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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732041/understanding-russell-s-viper-venom-factor-v-activator-s-substrate-specificity-by-surface-plasmon-resonance-and-in-silico-studies
#1
Pradeep K Yadav, Christian B Antonyraj, Syed Ibrahim Basheer Ahamed, Sistla Srinivas
Blood coagulation factor V (FV) is activated either by Factor X or thrombin, cleaving at three different sites viz., Site I (Arg709-Ser710), site II (Arg1018-Thr1019), and site III (Arg1545-Ser1546). Russell's viper venom factor V activator (RVV-V) is a thrombin-like serine proteinase that activates FV with selective, single cleavage at site III. A long lasting effort is being pending in understanding the 'selective' binding specificity of the RVV-V towards site III. Here, we present the binding kinetic study of RVV-V with two designed peptides corresponding to the regions from site I (Gln699-Asn713) and site II (1008Lys-Pro1022), respectively, that include 15 amino acids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731347/integrated-venomics-and-venom-gland-transcriptome-analysis-of-juvenile-and-adult-mexican-rattlesnakes-crotalus-simus-c-tzabcan-and-c-culminatus-revealed-mirna-modulated-ontogenetic-shifts
#2
Jordi Durban, Libia Sanz, Dilza Trevisan-Silva, Edgar Neri-Castro, Alejandro Alagón, Juan Jose Calvete
Adult rattlesnakes within genus Crotalus express one of two distinct venom phenotypes, type I (haemorrhagic) and type II (neurotoxic). In Costa Rican Central American rattlesnake, ontogenetic changes in the concentration of miRNAs modulate venom type II to type I transition. Venomics and venom gland transcriptome analyses showed that adult C. simus and C. tzabcan expressed intermediate patterns between type II and type I venoms, whereas C. culminatus had a canonical type I venom. Neonate/juvenile and adult Mexican rattlesnakes showed notable inter- and intraspecific variability in the number, type, abundance and ontogenetic shifts of the transcriptional and translational venom gland activities...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729681/multiomics-analysis-of-the-giant-triton-snail-salivary-gland-a-crown-of-thorns-starfish-predator
#3
U Bose, T Wang, M Zhao, C A Motti, M R Hall, S F Cummins
The giant triton snail (Charonia tritonis) is one of the few natural predators of the adult Crown-of-Thorns starfish (COTS), a corallivore that has been damaging to many reefs in the Indo-Pacific. Charonia species have large salivary glands (SGs) that are suspected to produce either a venom and/or sulphuric acid which can immobilize their prey and neutralize the intrinsic toxic properties of COTS. To date, there is little information on the types of toxins produced by tritons. In this paper, the predatory behaviour of the C...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727712/intervertebral-foramen-injection-of-ozone-relieves-mechanical-allodynia-and-enhances-analgesic-effect-of-gabapentin-in-animal-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#4
Wen-Jun Luo, Fan Yang, Fei Yang, Wei Sun, Wei Zheng, Xiao-Liang Wang, Fang-Fang Wu, Jiang-Lin Wang, Jia-Shuang Wang, Su-Min Guan, Jun Chen
BACKGROUND: In a 5-year follow-up study in a hospital in southern China, it was shown that intervertebral foramen (IVF) injection of ozone at the involved segmental levels could significantly alleviate paroxysmal spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia in patients with chronic, intractable postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and improve the quality of life. However, so far no proof-of-concept studies in animals have been available. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate whether IVF ozone has an analgesic effect on animal models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain...
July 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726133/iron-protects-porcine-plasma-coagulation-kinetics-from-degradation-by-crotalus-atrox-venom
#5
Christine S Olver, Vance G Nielsen
While the administration of antivenom to treat hemotoxic snake bite injury remains the gold standard of therapy, we have demonstrated that modifying human fibrinogen with iron and carbon monoxide renders it resistant to fibrinogenolytic snake venom enzymes. In order to translate these findings into a possible biometal-based therapy complementary to antivenom administration, a preclinical model that possesses fibrinogen that closely mimics the human molecule in response to iron and carbon monoxide needed to be identified...
July 19, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726106/arginine-derivatives-of-dicarboxylic-acids-from-the-parotid-gland-secretions-of-common-toad-bufo-bufo-new-agonists-of-ionotropic-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-receptors
#6
D S Lebedev, I A Ivanov, E V Kryukova, V G Starkov, V I Tsetlin, Yu N Utkin
Compounds activating γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor were isolated from the toad Bufo bufo venom as a result of chromatographic separation. Analysis of the structure of these compounds by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that they are arginine derivatives of dicarboxylic acids and represent suberylarginine, pimeloylarginine, and adipoylarginine.
