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Steve Peigneur, Jan Tytgat
Venoms from marine and terrestrial animals (cone snails, scorpions, spiders, snakes, centipedes, cnidarian, etc.) can be seen as an untapped cocktail of biologically active compounds, being increasingly recognized as a new emerging source of peptide-based therapeutics.
March 16, 2018: Toxins
Cristina Martín-Sierra, Santiago Nogué-Xarau, Miguel Ángel Pinillos Echeverría, José Miguel Rey Pecharromán
Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.
2018: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Soledad Lorena Saavedra, Lucia Avila, Silvana Laura Giudicessi, Fernando Albericio, Silvia Andrea Camperi, Osvaldo Cascone, Maria Camila Martinez-Ceron
Nowadays, treatment with specific antivenins is considered the only cure for snakebites accidents. However, access to antivenom obstructs the successful implementation of the World Health Organization international guidelines. In the last few years, natural organic compounds, peptides and proteins with the ability to inhibit snake toxins and obtained from different sources such as plant extracts and animal blood have been proposed as antivenoms. In this work, we will focus on the inhibitors of the main venom toxins, phospholipases A2 and metalloproteinases, and their application as novel antivenoms...
February 23, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Richard Hemmi Valente, Fernanda Sakai, José Antonio Portes-Junior, Luciana Godoy Viana, Sylvia Mendes Carneiro, Jonas Perales, Norma Yamanouye
Despite numerous studies concerning morphology and venom production and secretion in the main venom gland (and some data on the accessory gland) of the venom glandular apparatus of Viperidae snakes, the primary duct has been overlooked. We characterized the primary duct of the Bothrops jararaca snake by morphological analysis, immunohistochemistry and proteomics. The duct has a pseudostratified epithelium with secretory columnar cells with vesicles of various electrondensities, as well as mitochondria-rich, dark, basal, and horizontal cells...
March 13, 2018: Toxins
Seung-Heon Shin, Mi-Kyung Ye, Sung-Yong Choi, Kwan-Kyu Park
Bee venom (BV) has long been used as anti-inflammatory agent in traditional oriental medicine; however, the effect of BV on chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is not commonly studied. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of BV on an allergic CRS mouse model. An allergic CRS mouse model was established following the administration of ovalbumin with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) into the nose. A total of 0.5 or 5 ng/ml of BV were intranasally applied 3 times a week for 8 weeks...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yun-Mi Kang, Kyung-Sook Chung, In-Hoon Kook, Yoon-Bum Kook, Hyunsu Bae, Minho Lee, Hyo-Jin An
Although bee venom (BV) is a toxin that causes bee stings to be painful, it has been widely used clinically for the treatment of certain immune‑associated diseases. BV has been used traditionally for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this regard, the present study analyzed the effect of BV on the regulation of inflammatory mediator production by mast cells and their allergic inflammatory responses in an animal model. HMC‑1 cells were treated with BV prior to stimulation with phorbol‑12‑myristate 13‑acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Sha Yan, Pengfei Huang, Ying Wang, Xiongzhi Zeng, Yiya Zhang
Spider venoms are known to contain various toxins that are used as an effective means to capture their prey or to defend themselves against predators. An investigation of the properties of Ornithoctonus huwena (O.huwena) crude venom found that the venom can block neuromuscular transmission of isolated mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm and sciatic nerve-sartorius preparations. However, little is known about its electrophysiological effects on cardiac myocytes. In this study, electrophysiological activities of ventricular myocytes were detected by 100 μg/mL venom of O...
March 13, 2018: Channels
Katherine J Harmon, Marilyn Goss Haskell, Courtney H Mann, Anna E Waller
INTRODUCTION: North Carolina (NC) is home to more than 30 species of indigenous venomous and nonvenomous snakes. Snakebites can cause debilitating and potentially fatal injuries. However, there is a lack of current information available describing the incidence of snakebites in NC. Therefore, we performed this study of snakebites treated in NC emergency departments (EDs) using the statewide syndromic surveillance system, the North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool (NC DETECT)...
March 9, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Raghavendra Gowda, Rajesh Rajaiah, Nataraj Angaswamy, Sharath Krishna, Vishwanath Bannikuppe Sannanayak
Trimeresurus malabaricus is a venomous pit viper species endemic to southwestern part of India. In earlier reports, we have shown that envenomation by T. malabaricus venom leading to strong local tissue damage but the mechanism of action is not clearly revealed. Local tissue damage affected by T. malabaricus venom is of great importance since the poison has serious systemic effects including death in the case of multiple attacks. The present study details the major manifestations of T. malabaricus venom and the induction of local tissue damage, which suggests that most toxins are present in the form of hydrolytic enzymes...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Jessica M de Souza, Bruno D C Goncalves, Marcus V Gomez, Luciene B Vieira, Fabiola M Ribeiro
Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of individuals worldwide. So far, no disease-modifying drug is available to treat patients, making the search for effective drugs an urgent need. Neurodegeneration is triggered by the activation of several cellular processes, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, aging, aggregate formation, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and apoptosis. Therefore, many research groups aim to identify drugs that may inhibit one or more of these events leading to neuronal cell death...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kae Sato, Ayuki Kodama, Chikako Kase, Satoshi Hirakawa, Manabu Ato
We have developed a novel bioassay method for the detection of snake venom based on the permeability of endothelial cell monolayers cultured in Transwell cell culture inserts. This assay relies on the proteolytic degradation of capillary basement membrane proteins, a pathophysiological event that occurs due to snakebites in vivo. Transwell permeability assays with fluorescence measurements are advantageous with regard to ethical considerations for the use of animals. The assay time was reduced from 24 h for animal tests to 2 h, and many samples could be assayed easily...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Mehdi Ait Laaradia, Moulay Abdelmonaim El Hidan, Fatimazahra Marhoume, Btissam Bouimeja, Sara Oufquir, Zahra Sokar, Ali Boumezzough, Abderrahman Chait
The present study investigated the toxic effects of B. lienhardi venom, at the histological, hematological, biochemical and motor skill levels following a subcutaneous injection of different doses of venom. The LD50 of B. lienhardi scorpion venom was found to be 0.27 mg/Kg by subcutaneous injection route. The results clearly indicate that B. lienhardi venom induces massive tissue damages in the organs, such as lungs, heart, kidneys and liver together with hematological impairments manifested by decreased levels of both red and white series...
