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Jörg Fischer, Bernadette Eberlein, Christiane Hilger, Florian Eyer, Stephanie Eyerich, Markus Ollert, Tilo Biedermann
BACKGROUND: Antivenoms are mammalian immunoglobulins with the ability to neutralize snake venom components and to mitigate the progression of toxic effects. Immediate hypersensitivity to antivenoms often occurs during the first administration of these heterologous antibodies. A comparable clinical situation occurred after introduction of cetuximab, a chimeric mouse-human antibody, for cancer treatment. The carbohydrate epitope galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, located on the Fab region of cetuximab, was identified as the target responsible for IgE reactivity...
October 24, 2016: Allergy
Rui Zhang, Shiping Zhu, Qin Zhou
Infrared image segmentation is a challenging topic because infrared images are characterized by high noise, low contrast, and weak edges. Active contour models, especially gradient vector flow, have several advantages in terms of infrared image segmentation. However, the GVF (Gradient Vector Flow) model also has some drawbacks including a dilemma between noise smoothing and weak edge protection, which decrease the effect of infrared image segmentation significantly. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel generalized gradient vector flow snakes model combining GGVF (Generic Gradient Vector Flow) and NBGVF (Normally Biased Gradient Vector Flow) models...
October 21, 2016: Sensors
Aleksandra Bocian, Małgorzata Urbanik, Konrad Hus, Andrzej Łyskowski, Vladimír Petrilla, Zuzana Andrejčáková, Monika Petrillová, Jaroslav Legath
Snake venom is a rich source of peptides and proteins with a wide range of actions. Many of the venom components are currently being tested for their usefulness in the treatment of many diseases ranging from neurological and cardiovascular to cancer. It is also important to constantly search for new proteins and peptides with properties not yet described. The venom of Vipera berus berus has hemolytic, proteolytic and cytotoxic properties, but its exact composition and the factors responsible for these properties are not known...
October 19, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Morné A Strydom, Janette Bester, Sthembile Mbotwe, Etheresia Pretorius
A significant burden of illness is caused globally by snakebites particularly by the puff adder, Bitis arietans. Presently there is no reliable and rapid method to confirm envenomation on blood chemistry; although coagulation parameters like prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio and also serum electrolytes are tested. Here, we found that direct in vitro exposure of physiological relevant whole venom levels to human healthy blood (N = 32), caused significant physiological changes to platelet activity using a hematology analyzer, and measuring occlusion time, as well as lyses time, with the global thrombosis test (GTT)...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Md Nazmul Hasan, Nur Kabidul Azam, Md Nasir Ahmed, Akinori Hirashima
Snakebite is the single most important toxin-related injury, causing substantial mortality in many parts of the Africa, Asia and the Americas. Incidence of snakebite is usually recorded in young people engaged in active physical work in rural areas. The various plant parts used to treat snakebite included whole plant, leaves, barks, roots and seeds. Most bites in Bangladesh are recorded between May and October with highest number in June. Lower and upper limbs are most common sites of snakebite, but it may happen in other sites as well...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Francisca Leal, Martin J Cohn
Limb reduction and loss are hallmarks of snake evolution. Although advanced snakes are completely limbless, basal and intermediate snakes retain pelvic girdles and small rudiments of the femur. Moreover, legs may have re-emerged in extinct snake lineages [1-5], suggesting that the mechanisms of limb development were not completely lost in snakes. Here we report that hindlimb development arrests in python embryos as a result of mutations that abolish essential transcription factor binding sites in the limb-specific enhancer of Sonic hedgehog (SHH)...
October 19, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Evgeny Z Kvon, Olga K Kamneva, Uirá S Melo, Iros Barozzi, Marco Osterwalder, Brandon J Mannion, Virginie Tissières, Catherine S Pickle, Ingrid Plajzer-Frick, Elizabeth A Lee, Momoe Kato, Tyler H Garvin, Jennifer A Akiyama, Veena Afzal, Javier Lopez-Rios, Edward M Rubin, Diane E Dickel, Len A Pennacchio, Axel Visel
The evolution of body shape is thought to be tightly coupled to changes in regulatory sequences, but specific molecular events associated with major morphological transitions in vertebrates have remained elusive. We identified snake-specific sequence changes within an otherwise highly conserved long-range limb enhancer of Sonic hedgehog (Shh). Transgenic mouse reporter assays revealed that the in vivo activity pattern of the enhancer is conserved across a wide range of vertebrates, including fish, but not in snakes...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Diego Villar, Duncan T Odom
The molecular mechanisms underpinning vertebrate body plan evolution are beginning to be unravelled. In this issue of Cell, Kvon et al. spectacularly demonstrate how transplanting snake-specific genetic changes found uniquely in serpent enhancers leads to limb loss in mice.