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721296/mithridates-vi-eupator-king-of-pontus-and-the-venomous-snakes
#7
Guido Valle, Marco Carmignani, Mario Stanislao, Antonio Facciorusso, Anna Rita Volpe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2017: Central European Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720433/single-channel-planar-lipid-bilayer-recordings-of-the-melittin-variant-melp5
#8
Aziz Fennouri, Simon Finn Mayer, Thomas B H Schroeder, Michael Mayer
MelP5 is a 26 amino acid peptide derived from melittin, the main active constituent of bee venom, with five amino acid replacements. The pore-forming activity of MelP5 in lipid membranes is attracting attention because MelP5 forms larger pores and induces dye leakage through liposome membranes at a lower concentration than melittin. Studies of MelP5 have so far focused on ensemble measurements of membrane leakage and impedance; here we extend this characterization with an electrophysiological comparison between MelP5 and melittin using planar lipid bilayer recordings...
July 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718981/health-economic-analysis-of-allergen-immunotherapy-ait-for-the-management-of-allergic-rhinitis-asthma-food-allergy-and-venom-allergy-a-systematic-overview
#9
REVIEW
Miqdad Asaria, Sangeeta Dhami, Ronald van Ree, Roy Gerth van Wijk, Antonella Muraro, Graham Roberts, Aziz Sheikh
BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing guidelines for allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for the management of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, IgE-mediated food allergy and venom allergy. To inform the development of clinical recommendations, we undertook systematic reviews to critically assess evidence on the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of AIT for these conditions. This paper focusses on synthesizing data and gaps in the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of AIT for these conditions...
July 18, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718820/a-transcriptomic-survey-of-ion-channel-based-conotoxins-in-the-chinese-tubular-cone-snail-conus-betulinus
#10
Yu Huang, Chao Peng, Yunhai Yi, Bingmiao Gao, Qiong Shi
Conotoxins in the venom of cone snails (Conus spp.) are a mixture of active peptides that work as blockers, agonists, antagonists, or inactivators of various ion channels. Recently we reported a high-throughput method to identify 215 conotoxin transcripts from the Chinese tubular cone snail, C. betulinus. Here, based on the previous datasets of four transcriptomes from three venom ducts and one venom bulb, we explored ion channel-based conotoxins and predicted their related ion channel receptors. Homologous analysis was also performed for the most abundant ion channel protein, voltage-gated potassium (Kv; with Kv1...
July 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717175/snake-venom-vegf-vammin-induces-a-highly-efficient-angiogenic-response-in-skeletal-muscle-via-vegfr-2-nrp-specific-signaling
#11
Pyry I Toivanen, Tiina Nieminen, Johanna P Laakkonen, Tommi Heikura, Minna U Kaikkonen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs) are promising molecules for the treatment of ischemic diseases by pro-angiogenic therapy. Snake venom VEGFs are a novel subgroup with unique receptor binding profiles and as such are potential new therapeutic agents. We determined the ligand-receptor interactions, gene regulation and angiogenic properties of Vipera ammodytes venom VEGF, Vammin, and compared it to the canonical angiogenic factor VEGF-A to evaluate the use of Vammin for therapeutic angiogenesis. Vammin efficiently induced VEGFR-2 mediated proliferation and expression of genes associated with proliferation, migration and angiogenesis...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716449/venom-derived-peptides-inhibiting-kir-channels-past-present-and-future
#12
REVIEW
Craig A Doupnik
Inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir) channels play a significant role in vertebrate and invertebrate biology by regulating the movement of K+ ions involved in membrane transport and excitability. Yet unlike other ion channels including their ancestral K + -selective homologs, there are very few venom toxins known to target and inhibit Kir channels with the potency and selectivity found for the Ca2+-activated and voltage-gated K+ channel families. It is unclear whether this is simply due to a lack of discovery, or instead a consequence of the evolutionary processes that drive the development of venom components towards their targets based on a collective efficacy to 1) elicit pain for defensive purposes, 2) promote paralysis for prey capture, or 3) facilitate delivery of venom components into the circulation...
