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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650234/antinociceptive-and-respiratory-effects-following-application-of-transdermal-fentanyl-patches-and-assessment-of-brain-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-mrna-expression-in-ball-pythons
#1
Rima J Kharbush, Allison Gutwillig, Kate E Hartzler, Rebecca S Kimyon, Alyssa N Gardner, Andrew D Abbott, Sherry K Cox, Jyoti J Watters, Kurt K Sladky, Stephen M Johnson
OBJECTIVE To quantify plasma fentanyl concentrations (PFCs) and evaluate antinociceptive and respiratory effects following application of transdermal fentanyl patches (TFPs) and assess cerebrospinal μ-opioid receptor mRNA expression in ball pythons (compared with findings in turtles). ANIMALS 44 ball pythons (Python regius) and 10 turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). PROCEDURES To administer 3 or 12 μg of fentanyl/h, a quarter or whole TFP (TFP-3 and TFP-12, respectively) was used. At intervals after TFP-12 application in snakes, PFCs were measured by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography...
July 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648696/integrating-behaviour-into-the-pace-of-life-continuum-divergent-levels-of-activity-and-information-gathering-in-fast-and-slow-living-snakes
#2
Eric J Gangloff, Melinda Chow, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Stephanie Hynes, Brooke Hobbs, Amanda M Sparkman
An animal's life history, physiology, and behaviour can be shaped by selection in a manner that favours strong associations among these aspects of an integrated phenotype. Recent work combining animal personality and life-history theory proposes that animals with faster life-history strategies (i.e., fast growth, high annual reproductive rate, short lifespan) should exhibit higher general activity levels relative to those with slower life-history strategies, but empirical tests of within-species variation in these traits are lacking...
June 22, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647179/euphorbia-neriifolia-l-review-on-botany-ethnomedicinal-uses-phytochemistry-and-biological-activities
#3
REVIEW
Prashant Y Mali, Shital S Panchal
The present review is intended to provide information on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia (E. neriifolia). E. neriifolia has several ethnomedicinal uses. The latex of E. neriifolia is used as laxative, purgative, rubefacient, carminative and expectorant as well as in treatment of whooping cough, gonorrhoea, leprosy, asthma, dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of the spleen, tumours, stone in the bladder, abdominal troubles and leucoderma...
May 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647127/infrared-light-detection-by-the-haller-s-organ-of-adult-american-dog-ticks-dermacentor-variabilis-ixodida-ixodidae
#4
Robert D Mitchell, Jiwei Zhu, Ann L Carr, Anirudh Dhammi, Grayson Cave, Daniel E Sonenshine, R Michael Roe
The Haller's organ (HO), unique to ticks and mites, is found only on the first tarsus of the front pair of legs. The organ has an unusual morphology consisting of an anterior pit (AP) with protruding sensilla and a posterior capsule (Cp). The current thinking is that the HO's main function is chemosensation analogous to the insect antennae, but the functionality of its atypical structure (exclusive to the Acari) is unexplained. We provide the first evidence that the HO allows the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, to respond to infrared (IR) light...
June 13, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644894/northward-dispersal-of-sea-kraits-laticauda-semifasciata-beyond-their-typical-range
#5
Jaejin Park, Il-Hun Kim, Jonathan J Fong, Kyo-Soung Koo, Woo-Jin Choi, Tein-Shun Tsai, Daesik Park
Marine reptiles are declining globally, and recent climate change may be a contributing factor. The study of sea snakes collected beyond their typical distribution range provides valuable insight on how climate change affects marine reptile populations. Recently, we collected 12 Laticauda semifasciata (11 females, 1 male) from the waters around southern South Korea-an area located outside its typical distribution range (Japan, China including Taiwan, Philippines and Indonesia). We investigated the genetic origin of Korean specimens by analyzing mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (Cytb) sequences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642580/a-snake-venom-group-iia-pla2-with-immunomodulatory-activity-induces-formation-of-lipid-droplets-containing-15-d-pgj2-in-macrophages
#6
Karina Cristina Giannotti, Elbio Leiguez, Ana Eduarda Zulim de Carvalho, Neide Galvão Nascimento, Márcio Hideki Matsubara, Consuelo Latorre Fortes-Dias, Vanessa Moreira, Catarina Teixeira
Crotoxin B (CB) is a catalytically active group IIA sPLA2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom. In contrast to most GIIA sPLA2s, CB exhibits anti-inflammatory effects, including the ability to inhibit leukocyte functions. Lipid droplets (LDs) are lipid-rich organelles associated with inflammation and recognized as a site for the synthesis of inflammatory lipid mediators. Here, the ability of CB to induce formation of LDs and the mechanisms involved in this effect were investigated in isolated macrophages...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638720/negative-emotion-evoked-by-viewing-snakes-has-a-motivating-effect-on-cognitive-processing-in-human-children-with-or-without-intellectual-disability
#7
Nobuo Masataka
BACKGROUND: It is well known that prioritization of the processing of threatening stimuli generally induces deleterious effects on task performance. However, a study recently reported that emotion (possibly fear) evoked by viewing images of snakes exerts a facilitating effect upon making judgments of the images' color in neurotypical adults and schoolchildren. Here, the author has attempted to confirm the relevance of this notion in children with and without intellectual disability. METHODS: The author here compared the reaction time required to name the colors of snake and flower images between children with Down syndrome (DS) and mental age matched, typically-developing (TD) children...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637698/charming-the-snake-venom-derived-peptides-show-surprising-efficacy-as-glycoprotein-vi-targeting-antithrombotic-agents
#8
EDITORIAL
Andrew B Herr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636631/incidence-and-mortality-due-to-snakebite-in-the-americas
#9
Jean-Philippe Chippaux
BACKGROUND: Better knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites could help to take measures to improve their management. The incidence and mortality of snakebites in the Americas are most often estimated from medical and scientific literature, which generally lack precision and representativeness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Authors used the notifications of snakebites treated in health centers collected by the Ministries of Health of the American countries to estimate their incidence and mortality...
