemic toxicity and high expression of tissue-destroying snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP). Type II venoms are highly neurotoxic and lack SVMP expression and associated hemorrhagic activity. This dichotomy hinges on Mojave toxin (MTx), a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) based ᵝ-neurotoxin expressed in Type II venoms...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326487/antitoxin-activity-of-aqueous-extract-of-cyclea-peltata-root-against-naja-naja-venom
#10
Thulasi Sivaraman, N S Sreedevi, S Meenatchisundaram, R Vadivelan
OBJECTIVES: Snakebites are a significant and severe global health problem. Till date, anti-snake venom serum is the only beneficial remedy existing on treating the snakebite victims. As antivenom was reported to induce early or late adverse reactions to human beings, snake venom neutralizing potential for Cyclea peltata root extract was tested for the present research by ex vivo and in vivo approaches on Naja naja toxin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo evaluation of venom toxicity and neutralization assays was carried out...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325991/bothrops-jararaca-accessory-venom-gland-is-an-ancillary-source-of-toxins-to-the-snake
#11
Richard Hemmi Valente, Milene Schmidt Luna, Ursula Castro de Oliveira, Milton Yutaka Nishiyama-Junior, Inácio de Loiola Junqueira-de-Azevedo, José Antonio Portes-Junior, Patricia Bianca Clissa, Luciana Godoy Viana, Leonardo Sanches, Ana Maria Moura-da-Silva, Jonas Perales, Norma Yamanouye
In Viperidae snakes, it has been attributed to the main venom gland, a component of the venom gland apparatus, the function of synthesizing all venom toxins and storing them inside a basal-central lumen. However, the role of the accessory gland is still unknown. Here, we analyzed the proteome and the transcriptome of the accessory gland during venom production and secretion cycle. We showed that the accessory gland expresses and synthesizes toxins that are similar to those produced by the main venom gland such as C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like proteins, metalloproteinase, phospholipase A2, cysteine rich secretory protein, nerve growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, serine proteinase, and l-amino acid oxidase...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325746/first-report-of-the-characterization-of-a-snake-venom-apyrase-ruviapyrase-from-indian-russell-s-viper-daboia-russelii-venom
#12
Bhargab Kalita, Aparup Patra, Shagufta Jahan, Ashis K Mukherjee
A novel apyrase from Russell's viper venom (RVV) was purified and characterized, and it was named Ruviapyrase (Russell's viper apyrase). It is a high molecular weight (79.4 kDa) monomeric glycoprotein that contains 2.4% neutral sugars and 58.4% N-linked oligosaccharides and strongly binds to Concanavalin A. The LC-MS/MS analysis did not identify any protein in NCBI protein database, nevertheless some de novo sequences of Ruviapyrase showed putative conserved domain of apyrase superfamily. Ruviapyrase hydrolysed adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to a significantly greater extent (p < ...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325460/targeted-delivery-of-melittin-to-cancer-cells-by-as1411-anti-nucleolin-aptamer
#13
Seyed Hossein Rajabnejad, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Khalil Abnous, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi, Mohammad Ramezani, Bibi Marjan Razavi
Melittin, a small water-soluble cationic amphipathic α-helical linear peptide, consisted of 26 amino acids, is the honeybee venom major constituent. Several reports have proved the lytic and apoptotic effects of melittin in several cancerous cell lines. In this study, we aimed to fabricate an AS1411 aptamer-melittin to specifically deliver melittin to nucleolin positive cells (A549). Melittin was covalently attached to antinucleolin aptamer (AS1411) and its toxicity in A549 (Nucleolin positive) and L929 (Nucleolin negative) was studied using MTT and Annexin V flow cytometry methods...
January 12, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322776/altered-serum-metabolite-profiling-and-relevant-pathways-analysis-in-rats-stimulated-by-honeybee-venom-a-new-insight-into-allergy-to-honeybee-venom
#14
Yazhou Zhao, Jianmei Zhang, Yanping Chen, Zhiguo Li, Hongyi Nie, Wenjun Peng, Songkun Su
To improve our understanding of the disturbed metabolic pathways and cellular responses triggered by honeybee venom stimulation, we compared the changes in serum metabolites rats, either stimulated or not by honeybee venom by performing 1H NMR spectrometry-based metabonomics to identify potential biomarkers. In this study, 65 metabolites were structurally confirmed and quantified and the following results were obtained. Firstly, by pattern recognition analysis, 14 metabolites were selected as potential biomarkers 3 hrs after venom stimulation...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322060/geographical-distribution-of-scorpion-odontobuthus-doriae-in-isfahan-province-central-iran
#15
Rouhullah Dehghani, Hamid Kassiri
Background: Scorpions are among the world's venomous arthropods, they sting humans every year, suffering painful symptoms or losing their lives because of the venom. Odontobuthus doriae Thorell 1876 (Arachnida: Scorpionida: Buthidae) is a scorpion of medical importance and therefore its geographical distribution in Isfahan Province has been studied. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed between Mar and Jun in 2012 and 2013 in Province of Isfahan, central Iran...
