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nano chemistry

Payal Gupta, Meenakshi Sharma, Neha Arora, Vikas Pruthi, Krishna Mohan Poluri
BACKGROUND: Farnesol is an acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol, endogenously synthesized via the ergosterol pathway. It is a quorum sensing molecule (QSM) that was first discovered in C. albicans, and is involved in the inhibition of hyphae formation. METHODS: This review focuses on the comprehensive details of occurrence, chemical/biological synthesis of farnesol and its derivatives, and the factors involved in regulation of its production. Further, the review also presents their cellular functions and diversified biomedical applications...
December 10, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Snehasish Jana, Deepanjan Panda, Puja Saha, Dan Pantos, Jyotirmayee Dash
Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) has emerged as a promising strategy for template-driven selection of high-affinity ligands for biological targets from equilibrating combinatorial libraries. However, only a few examples using disulphide exchange based DCC are reported for nucleic acid targets. Herein, we have demonstrated that gold-coated magnetic nanoparticle conjugated DNA targets can be used as templates for dynamic selection of ligands from an imine-based combinatorial library. The implementation of dynamic combinatorial chemistry using DNA-nanotemplates enables efficient identification of the lead compounds, from the DCL via magnetic decantation...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Vu-Long Tran, Vivek Thakare, Marco Natuzzi, Mathieu Moreau, Alexandra Oudot, Jean-Marc Vrigneaud, Alan Courteau, Cédric Louis, Stéphane Roux, Frédéric Boschetti, Franck Denat, Olivier Tillement, François Lux
Multimodal nanoprobes are highly demanded for biomedical imaging applications to enhance the reliability of the diagnostic results. Among different types of nano-objects, ultrasmall silica gadolinium nanoparticle (SiGdNP) appears as a safe, effective, and versatile platform for this purpose. In this study, a new method to functionalize SiGdNP based on silane chemistry has been reported. Two types of chelating silanes (APTES-DOTAGA and APTES-NODAGA) have been synthesized and grafted on SiGdNP by a simple one-step protocol...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Kai Chen, Hao Cai, Hu Zhang, Hongyan Zhu, Zhongwei Gu, Qiyong Gong, Kui Luo
Polymer-drug conjugates has significantly improved the anti-tumor efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs and alleviated their side effects. N-(1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl) methacrylamide (DHPMA) copolymer was synthesized via RAFT polymerization and polymer-doxorubicin (DOX) (diblock pDHPMA-DOX) were formed by conjugation, resulting in a self-aggregation-induced nanoprodrug with a favorable size of 21 nm and great stability. The nanoprodrug with a molecular weight (MW) of 95 kDa released drugs in response to tumor microenvironmental pH variations and they were enzymatically hydrolyzed into low MW segments (45 kDa)...
November 29, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Tanu Kaushal, Gaurava Srivastava, Ashok Sharma, Arvind Singh Negi
Quinoxalines are benzopyrazines containing benzene and pyrazine rings fused together. In the recent past, quinoxalines have attracted Medicinal Chemists considerably for their syntheses and chemistry due to their distinct pharmacological activities. Diverse synthetic protocols have been developed via multicomponent reactions, single pot synthesis and combinatorial approach using efficient catalysts, reagents, and nano-composites etc. Further, the versatility of the quinoxaline core and its reasonable chemical simplicity devise it extremely promising source of bioactive compounds...
November 15, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Jiafu Shi, Yu Tian, Weiran Li, Yang Zhao, Yizhou Wu, Zhongyi Jiang
In our study, plant polyphenol-inspired chemistry is explored to nano-engineer the topological and chemical structures of commercial melamine sponge surface for preparing superhydrophobic sponges. Briefly, tannic acid (TA, a typical plant polyphenol) is applied to induce the co-assembly of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 ) and silver ions (Ag+ ) to form SiO2 @TA@Ag nanostructures on a melamine sponge surface. After further chemical fluorination, the superhydrophobic sponge with a "lotus leaf-mimic" surface is formed...