June 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635138/snake-spectacle-vessel-permeability-to-sodium-fluorescein
#10
Roy W Bellhorn, Ann R Strom, Monica J Motta, John Doval, Michelle G Hawkins, Joanne Paul-Murphy
OBJECTIVE: Assess vascular permeability of the snake spectacle to sodium fluorescein during resting and shedding phases of the ecdysis cycle. ANIMAL STUDIED: Ball python (Python regius). PROCEDURES: The snake was anesthetized, and spectral domain optic coherence tomography was performed prior to angiographic procedures. An electronically controlled digital single-lens reflex camera with a dual-head flash equipped with filters suitable for fluorescein angiography was used to make images...
June 20, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633930/phospholipase-a2-in-the-venom-of-three-cottonmouth-snakes
#11
Ying Jia, Boris Ermolinsky, Aryana Garza, Daniele Provenzano
Two phospholipase A2s (PLA2s), Asp49 (D49) and Lys49 (K49), were purified by one-step reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) from the venom of each of the three subspecies of cottonmouth snake, Western cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma; Apl), Eastern cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus; App) and Florida cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti; Apc). Venom protein profiles and PLA2s elution pattern of the three cottonmouth snakes were remarkably similar displaying four similar sharp and two wide peaks; in all cases K49 PLA2 eluted first followed by D49 PLA2...
June 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632275/architectures-of-soft-robotic-locomotion-enabled-by-simple-mechanical-principles
#12
Liangliang Zhu, Yunteng Cao, Yilun Liu, Zhe Yang, Xi Chen
In nature, a variety of limbless locomotion patterns flourish, from the small or basic life forms (Escherichia coli, amoebae, etc.) to the large or intelligent creatures (e.g., slugs, starfishes, earthworms, octopuses, jellyfishes, and snakes). Many bioinspired soft robots based on locomotion have been developed in the past few decades. In this work, based on the kinematics and dynamics of two representative locomotion modes (i.e., worm-like crawling and snake-like slithering), we propose a broad set of innovative designs for soft mobile robots through simple mechanical principles...
June 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630406/emerging-fungal-pathogen-ophidiomyces-ophiodiicola-in-wild-european-snakes
#13
Lydia H V Franklinos, Jeffrey M Lorch, Elizabeth Bohuski, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Owen N Wright, Liam Fitzpatrick, Silviu Petrovan, Chris Durrant, Chris Linton, Vojtech Baláž, Andrew A Cunningham, Becki Lawson
Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging disease of conservation concern in eastern North America. Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the causative agent of SFD, has been isolated from over 30 species of wild snakes from six families in North America. Whilst O. ophiodiicola has been isolated from captive snakes outside North America, the pathogen has not been reported from wild snakes elsewhere. We screened 33 carcasses and 303 moulted skins from wild snakes collected from 2010-2016 in Great Britain and the Czech Republic for the presence of macroscopic skin lesions and O...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630199/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-antimicrobial-peptides-in-python-bivittatus-and-characterization-of-cathelicidins-with-potent-antimicrobial-activity-and-low-cytotoxicity
#14
Dayeong Kim, Nagasundarapandian Soundrarajan, Juyeon Lee, Hye-Sun Cho, Minkyeung Choi, Se-Yeoun Cha, Byeongyong Ahn, Hyoim Jeon, Minh Thong Le, Hyuk Song, Jin-Hoi Kim, Chankyu Park
In this study, we sought to identify novel antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in Python bivittatus through bioinformatic analyses of publicly available genome information and experimental validation. In our analysis of the python genome, we identified 29 AMP-related candidate sequences. Of these, we selected five cathelicidin-like sequences and subjected them to further in silico analyses. The results showed that these sequences likely have antimicrobial activity. The sequences were named Pb-CATH1-Pb-CATH5 according to their sequence similarity to previously reported snake cathelicidins...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629414/fibrinogen-deficiency-in-a-dog-a-case-report
#15
Franck Jolivet, Armelle Diquélou, Catherine Trumel, Simon Privat, Olivier Dossin
BACKGROUND: Among coagulation disorders, primary fibrinogen deficiency is very rare in dogs. It is divided into hypofibrinogenemia, afibrinogenemia and dysfibrinogenemia. Afibrinogenemia has been described in three dogs. There are, however, no published case reports of primary hypofibrinogenemia in dogs. CASE PRESENTATION: A 1.5 year-old male German Pointer dog was evaluated for a locked-jaw syndrome associated with eye protrusion which appeared after a minor head trauma...