September 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322054/spatial-distribution-of-medically-important-scorpions-in-north-west-of-iran
#16
Mulood Mohammadi Bavani, Javad Rafinejad, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi, Shahrokh Navidpour, Farrokh Dabiri, Mehdi Badakhshan, Esmaeil Ghorbani, Masoomeh Bagheri
Background: Scorpions are one of the most important medical arthropods in Iran. This study aimed to determine the fauna, spatial distribution and some morphological characteristics of these venomous arthropods in the study area. Methods: Scorpions were collected using Ultra Violet light, rock rolling and digging methods in West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, and Ardabil Provinces during 2015-2016. The specimens were preserved in 75% ethyl alcohol and transferred to the laboratory for species identification and morphological studies...
September 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321526/the-chemical-armament-of-reef-building-corals-inter-and-intra-specific-variation-and-the-identification-of-an-unusual-actinoporin-in-stylophora-pistilata
#17
Hanit Ben-Ari, Moran Paz, Daniel Sher
Corals, like other cnidarians, are venomous animals that rely on stinging cells (nematocytes) and their toxins to catch prey and defend themselves against predators. However, little is known about the chemical arsenal employed by stony corals, despite their ecological importance. Here, we show large differences in the density of nematocysts and whole-body hemolytic activity between different species of reef-building corals. In the branched coral Stylophora pistillata, the tips of the branches exhibited a greater hemolytic activity than the bases...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321522/accelerated-proteomic-visualization-of-individual-predatory-venoms-of-conus-purpurascens-reveals-separately-evolved-predation-evoked-venom-cabals
#18
S W A Himaya, Frank Marí, Richard J Lewis
Cone snail venoms have separately evolved for predation and defense. Despite remarkable inter- and intra-species variability, defined sets of synergistic venom peptides (cabals) are considered essential for prey capture by cone snails. To better understand the role of predatory cabals in cone snails, we used a high-throughput proteomic data mining and visualisation approach. Using this approach, the relationship between the predatory venom peptides from nine C. purpurascens was systematically analysed. Surprisingly, potentially synergistic levels of κ-PVIIA and δ-PVIA were only identified in five of nine specimens...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319161/anticancer-and-antibacterial-effects-of-iranian-viper-vipera-latifii-venom-an-in-vitro-study
#19
A Moridikia, J Zargan, H Sobati, H-R Goodarzi
Viper venom contains antibacterial and cytotoxic components. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of the crude venom of Vipera latifii (V. latifii). Lyophilized venom of V. latifii was quantified by Bradford method and its antibacterial activity (6.25-400 µg/ml) was assessed using the MTT, MIC, Disc diffusion and Well diffusion assays. Also, its cytotoxic activity was investigated using MTT reduction, Neutral uptake and Comet assay on human liver cancer (HepG2) cell line...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316683/biological-and-proteolytic-variation-in-the-venom-of-crotalus-scutulatus-scutulatus-from-mexico
#20
Miguel Borja, Edgar Neri-Castro, Gamaliel Castañeda-Gaytán, Jason L Strickland, Christopher L Parkinson, Juan Castañeda-Gaytán, Roberto Ponce-López, Bruno Lomonte, Alejandro Olvera-Rodríguez, Alejandro Alagón, Rebeca Pérez-Morales
Rattlesnake venoms may be classified according to the presence/absence and relative abundance of the neurotoxic phospholipases A 2 s (PLA 2 s), such as Mojave toxin, and snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). In Mexico, studies to determine venom variation in Mojave Rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) are limited and little is known about the biological and proteolytic activities in this species. Tissue (34) and venom (29) samples were obtained from C. s. scutulatus from different locations within their distribution in Mexico...
January 8, 2018: Toxins
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