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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330087/comparing-the-antipredator-behaviour-of-two-sympatric-but-not-syntopic-liolaemus-lizards
#1
Javiera Constanzo-Chávez, Mario Penna, Antonieta Labra
The microhabitat preferences of prey animals can modulate how they perceive predation risk, and therefore, their antipredator behaviour. We tested under standardized conditions how microhabitat preferences of two Liolaemus lizards affected their responses when confronted with two types of ambush predators (raptor vs. snake), under two levels of predation risk (low vs. high). These lizard species are sympatric, but not syntopic; L. chiliensis basks on bushes, a complex microhabitat that may provide protection against visual predators, while L...
January 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329683/respiratory-disease-in-ball-pythons-python-regius-experimentally-infected-with-ball-python-nidovirus
#2
Laura L Hoon-Hanks, Marylee L Layton, Robert J Ossiboff, John S L Parker, Edward J Dubovi, Mark D Stenglein
Circumstantial evidence has linked a new group of nidoviruses with respiratory disease in pythons, lizards, and cattle. We conducted experimental infections in ball pythons (Python regius) to test the hypothesis that ball python nidovirus (BPNV) infection results in respiratory disease. Three ball pythons were inoculated orally and intratracheally with cell culture isolated BPNV and two were sham inoculated. Antemortem choanal, oroesophageal, and cloacal swabs and postmortem tissues of infected snakes were positive for viral RNA, protein, and infectious virus by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot and virus isolation...
January 9, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329419/a-single-mutation-unlocks-cascading-exaptations-in-the-origin-of-a-potent-pitviper-neurotoxin
#3
A Carl Whittington, Andrew J Mason, Darin R Rokyta
Evolutionary innovations and complex phenotypes seemingly require an improbable amount of genetic change to evolve. Rattlesnakes display two dramatically different venom phenotypes. Type I venoms are hemorrhagic with low systemic toxicity and high expression of tissue-destroying snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP). Type II venoms are highly neurotoxic and lack SVMP expression and associated hemorrhagic activity. This dichotomy hinges on Mojave toxin (MTx), a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) based ᵝ-neurotoxin expressed in Type II venoms...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327304/the-irrigation-effect-how-river-regulation-can-promote-some-riparian-vegetation
#4
Karen M Gill, Lori A Goater, Jeffrey H Braatne, Stewart B Rood
River regulation impacts riparian ecosystems by altering the hydrogeomorphic conditions that support streamside vegetation. Obligate riparian plants are often negatively impacted since they are ecological specialists with particular instream flow requirements. Conversely, facultative riparian plants are generalists and may be less vulnerable to river regulation, and could benefit from augmented flows that reduce drought stress during hot and dry periods. To consider this 'irrigation effect' we studied the facultative shrub, netleaf hackberry (Celtis reticulata), the predominant riparian plant along the Hells Canyon corridor of the Snake River, Idaho, USA, where dams produce hydropeaking, diurnal flow variation...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326487/antitoxin-activity-of-aqueous-extract-of-cyclea-peltata-root-against-naja-naja-venom
#5
Thulasi Sivaraman, N S Sreedevi, S Meenatchisundaram, R Vadivelan
OBJECTIVES: Snakebites are a significant and severe global health problem. Till date, anti-snake venom serum is the only beneficial remedy existing on treating the snakebite victims. As antivenom was reported to induce early or late adverse reactions to human beings, snake venom neutralizing potential for Cyclea peltata root extract was tested for the present research by ex vivo and in vivo approaches on Naja naja toxin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo evaluation of venom toxicity and neutralization assays was carried out...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325991/bothrops-jararaca-accessory-venom-gland-is-an-ancillary-source-of-toxins-to-the-snake
#6
Richard Hemmi Valente, Milene Schmidt Luna, Ursula Castro de Oliveira, Milton Yutaka Nishiyama-Junior, Inácio de Loiola Junqueira-de-Azevedo, José Antonio Portes-Junior, Patricia Bianca Clissa, Luciana Godoy Viana, Leonardo Sanches, Ana Maria Moura-da-Silva, Jonas Perales, Norma Yamanouye
In Viperidae snakes, it has been attributed to the main venom gland, a component of the venom gland apparatus, the function of synthesizing all venom toxins and storing them inside a basal-central lumen. However, the role of the accessory gland is still unknown. Here, we analyzed the proteome and the transcriptome of the accessory gland during venom production and secretion cycle. We showed that the accessory gland expresses and synthesizes toxins that are similar to those produced by the main venom gland such as C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like proteins, metalloproteinase, phospholipase A2, cysteine rich secretory protein, nerve growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, serine proteinase, and l-amino acid oxidase...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325746/first-report-of-the-characterization-of-a-snake-venom-apyrase-ruviapyrase-from-indian-russell-s-viper-daboia-russelii-venom