March 8, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Mathieu Ing, Brian E Hew, David C Fritzinger, Sandrine Delignat, Sébastien Lacroix-Desmazes, Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, Julie Rayes
Cobra venom factor (CVF) is the complement-activating protein in cobra venom. Humanized CVF (hCVF) is a human C3 derivative where the C-terminal 168 amino acid residues were replaced with the homologous sequence from CVF. hCVF has been shown in multiple models of disease with complement pathology to be a promising therapeutic agent, with no observed adverse effects. Here we describe the antibody response to hCVF in two different strains of mice. hCVF was able to repeatedly decomplement the mice after four injections in weekly intervals, demonstrating the absence of a neutralizing antibody response...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Immunology
S W A Himaya, Richard J Lewis
Cone snail venoms are considered a treasure trove of bioactive peptides. Despite over 800 species of cone snails being known, each producing over 1000 venom peptides, only about 150 unique venom peptides are structurally and functionally characterized. To overcome the limitations of the traditional low-throughput bio-discovery approaches, multi-omics systems approaches have been introduced to accelerate venom peptide discovery and characterisation. This "venomic" approach is starting to unravel the full complexity of cone snail venoms and to provide new insights into their biology and evolution...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rajia Bahri, Adnan Custovic, Peter Korosec, Marina Tsoumani, Martin Barron, Jiakai Wu, Rebekah Sayers, Alf Weimann, Monica Ruiz-Garcia, Nandinee Patel, Abigail Robb, Mohamed H Shamji, Sara Fontanella, Mira Silar, E N Clare Mills, Angela Simpson, Paul J Turner, Silvia Bulfone-Paus
BACKGROUND: Food allergy is an increasing public health issue and the commonest cause of life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Conventional allergy tests assess for the presence of allergen-specific IgE, significantly overestimating the rate of true clinical allergy resulting in over-diagnosis and adverse impact on health-related quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To undertake initial validation and assessment of a novel diagnostic tool, the mast cell activation test (MAT)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Lester Darryl Geneviève, Nicolas Ray, François Chappuis, Gabriel Alcoba, Maria Rosa Mondardini, Isabelle Bolon, Rafael Ruiz de Castañeda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Konrad Kamil Hus, Justyna Buczkowicz, Vladimír Petrilla, Monika Petrillová, Andrzej Łyskowski, Jaroslav Legáth, Aleksandra Bocian
Naja ashei is an African spitting cobra species closely related to N. mossambica and N. nigricollis . It is known that the venom of N. ashei , like that of other African spitting cobras, mainly has cytotoxic effects, however data about its specific protein composition are not yet available. Thus, an attempt was made to determine the venom proteome of N. ashei with the use of 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI ToF/ToF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight) mass spectrometry techniques. Our investigation revealed that the main components of analysed venom are 3FTxs (Three-Finger Toxins) and PLA₂s (Phospholipases A₂)...
March 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mark A Phuong, Gusti N Mahardika
To expand our capacity to discover venom sequences from the genomes of venomous organisms, we applied targeted sequencing techniques to selectively recover venom gene superfamilies and non-toxin loci from the genomes of 32 cone snail species (family, Conidae), a diverse group of marine gastropods that capture their prey using a cocktail of neurotoxic peptides (conotoxins). We were able to successfully recover conotoxin gene superfamilies across all species with high confidence (> 100X coverage) and used these data to provide new insights into conotoxin evolution...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Houfu Liu, Yan Chen, Liang Huang, Xueying Sun, Tingting Fu, Shengqian Wu, Xiaoyan Zhu, Wei Zhen, Jihong Liu, Gang Lu, Wei Cai, Ting Yang, Wandong Zhang, Xiaohong Yu, Zehong Wan, Jianfei Wang, Scott G Summerfield, Kelly Dong, Georg C Terstappen
Little is known about the impact of the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) on drug distribution into peripheral nerves. In this study, we examined the peripheral nerve penetration of 11 small molecule drugs possessing diverse physicochemical and transport properties and ProTx-II, a tarantula venom peptide with molecular weight of 3826 daltons, in rats. Each drug was administered as constant rate intravenous infusion for 6 h (small molecules) or 24 h (ProTx-II). Blood and tissues including brain, spinal cord, sciatic nerve, and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were collected for drug concentration measurements...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Eduardo G P Fox, Xu Meng, Lei Wang, Li Chen, YongYue Lu
A straightforward method for extracting aculeate arthropod venoms by centrifugation is described, based on adapting a glass insert containing metal mesh or glass wool in a centrifuge tube. Venom apparatuses are centrifuged for 30 s intervals at ≈2000-6000 g, materials being dislodged between cycles. Venom from fire ants, honeybees, and a social wasp were extracted within minutes. The method is suited for small-scale bioassays and allows for faithful descriptions of unmodified toxin cocktails.
March 3, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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