November 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Gabriela Kratošová, Veronika Holišová, Zuzana Konvičková, Avinash P Ingle, Swapnil Gaikwad, Kateřina Škrlová, Aleš Prokop, Mahendra Rai, Daniela Plachá
Chemical, physical and mechanical methods of nanomaterial preparation are still regarded as mainstream methods, and the scientific community continues to search for new ways of nanomaterial preparation. The major objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of using green chemistry and bionanotechnology in the preparation of functional low-cost catalysts. Bionanotechnology employs biological principles and processes connected with bio-phase participation in both design and development of nano-structures and nano-materials, and the biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles is becoming even more popular due to; (i) economic and ecologic effectiveness, (ii) simple one-step nanoparticle formation, stabilisation and biomass support and (iii) the possibility of bio-waste valorisation...
November 24, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Yanyang Zhang, Xinwei She, Xiang Gao, Chao Shan, Bing-Cai Pan
Polystyrene-based nano-ferric oxide composite is a representative nanomaterial successfully applied in scale-up water decontamination for arsenic and phosphorous. However, little is available on the effect of solution chemistry (for instance, the coexisting Ca2+) on long-term performance of the nanocomposite. In this study, we carried out 20 cyclic runs of phosphate adsorption-desorption on a polymer-supported ferric nanocomposite HFO@201. Unexpectedly, an enhanced phosphate removal was observed in the presence of Ca2+, which is quite different from its adverse effect on phosphate capture by granular ferric oxide...
November 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Junjie Hu, Wenting Lin, Boji Lin, Kangming Wu, Hongbo Fan, Yingxin Yu
Modified nano-graphene quantum dots (M-GQDs) are widely used in bioimaging, drug delivery, and chemical engineering. Because M-GQDs could induce reactive oxygen species and DNA damage, we hypothesized that M-GQDs modulate DNA methylation. To test this hypothesis, zebrafish were exposed to reduced, hydroxylated, or aminated GQDs (graphene quantum dots) at different concentrations for 7 days; global DNA methylation in liver, gill, and intestine was then studied. M-GQDs induced global DNA hypermethylation in various tissues in a dose-dependent manner...
November 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Marek Grzelczak
Development of synthetic systems carrying life-like features is a long-standing challenge in chemistry and material science. Poor understanding of mechanisms ruling the emergence of life-like features in an inanimate matter makes the challenge even more exciting. The growing field of systems chemistry takes the lead in defining life-like dynamic signatures in minimalistic (macro)molecular systems through the development of multicomponent synthetic models using tools from organic and supramolecular chemistry...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Nianjun Yang, Siyu Yu, Julie V Macpherson, Yasuaki Einaga, Hongying Zhao, Guohua Zhao, Greg M Swain, Xin Jiang
Conductive diamond possesses unique features as compared to other solid electrodes, such as a wide electrochemical potential window, a low and stable background current, relatively rapid rates of electron-transfer for soluble redox systems without conventional pretreatment, long-term responses, stability, biocompatibility, and a rich surface chemistry. Conductive diamond microcrystalline and nanocrystalline films, structures and particles have been prepared using a variety of approaches. Given these highly desirable attributes, conductive diamond has found extensive use as an enabling electrode across a variety of fields encompassing chemical and biochemical sensing, environmental degradation, electrosynthesis, electrocatalysis, and energy storage and conversion...
November 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Cheng Li, Gang Bai, Yunxiao Zhang, Min Zhang, Aoqun Jian
Refractometry is a classic analytical method in analytical chemistry and biosensing. By integrating advanced micro- and nano-optical systems with well-developed microfluidics technology, optofluidics are shown to be a powerful, smart and universal platform for refractive index sensing applications. This paper reviews recent work on optofluidic refractometers based on different sensing mechanisms and structures (e.g., photonic crystal/photonic crystal fibers, waveguides, whisper gallery modes and surface plasmon resonance), and traces the performance enhancement due to the synergistic integration of optics and microfluidics...
March 20, 2018: Micromachines
Daniela Ailincai, Dragos Peptanariu, Mariana Pinteala, Luminita Marin
Dynamic constitutional chemistry has been used to design nonviral vectors for gene transfection. Their design has been thought in order to fulfill ab initio the main requirements for gene therapy. As building blocks were used hyperbranched PEI as hydrophilic part and benzentrialdehyde and a diamine linear siloxane as hydrophobic part, connected through reversible imine linkages. The obtaining of the envisaged structures has been confirmed by NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The dynamic synthesized amphiphiles proved to be able to self-assemble in nano-sized spherical entities as was demonstrated by TEM and DLS, characterized by a narrow dimensional polydispersity...