#7
Bhargab Kalita, Aparup Patra, Shagufta Jahan, Ashis K Mukherjee
A novel apyrase from Russell's viper venom (RVV) was purified and characterized, and it was named Ruviapyrase (Russell's viper apyrase). It is a high molecular weight (79.4 kDa) monomeric glycoprotein that contains 2.4% neutral sugars and 58.4% N-linked oligosaccharides and strongly binds to Concanavalin A. The LC-MS/MS analysis did not identify any protein in NCBI protein database, nevertheless some de novo sequences of Ruviapyrase showed putative conserved domain of apyrase superfamily. Ruviapyrase hydrolysed adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to a significantly greater extent (p < ...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321874/conservation-planning-for-freshwater-marine-carryover-effects-on-chinook-salmon-survival
#8
Jennifer L Gosselin, Richard W Zabel, James J Anderson, James R Faulkner, António M Baptista, Benjamin P Sandford
Experiences of migratory species in one habitat may affect their survival in the next habitat, in what is known as carryover effects. These effects are especially relevant for understanding how freshwater experience affects survival in anadromous fishes. Here, we study the carryover effects of juvenile salmon passage through a hydropower system (Snake and Columbia rivers, northwestern United States). To reduce the direct effect of hydrosystem passage on juveniles, some fishes are transported through the hydrosystem in barges, while the others are allowed to migrate in-river...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320518/increased-mitochondrial-dna-diversity-in-ancient-columbia-river-basin-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha
#9
Bobbi M Johnson, Brian M Kemp, Gary H Thorgaard
The Columbia River and its tributaries provide essential spawning and rearing habitat for many salmonid species, including Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Chinook salmon were historically abundant throughout the basin and Native Americans in the region relied heavily on these fish for thousands of years. Following the arrival of Europeans in the 1800s, salmon in the basin experienced broad declines linked to overfishing, water diversion projects, habitat destruction, connectivity reduction, introgression with hatchery-origin fish, and hydropower development...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319420/molecular-identification-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-bothrops-insularis-bacterial-and-fungal-microbiota
#10
Lidiane Nunes Barbosa, Rui Seabra Ferreira, Priscila Luiza Mello, Hans Garcia Garces, Jéssica Luana Chechi, Tarsila Frachin, Luciana Curtolo De Barros, Sandra De Moraes Guimenes Bosco, Eduardo Bagagli, Ary Fernandes Júnior, Benedito Barraviera, Lucilene Delazari Dos Santos
Bothrops insularis, known as the golden lancehead snake, has its natural habitat restricted to Queimada Grande Island on the southern coast of Brazil. This culture-dependent study aimed to identify microorganisms obtained from the mouth, eyes, and cloaca of this species. Swabs from 20 snakes were collected for fungal and bacterial isolation. DNA was extracted from all samples, and identification was performed by amplifying the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions and the 16S rDNA gene, respectively. All strains were identified and deposited in the GenBank nucleotide database...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318484/the-exposure-to-water-with-cigarette-residue-changes-the-anti-predator-response-in-female-swiss-albino-mice
#11
Letícia Silva Cardoso, Fernanda Neves Estrela, Thales Quintão Chagas, Wellington Alves Mizael da Silva, Denys Ribeiro de Oliveira Costa, Igor Pereira, Boniek Gontijo Vaz, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Guilherme Malafaia
Recent studies have shown that cigarette consumption affects much more than human health. Smoked cigarette butt (SCB) disposal into the environment can bring little-known negative biological consequences to mammals, since it contains many organic and inorganic toxic chemical constituents. Thus, we aim at assessing whether the ingestion of water with leached SCB for 60 days by female Swiss mice changes their defensive behavioral response to potential predators (cats and snakes). We worked with the following groups of animals: control (pollutant-free water), water with environmental concentration of SCB (1...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316683/biological-and-proteolytic-variation-in-the-venom-of-crotalus-scutulatus-scutulatus-from-mexico
#12
Miguel Borja, Edgar Neri-Castro, Gamaliel Castañeda-Gaytán, Jason L Strickland, Christopher L Parkinson, Juan Castañeda-Gaytán, Roberto Ponce-López, Bruno Lomonte, Alejandro Olvera-Rodríguez, Alejandro Alagón, Rebeca Pérez-Morales
Rattlesnake venoms may be classified according to the presence/absence and relative abundance of the neurotoxic phospholipases A 2 s (PLA 2 s), such as Mojave toxin, and snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). In Mexico, studies to determine venom variation in Mojave Rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) are limited and little is known about the biological and proteolytic activities in this species. Tissue (34) and venom (29) samples were obtained from C. s. scutulatus from different locations within their distribution in Mexico...