June 19, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627854/swiss-and-tropical-snakebites-the-clinical-management
#16
Laurence Rochat, Gabriel Alcoba
With increasing trips to tropical areas, as well as a high number of venomous snake holders in the country, the frequency of snake bites is likely to increase. Even if in 50 % of cases, the bites do not lead to clinical envenoming, rapid and effective management is essential to successful treatment, which includes supply with the polyvalent or specific antivenom and recognition of the signs and symptoms justifying its administration. We will deal here mainly with local and tropical snake envenoming that Swiss practitioners could encounter in their offices or the emergency rooms and propose scenarios according to the syndromes...
May 3, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625888/combined-venom-profiling-and-cytotoxicity-screening-of-the-radde-s-mountain-viper-montivipera-raddei-and-mount-bulgar-viper-montivipera-bulgardaghica-with-potent-cytotoxicity-against-human-a549-lung-carcinoma-cells
#17
Ayse Nalbantsoy, Benjamin-Florian Hempel, Daniel Petras, Paul Heiss, Bayram Göçmen, Nasit Iğci, Mehmet Zülfü Yildiz, Roderich D Süssmuth
Here we report the first characterization of the endemic Mount Bulgar Viper (Montivipera bulgardaghica) and Radde's mountain viper (Montivipera raddei) venom by a combined approach using intact mass profiling and bottom-up proteomics. The cytotoxicity screening of crude venom as well as isolated serine proteases revealed a high activity against A549 human lung carcinoma cells. By means of intact mass profiling of native and reduced venom we observed basic and acidic phospholipases type A2. Moreover, the analysis revealed snake venom metalloproteases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, disintegrins, snake venom serine proteases, C-type lectins, a vascular endothelial growth factor and an L-amino acid oxidase...
June 16, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623383/ethnopharmacological-uses-phytochemistry-biological-activities-and-biotechnological-applications-of-eclipta-prostrata
#18
REVIEW
Ill-Min Chung, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Ji-Hee Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim, Muthu Thiruvengadam
Eclipta prostrata belongs to a family of medicinal plants (Asteraceae) and plays a role in the treatment of several diseases, including infectious hepatitis, snake venom poisoning, gastritis, and respiratory diseases such as a cough and asthma. A number of compounds, including thiophene derivatives, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, polypeptides, and coumestans, have been isolated from E. prostrata. The plant functional compounds can act as reducing agent in the field of nanoparticle synthesis...
July 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623170/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-inhibitors-derived-from-snake-and-snail-venoms
#19
REVIEW
Sebastien Dutertre, Annette Nicke, Victor Tsetlin
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) represents the prototype of ligand-gated ion channels. It is vital for neuromuscular transmission and an important regulator of neurotransmission. A variety of toxic compounds derived from diverse species target this receptor and have been of elemental importance in basic and applied research. They enabled milestone discoveries in pharmacology and biochemistry ranging from the original formulation of the receptor concept, the first isolation and structural analysis of a receptor protein (the nAChR) to the identification, localization, and differentiation of its diverse subtypes and their validation as a target for therapeutic intervention...
June 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622447/does-sexual-selection-influence-ornamentation-of-hemipenes-in-old-world-snakes
#20
Kostadin Andonov, Nikolay Natchev, Yurii V Kornilev, Nikolay Tzankov
In the present study, we investigated and documented the morphology of the male copulatory organs (hemipenes) in fifteen wide-ranging snake species. The species represent four families (Boidae, Colubridae, Lamprophiidae, and Viperidae) and ten genera. We applied the same preparation techniques for all species, successfully everting and expanding the organs completely. The detailed description of the general morphology of the male copulatory organs was based on 31 specimens. Our data were compared with published observations and we point out some incorrectly described details in previous investigations...
June 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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