January 1, 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Lijun You, Xiaocui Liu, Zhexiang Fang, Qianhui Xu, Qiqing Zhang
A new folic acid (FA)-conjugated poly (lactic-co-glycolicacid) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nano-noisome was prepared. The noisome was employed as a drug delivery system to load curcumin (Cur) as a model drug and fluorescent probe for cervical cancer therapy and cell imaging. The Fe3 O4 @PLGA-PEG@FA noisomes were prepared through facile emulsion solvent evaporation and conjugation chemistry method, possessing the properties of high rapid magnetic separation and targeting character. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were adopted to characterize the chemical structure and properties of these niosomes...
January 1, 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Yi-Tong Yao, Shuai Liu, Michael V Swain, Xin-Ping Zhang, Ke Zhao, Yu-Tao Jian
BACKGROUND: To elucidate the bioactivity and bone regeneration of porous titanium surfaces treated using acid-alkali combination, and to define the optimal alkali reaction time. METHODS: Ten groups of porous Ti with at least 3 per group undergoing different acid-alkali treated time were prepared. The surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), bicinchoninic acid method (BCA), optical contact angle measurement and Raman spectrometry...
January 1, 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Anna Denchai, Daniele Tartarini, Elisa Mele
Surface properties of biomaterials, such as chemistry and morphology, have a major role in modulating cellular behavior and therefore impact on the development of high-performance devices for biomedical applications, such as scaffolds for tissue engineering and systems for drug delivery. Opportunely-designed micro- and nanostructures provides a unique way of controlling cell-biomaterial interaction. This mini-review discusses the current research on the use of electrospinning (extrusion of polymer nanofibers upon the application of an electric field) as effective technique to fabricate patterns of micro- and nano-scale resolution, and the corresponding biological studies...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Elnaz Yaghini, Ruggero Dondi, Karen J Edler, Marilena Loizidou, Alexander J MacRobert, Ian M Eggleston
Endosomal entrapment is a key issue for the intracellular delivery of many nano-sized biotherapeutics to their cytosolic or nuclear targets. Photochemical internalisation (PCI) is a novel light-based solution that can be used to trigger the endosomal escape of a range of bioactive agents into the cytosol leading to improved efficacy in pre-clinical and clinical studies. PCI typically depends upon the endolysosomal colocalisation of the bioactive agent with a suitable photosensitiser that is administered separately...
November 8, 2018: Nanoscale
Tatjana Škrbić, Trinh X Hoang, Amos Maritan, Jayanth R Banavar, Achille Giacometti
A phase of matter is a familiar notion for inanimate physical matter. The nature of a phase of matter transcends the microscopic material properties. For example, materials in the liquid phase have certain common properties independent of the chemistry of the constituents: liquids take the shape of the container; they flow; and they can be poured - alcohol, oil and water as well as a Lennard-Jones computer model exhibit similar behavior when poised in the liquid phase. Here we identify a hitherto unstudied 'phase' of matter, the elixir phase, in a simple model of a polymeric chain whose backbone has the correct local cylindrical symmetry induced by the tangent to the chain...
October 29, 2018: Proteins
Graham J Leggett
Many biological mechanisms can be considered to be low-dimensional systems: their function is determined by molecular objects of reduced dimensionality. Bacterial photosynthesis is a very good example: the photosynthetic pathway is contained within nano-objects (vesicles) whose function is determined by the numbers and nanoscale organization of membrane proteins, and by the ratios of the different types of protein that they contain. Systems biology has provided computational models for studying these processes, but there is a need for experimental platforms with which to test their predictions...
October 26, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Alessandro Patelli, Federico Mussano, Paola Brun, Tullio Genova, Emmanuele Ambrosi, Niccoló Michieli, Giovanni Mattei, Paolo Scopece, Lorenzo Moroni
Implantable devices need specific tailored surface morphologies and chemistries to interact with the living systems or to actively induce a biological response also by the release of drugs or proteins. These customized requirements foster technologies that can be implemented in additive manufacturing systems. Here, we present a novel approach based on spraying processes that allow to control separately topographic features in the submicron range (∼60 nm to 2 μm), ammine or carboxylic chemistry, and fluorophore release even on temperature-sensitive biodegradable polymers such as polycaprolactone (PCL)...
November 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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