January 8, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313469/reptiles-and-amphibians-as-potential-reservoir-hosts-of-chikungunya-virus
#13
Angela M Bosco-Lauth, Airn E Hartwig, Richard A Bowen
Chikungunya virus is an emerging arbovirus of significant human-health concern. Little is known about its sylvatic cycle, including whether ectothermic vertebrates are permissive to infection. In this study, individuals from ten species of reptiles and amphibians were inoculated with chikungunya virus and samples of blood were tested to characterize viremia and seroconversion. Viremia was not detected in cane toads, house geckos, or American alligators, but most of the green iguanas, red-eared sliders, ball and Burmese pythons, leopard frogs, Texas toads, and garter snakes developed viremia...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312818/pupillometry-reveals-the-physiological-underpinnings-of-the-aversion-to-holes
#14
Vladislav Ayzenberg, Meghan R Hickey, Stella F Lourenco
An unusual, but common, aversion to images with clusters of holes is known as trypophobia. Recent research suggests that trypophobic reactions are caused by visual spectral properties also present in aversive images of evolutionary threatening animals (e.g., snakes and spiders). However, despite similar spectral properties, it remains unknown whether there is a shared emotional response to holes and threatening animals. Whereas snakes and spiders are known to elicit a fear reaction, associated with the sympathetic nervous system, anecdotal reports from self-described trypophobes suggest reactions more consistent with disgust, which is associated with activation of the parasympathetic nervous system...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311537/secreted-phospholipases-a%C3%A2-from-animal-venoms-in-pain-and-analgesia
#15
REVIEW
Vanessa O Zambelli, Gisele Picolo, Carlos A H Fernandes, Marcos R M Fontes, Yara Cury
Animal venoms comprise a complex mixture of components that affect several biological systems. Based on the high selectivity for their molecular targets, these components are also a rich source of potential therapeutic agents. Among the main components of animal venoms are the secreted phospholipases A₂ (sPLA₂s). These PLA₂ belong to distinct PLA₂s groups. For example, snake venom sPLA₂s from Elapidae and Viperidae families, the most important families when considering envenomation, belong, respectively, to the IA and IIA/IIB groups, whereas bee venom PLA₂ belongs to group III of sPLA₂s...
December 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306023/short-versions-of-two-specific-phobia-measures-the-snake-and-the-spider-questionnaires
#16
Andras N Zsido, Nikolett Arato, Orsolya Inhof, Jozsef Janszky, Gergely Darnai
Zoophobias are the most prevalent form of specific phobia worldwide. Two of the most widely used measures, the Snake Questionnaire (SNAQ) and Spider Questionnaire (SPQ) are good indicators of specific fears, but researchers have recognised that shorter, yet nevertheless reliable measures are needed. Hence the aims of this research were to develop short forms of the SNAQ and SPQ using item response theory and to use receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to determine cut-offs for use in future research...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302018/injuries-and-envenomation-by-exotic-pets-in-hong-kong
#17
V Ch Ng, A Ch Lit, O F Wong, M L Tse, H T Fung
INTRODUCTION: Exotic pets are increasingly popular in Hong Kong and include fish, amphibians, reptiles, and arthropods. Some of these exotic animals are venomous and may cause injuries and envenomation to their owners. The clinical experience of emergency physicians in the management of injuries and envenomation by these exotic animals is limited. We reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of injuries and envenomation by exotic pets recorded by the Hong Kong Poison Information Centre...
January 5, 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301695/do-ring-necked-snakes-choose-retreat-sites-based-upon-thermal-preferences
#18
Christian L Cox, Michael L Logan, Olivia Bryan, Darshdeep Kaur, Evan Leung, John McCormack, John McGinn, Lauren Miller, Caroline Robinson, Jena Salem, Jessica Scheid, Tatiana Warzinski, Albert K Chung
Biochemical reaction rates are highly sensitive to temperature, and the body temperatures of ectotherms covary with their immediate environment. Therefore, ectotherms should choose microhabitats that permit the maintenance of physiological function. While some previous studies have found that squamate reptiles choose retreat sites that allow them to maintain physiologically optimal body temperatures, this research has been limited in context and taxonomic scope. We sought to test these empirical patterns by studying the properties of retreat sites in the context of physiological preferences and tolerances in a population of semifossorial ring-necked snakes (Diadophis punctatus)...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301241/comparative-venomics-of-the-vipera-ammodytes-transcaucasiana-and-vipera-ammodytes-montandoni-from-turkey-provides-insights-into-kinship
#19
Benjamin-Florian Hempel, Maik Damm, Bayram Göçmen, Mert Karis, Mehmet Anıl Oguz, Ayse Nalbantsoy, Roderich D Süssmuth
The Nose-horned Viper (Vipera ammodytes) is one of the most widespread and venomous snakes in Europe, which causes high frequent snakebite accidents. The first comprehensive venom characterization of the regional endemic Transcaucasian Nose-horned Viper (Vipera ammodytes transcaucasiana) and the Transdanubian Sand Viper (Vipera ammodytes montandoni) is reported employing a combination of intact mass profiling and bottom-up proteomics. The bottom-up analysis of both subspecies identified the major snake protein families of viper venoms...
January 1, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300697/robust-neuro-optimal-control-of-underactuated-snake-robots-with-experience-replay
#20
Zhengcai Cao, Qing Xiao, Ran Huang, Mengchu Zhou
In this paper, the problem of path following for underactuated snake robots is investigated by using approximate dynamic programming and neural networks (NNs). The lateral undulatory gait of a snake robot is stabilized in a virtual holonomic constraint manifold through a partial feedback linearizing control law. Based on a dynamic compensator and Line-of-Sight guidance law, the path-following problem is transformed to a regulation problem of a nonlinear system with uncertainties. Subsequently, it is solved by an infinite horizon optimal control scheme using a single critic NN...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
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