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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156586/in-depth-glyco-peptidomics-approach-reveals-unexpected-diversity-of-glycosylated-peptides-and-atypical-post-translational-modifications-in-dendroaspis-angusticeps-snake-venom
#1
Michel Degueldre, Julien Echterbille, Nicolas Smargiasso, Christian Damblon, Charlotte Gouin, Gilles Mourier, Nicolas Gilles, Edwin De Pauw, Loïc Quinton
Animal venoms represent a valuable source of bioactive peptides that can be derived into useful pharmacological tools, or even innovative drugs. In this way, the venom of Dendroaspis angusticeps (DA), the Eastern Green Mamba, has been intensively studied during recent years. It mainly contains hundreds of large toxins from 6 to 9 kDa, each displaying several disulfide bridges. These toxins are the main target of venom-based studies due to their valuable activities obtained by selectively targeting membrane receptors, such as ion channels or G-protein coupled receptors...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156434/we-prefer-what-we-fear-a-response-preference-bias-mimics-attentional-capture-in-spider-fear
#2
Anke Haberkamp, Melanie Biafora, Thomas Schmidt, Katharina Weiß
The extent to which emotionally significant stimuli capture visual attention remains elusive because a preference for reporting or choosing emotionally significant stimuli could mimic attentional capture by these stimuli. We conducted two prior-entry experiments to disentangle whether phobic and fear-relevant stimuli capture attention or merely produce a response bias in spider-fearful participants. Prior entry denotes the effect that attended stimuli are perceived earlier than unattended stimuli as indicated by temporal order judgments...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154698/phacoemulsification-of-bilateral-mature-cataracts-in-a-texas-rat-snake-elaphe-obsoleta-lindheimeri
#3
Eric C Ledbetter, Ricardo de Matos, Rebekah M Riedel, Teresa L Southard
CASE DESCRIPTION A 10-year-old sexually intact male client-owned Texas rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) was referred for evaluation because of a 5-month history of progressive bilateral ocular opacities and abnormal behavior. CLINICAL FINDINGS On ophthalmic examination, the snake had bilateral mature cataracts and uveal cysts. No additional ophthalmic or physical abnormalities were detected. Results of CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and ocular ultrasonography were unremarkable. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Bilateral spectaculotomy was performed, followed by bilateral phacoemulsification and uveal cyst aspiration, without complication...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152569/vocalizing-in-chimpanzees-is-influenced-by-social-cognitive-processes
#4
Catherine Crockford, Roman M Wittig, Klaus Zuberbühler
Adjusting communication to take into account information available to one's audience is routine in humans but is assumed absent in other animals, representing a recent development on the lineage leading to humans. This assumption may be premature. Recent studies show changes in primate alarm signaling to threats according to the receivers' risk. However, a classic problem in these and other perspective-taking studies is discerning whether signalers understand the receivers' mental states or simply are responding to their behavior...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152450/studying-slippage-on-pushing-applications-with-snake-robots
#5
Fabian Reyes, Shugen Ma
In this paper, a framework for analyzing the motion resulting from the interaction between a snake robot and an object is shown. Metrics are derived to study the motion of the object and robot, showing that the addition of passive wheels to the snake robot helps to minimize slippage. However, the passive wheels do not have a significant impact on the force exerted onto the object. This puts snake robots in a similar framework as robotic arms, while considering special properties exclusive to snake robots (e...
2017: Robotics and Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152044/structure-based-discovery-of-thiosemicarbazone-metalloproteinase-inhibitors-for-hemorrhage-treatment-in-snakebites
#6
Francis B Ferreira, Thiago M Pereira, Dayane L N Souza, Daiana S Lopes, Vitor Freitas, Veridiana M R Ávila, Arthur E Kümmerle, Carlos Mauricio R Sant'Anna
The venoms of snakes are composed by many toxins, which are responsible for various toxic effects including intense pain, bleeding disorders, and local tissue damage caused by hemorrhage and necrosis. The snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are proteolytic zinc-dependent enzymes acting in different hemostatic mechanisms. In this work, a structure-based molecular modeling strategy was used for the rational design, by means of a homology 3D model of an SVMP isolated from Bothrops pauloensis venom (BpMP-I), followed by synthesis and in vitro evaluation of new thiosemicarbazones as the first inhibitors of the B...