July 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715452/including-irrigation-in-niche-modelling-of-the-invasive-wasp-vespula-germanica-fabricius-improves-model-fit-to-predict-potential-for-further-spread
#13
Marelize de Villiers, Darren J Kriticos, Ruan Veldtman
The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In areas with warmer winters and longer summers, queens and workers can survive the winter months, leading to the build-up of large nests during the following season; thereby increasing the risk posed by this species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715431/colony-collapse-disorder-ccd-and-bee-age-impact-honey-bee-pathophysiology
#14
Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Kirsten S Traynor, Michael Andree, Elinor M Lichtenberg, Yanping Chen, Claude Saegerman, Diana L Cox-Foster
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies continue to experience high annual losses that remain poorly explained. Numerous interacting factors have been linked to colony declines. Understanding the pathways linking pathophysiology with symptoms is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of disease. In this study we examined the specific pathologies associated with honey bees collected from colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and compared these with bees collected from apparently healthy colonies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713976/melittin-exerts-an-antitumor-effect-on-non%C3%A2-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#15
Su-Fang Zhang, Zhe Chen
Lung cancer accounts for a significant percentage of all cancer‑associated mortalities in men and women, with non‑small cell lung cancer being the most frequently occurring type of lung cancer. Melittin is the principal active component of apitoxin (bee venom) that has been reported to exert anti‑chronic inflammatory and anti‑cancer effects. In the present study, the antitumor effect of melittin was evaluated using in vivo and in vitro analyses. The results demonstrated that melittin significantly inhibited the epidermal growth factor‑induced invasion and migration of non‑small cell lung cancer cells...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713011/the-genomic-and-transcriptomic-analyses-of-serine-proteases-and-their-homologs-in-an-endoparasitoid-pteromalus-puparum
#16
Lei Yang, Zhe Lin, Qi Fang, Jiale Wang, Zhichao Yan, Zhen Zou, Qisheng Song, Gongyin Ye
In insects, serine proteases (SPs) and serine protease homologs (SPHs) constitute a large family of proteins involved in multiple physiological processes such as digestion, development, and immunity. Here we identified 145 SPs and 38 SPHs in the genome of an endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum. Gene duplication and tandem repeats were observed in this large SPs/SPHs family. We then analyzed the expression profiles of SP/SPH genes in response to different microbial infections (Gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus luteus, Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, and entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana), as well as in different developmental stages and tissues...
July 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712915/comparative-analyses-and-implications-for-antivenom-serotherapy-of-four-moroccan-scorpion-buthus-occitanus-venoms-subspecies-tunetanus-paris-malhommei-and-mardochei
#17
Bruna Luiza Emerich, Maria Elena De Lima, Marie-France Martin-Eauclaire, Pierre E Bougis
Temporary passive immunity such as serotherapy against venoms requires the full knowledge of all venom's components. Here, four venoms from Moroccan common yellow scorpions belonging to Buthus occitanus, subspecies tunetanus, paris, malhommei, and mardochei, all collected in four different restricted areas, were analysed in deep. They were fractionated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and their molecular masse profile determined by off-line MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Characterisation of their main components was achieved by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using specific antisera against the major lethal scorpion toxins identified so far, i...
July 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712914/ige-cross-reactivity-of-phospholipase-a2-and-hyaluronidase-of-apis-dorsata-giant-asian-honeybee-and-apis-mellifera-western-honeybee-venom-possible-use-of-a-%C3%A2-mellifera-venom-for-diagnosis-of-patients-allergic-to-a-%C3%A2-dorsata-venom
#18
Peshala Gunasekara, S M Handunnetti, Sunil Premawansa, E W R A Witharana, W M D K Dasanayake, Indra P Ratnayake, Suranjith L Seneviratne, R K S Dias, G A S Premakumara, Rajiva de Silva
Diagnostic and therapeutic reagents are unavailable for anaphylaxis arising from stings by Apis dorsata. Venom profiles and cross-reactivity of A. dorsata and Apis mellifera were compared, to ascertain whether venom of A. mellifera can be used for diagnosis in A. dorsata allergy. Both venom profiles were similar by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and SDS-PAGE. Sera of 29 of 30 (96.7%) patients with anaphylaxis to A. dorsata stings had IgE to the phospholipase-2 (PLA2) doublet (15 and 16 kDa) of A...
July 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712480/bee-venom-acupuncture-reduces-interleukin-6-increases-interleukin-10-and-induces-locomotor-recovery-in-a-model-of-spinal-cord-compression
#19
Raquel Nascimento de Souza, Fernanda Kohn Silva, Magda Alves de Medeiros
Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) initiate a series of molecular and cellular events in which inflammatory responses can lead to major neurological dysfunctions. The present study aims to investigate whether bee venom (BV) acupuncture applied at acupoints ST36 (Zusanli) and GV3 (Yaoyangquan) could minimize locomotor deficits and the magnitude of neural tissue losses, and change the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines after an SCI by compression. Wistar rats were subjected to an SCI model by compression in which a 2-French Fogarty embolectomy catheter was inflated in the extradural space...
June 2017: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711466/comparative-proteomics-reveals-recruitment-patterns-of-some-protein-families-in-the-venoms-of-cnidaria
#20
Adrian Jaimes-Becerra, Ray Chung, André C Morandini, Andrew J Weston, Gabriel Padilla, Ranko Gacesa, Malcolm Ward, Paul F Long, Antonio C Marques
Cnidarians are probably the oldest group of animals to be venomous, yet our current picture of cnidarian venom evolution is highly imbalanced due to limited taxon sampling. High-throughput tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine venom composition of the scyphozoan Chrysaora lactea and two cubozoans Tamoya haplonema and Chiropsalmus quadrumanus. Protein recruitment patterns were then compared against 5 other cnidarian venom proteomes taken from the literature. A total of 28 putative toxin protein families were identified, many for the first time in Cnidaria...
July 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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