November 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151420/-clinical-application-of-vsd-negative-pressure-aspiration-and-detoxification-in-severe-snake-bite
#7
Zhipeng Zheng, Gonglei Chen, Wei Liang, Xu Ji, Jing Yin, Meiling Liu, Wentao Chen, Yigang Yu, Wei Chen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical efficacy of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) in the treatment of mixed poisonous snake bite. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. Forty-three snake bite patients by mixed poisonous snakes admitted to Department of Emergency of the 175th Hospital of People's Liberation Army from February 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled. All patients were divided into routine treatment group (n = 20) and VSD treatment group (n = 23) according to whether early incision decompression and using the VSD technique...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149409/translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-tctp-hrf-in-animal-venoms
#8
Andrea Senff-Ribeiro
Proteins from TCTP/HRF family were identified as venom toxins of spiders from different genus. We have found a TCTP toxin in the venom gland of Loxosceles intermedia, a venomous spider very common in South Brazil. TCTP from L. intermedia, named LiTCTP, was cloned, produced in a heterologous prokaryotic system, and the recombinant toxin was biochemically characterized. Our results point that LiTCTP is involved in the inflammatory events of Loxocelism, the clinical signs triggered after Loxosceles sp. bite, which include intense inflammatory reaction at the bite site followed by local necrosis...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149042/comparative-study-of-biological-activities-of-venom-from-colubrid-snakes-rhabdophis-tigrinus-yamakagashi-and-rhabdophis-lateralis
#9
Yumiko Komori, Toru Hifumi, Akihiko Yamamoto, Atsushi Sakai, Manabu Ato, Kyoko Sawabe, Toshiaki Nikai
Rhabdophis lateralis, a colubrid snake distributed throughout the continent of Asia, has recently undergone taxonomic revisions. Previously, Rhabdophis lateralis was classified as a subspecies of R. tigrinus (Yamakagashi) until 2012, when several genetic differences were discovered which classified this snake as its own species. To elucidate the toxicity of venom from this poorly studied colubrid, various biological activities were compared between the venom from the two snake species. The components of their venom were compared by the elution profiles of reversed-phase HPLC and SDS-PAGE, and gel filtrated fractions were tested for effects on blood coagulation...
November 17, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148072/ultrastructure-of-endocrine-pancreatic-granules-during-pancreatic-differentiation-in-the-grass-snake-natrix-natrix-l-lepidosauria-serpentes
#10
Magdalena Kowalska, Weronika Rupik
We used transmission electron microscopy to study the pancreatic main endocrine cell types in the embryos of the grass snake Natrix natrix L. with focus on the morphology of their secretory granules. The embryonic endocrine part of the pancreas in the grass snake contains four main types of cells (A, B, D, and PP), which is similar to other vertebrates. The B granules contained a moderately electron-dense crystalline-like core that was polygonal in shape and an electron-dense outer zone. The A granules had a spherical electron-dense eccentrically located core and a moderately electron-dense outer zone...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147117/colistin-resistance-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-snakes-in-taiwan
#11
Po-Yu Liu, Ling-Ling Weng, Shu-Ying Tseng, Chou-Chen Huang, Ching-Chang Cheng, Yan-Chiao Mao, Kwong-Chung Tung
This study included fifty-eight isolates of P. aeruginosa from the oral cavity of snakes that were recruited from clinical cases, captive and wild snakes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the determination of susceptibility were identified by the broth microdilution method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to detect β-lactamases genes. With regard to antipseudomonal antibiotics, the lowest nonsusceptible rates were in aztreonam (15%), piperacillin/tazobactam (12%), and amikacin (9%)...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143316/psychometric-properties-of-parent-and-child-reported-sleep-assessment-tools-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Manuel Bautista, Koa Whittingham, Priya Edwards, Roslyn N Boyd
AIM: To determine whether any parent and child report sleep measure tools have been validated in children aged 0-18 years with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: A systematic search of five databases was performed up to June 2017. Studies were included if a sleep measure tool was used to evaluate sleep in children 0-18 years with CP based on international classifications of sleep. Sleep measures were assessed for psychometric data in children with CP. RESULTS: Only one paper which used the Schlaffragebogen für Kinder mit Neurologischen und Anderen Komplexen Erkrankungen (SNAKE) questionnaire met the study criteria...
November 16, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142382/capillary-leak-syndrome-following-snakebite-envenomation
#13
REVIEW
V Udayabhaskaran, E T Arun Thomas, Bhagya Shaji
Capillary leak syndrome is a unique complication that follows Russell's viper envenomation. This syndrome has a very high fatality rate and is characterized by parotid swelling, chemosis, periorbital edema, hypotension, albuminuria, hypoalbuminemia, and hemoconcentration. This syndrome is frequently recognized from the southern parts of India, especially from the state of Kerala. It has been postulated that a vascular apoptosis inducing component of Russell's viper venom that is not neutralized by the commercially available anti-snake venom (ASV) is responsible for this complication as it occurs even after adequate doses of ASV administration in most cases...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142118/climate-and-foraging-mode-explain-interspecific-variation-in-snake-metabolic-rates
#14
Andréaz Dupoué, François Brischoux, Olivier Lourdais
The energy cost of self-maintenance is a critical facet of life-history strategies. Clarifying the determinant of interspecific variation in metabolic rate (MR) at rest is important to understand and predict ecological patterns such as species distributions or responses to climatic changes. We examined variation of MR in snakes, a group characterized by a remarkable diversity of activity rates and a wide distribution. We collated previously published MR data (n = 491 observations) measured in 90 snake species at different trial temperatures...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139259/-progress-in-molecular-identification-of-snake-drugs
#15
REVIEW
Yi Xu, Yan Lu, Hai-Ping Wu, Ying Bu
Snake drugs have high values in clinical medication for anti-inflammatory, analgesia activities and dredging collaterals. However, owing to their deficient resource and substantial profit, many counterfeits for snake drugs have appeared on the market. Traditional methods for Chinese medicine authentication include identification of origin, morphology identification, microscopy and physiochemical identification. But these methods are restricted in application because of their high morphological requirement for specimens, complex process for assays and indeterminate results guided by subjective...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138410/pla2-like-proteins-myotoxic-mechanism-a-dynamic-model-description
#16
Rafael J Borges, Ney Lemke, Marcos R M Fontes
Phospholipase A2-like (PLA2-like) proteins contribute to the development of muscle necrosis in Viperidae snake bites and are not efficiently neutralized by current antivenom treatments. The toxic mechanisms of PLA2-like proteins are devoid of catalytic activity and not yet fully understood, although structural and functional experiments suggest a dimeric assembly and that the C-terminal residues are essential to myotoxicity. Herein, we characterized the functional mechanism of bothropic PLA2-like structures related to global and local measurements using the available models in the Protein Data Bank and normal mode molecular dynamics (NM-MD)...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134436/common-cutaneous-bacteria-isolated-from-snakes-inhibit-growth-of-ophidiomyces-ophiodiicola
#17
Aubree J Hill, Jacob E Leys, Danny Bryan, Fantasia M Erdman, Katherine S Malone, Gabrielle N Russell, Roger D Applegate, Heather Fenton, Kevin Niedringhaus, Andrew N Miller, Matthew C Allender, Donald M Walker
There is increasing concern regarding potential impacts of snake fungal disease (SFD), caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo), on free-ranging snake populations in the eastern USA. The snake cutaneous microbiome likely serves as the first line of defense against Oo and other pathogens; however, little is known about microbial associations in snakes. The objective of this study was to better define the composition and immune function of the snake cutaneous microbiome. Eight timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four black racers (Coluber constrictor) were captured in Arkansas and Tennessee, with some snakes exhibiting signs of SFD...
November 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133665/a-rare-case-of-bilateral-tractional-retinal-detachment-following-snakebite
#18
Nicey Roy Thomas, Debmalya Das, Kumar Saurabh, Rupak Roy
A 13-year-old female presented with diminution of vision in both eyes for 3 months following snakebite. Best-corrected visual acuities were hand movement in both eyes. Fundoscopy showed vitreous hemorrhage, and B-scan ultrasonography revealed an underlying tractional retinal detachment (TRD) involving the macula in both eyes. Patient underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in conjunction with belt buckling, endolaser, and silicone oil tamponade in the left eye. At 6 weeks postoperatively, best-corrected visual acuity of the left eye was noted to be 20/200 with settled TRD and attached retina...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133310/convergent-origination-of-a-drosophila-like-dosage-compensation-mechanism-in-a-reptile-lineage
#19
Ray Marin, Diego Cortez, Francesco Lamanna, Madapura M Pradeepa, Evgeny Leushkin, Philippe Julien, Angélica Liechti, Jean Halbert, Thoomke Brüning, Katharina Mössinger, Timo Trefzer, Christian Conrad, Halie N Kerver, Juli Wade, Patrick Tschopp, Henrik Kaessmann
Sex chromosomes differentiated from different ancestral autosomes in various vertebrate lineages. Here, we trace the functional evolution of the XY Chromosomes of the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis), on the basis of extensive high-throughput genome, transcriptome and histone modification sequencing data and revisit dosage compensation evolution in representative mammals and birds with substantial new expression data. Our analyses show that Anolis sex chromosomes represent an ancient XY system that originated at least ≈160 million years ago in the ancestor of Iguania lizards, shortly after the separation from the snake lineage...
November 13, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131856/examination-of-sarcocystis-spp-of-giant-snakes-from-australia-and-southeast-asia-confirms-presence-of-a-known-pathogen-sarcocystis-nesbitti
#20
Marion Wassermann, Lisa Raisch, Jessica Ann Lyons, Daniel James Deans Natusch, Sarah Richter, Mareike Wirth, Piyarat Preeprem, Yuvaluk Khoprasert, Sulaiman Ginting, Ute Mackenstedt, Thomas Jäkel
We examined Sarcocystis spp. in giant snakes from the Indo-Australian Archipelago and Australia using a combination of morphological (size of sporocyst) and molecular analyses. We amplified by PCR nuclear 18S rDNA from single sporocysts in order to detect mixed infections and unequivocally assign the retrieved sequences to the corresponding parasite stage. Sarcocystis infection was generally high across the study area, with 78 (68%) of 115 examined pythons being infected by one or more Sarcocystis spp. Among 18 randomly chosen, sporocyst-positive samples (11 from Southeast Asia, 7 from Northern Australia) the only Sarcocystis species detected in Southeast Asian snakes was S...
2017: PloS One
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