October 20, 2016: Cell
Yukio Ozaki, Shogo Tamura, Katsue Suzuki-Inoue
Platelets play a key role in the pathophysiological processes of hemostasis and thrombus formation. However, platelet functions beyond thrombosis and hemostasis have been increasingly identified in recent years. A large body of evidence now exists which suggests that platelets also play a key role in inflammation, immunity, malignancy, and furthermore in organ development and regeneration, such as the liver. We have recently identified CLEC-2 on the platelet membrane, which induces intracellular activation signals upon interaction of a snake venom, rhodocytin...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Tur-Fu Huang, Chun-Chieh Hsu, Yu-Ju Kuo
Snake venoms affect blood coagulation and platelet function in a complex manner. However, two classes of venom proteins, snaclecs and disintegrins have been shown to specifically target receptors including GPIb, α2β1, GPVI, CLEC-2 and integrins αIIbβ3, αvβ3, α5β1 expressed on platelets, endothelial cells, phagocytes, tumor cells, thus affecting cell-matrices and cell-cell interactions. Here, we focus on disintegrins, a class of low molecular mass Arg-Gly-Asp(RGD)/Lys-Gly-Asp(KGD)-containing, cysteine-rich polypeptide derived from various viper snake venoms...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Michail Rovatsos, Martina Johnson Pokorná, Marie Altmanová, Lukáš Kratochvíl
Geckos in general show extensive variability in sex determining systems, but only male heterogamety has been demonstrated in the members of their legless family Pygopodidae. In the pioneering study published more than 45 years ago, multiple sex chromosomes of the type X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y were described in Burton's legless lizard (Lialisburtonis) based on conventional cytogenetic techniques. We conducted cytogenetic analyses including comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with selected cytogenetic markers in this species and the previously cytogenetically unstudied Papua snake lizard (Lialis jicari) to better understand the nature of these sex chromosomes and their differentiation...
October 21, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Daryl C Yang, Jennifer R Deuis, Daniel Dashevsky, James Dobson, Timothy N W Jackson, Andreas Brust, Bing Xie, Ivan Koludarov, Jordan Debono, Iwan Hendrikx, Wayne C Hodgson, Peter Josh, Amanda Nouwens, Gregory J Baillie, Timothy J C Bruxner, Paul F Alewood, Kelvin Kok Peng Lim, Nathaniel Frank, Irina Vetter, Bryan G Fry
Millions of years of evolution have fine-tuned the ability of venom peptides to rapidly incapacitate both prey and potential predators. Toxicofera reptiles are characterized by serous-secreting mandibular or maxillary glands with heightened levels of protein expression. These glands are the core anatomical components of the toxicoferan venom system, which exists in myriad points along an evolutionary continuum. Neofunctionalisation of toxins is facilitated by positive selection at functional hotspots on the ancestral protein and venom proteins have undergone dynamic diversification in helodermatid and varanid lizards as well as advanced snakes...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
Anjana Silva, Wayne C Hodgson, Geoffrey K Isbister
There is limited information on the cross-neutralisation of neurotoxic venoms with antivenoms. Cross-neutralisation of the in vitro neurotoxicity of four Asian and four Australian snake venoms, four post-synaptic neurotoxins (α-bungarotoxin, α-elapitoxin-Nk2a, α-elapitoxin-Ppr1 and α-scutoxin; 100 nM) and one pre-synaptic neurotoxin (taipoxin; 100 nM) was studied with five antivenoms: Thai cobra antivenom (TCAV), death adder antivenom (DAAV), Thai neuro polyvalent antivenom (TNPAV), Indian Polyvalent antivenom (IPAV) and Australian polyvalent antivenom (APAV)...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
Syafiq Asnawi Zainal Abidin, Pathmanathan Rajadurai, Md Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury, Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad Rusmili, Iekhsan Othman, Rakesh Naidu
Tropidolaemus wagleri and Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus are venomous pit viper species commonly found in Malaysia. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the crude venoms has detected different proteins in T. wagleri and C. purpureomaculatus. They were classified into 13 venom protein families consisting of enzymatic and nonenzymatic proteins. Enzymatic families detected in T. wagleri and C. purpureomaculatus venom were snake venom metalloproteinase, phospholipase A₂, ʟ-amino acid oxidase, serine proteases, 5'-nucleotidase, phosphodiesterase, and phospholipase B...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
J C Menon, J K Joseph, M P Jose, B L Dhananjaya, O V Oommen
INTRODUCTION: Snakebite is an occupational hazard causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly so in tropical countries like India. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to (i) review the demographic, clinical and laboratory findings in patients (1051) admitted with venomous snakebite (ii) to correlate mortality, morbidity and duration of hospital stay with clinical signs, symptoms and laboratory parameters. METHODS: A retrospective study of 1051 patients treated for snakebite over 10 years (2000 - 2009) in Little Flower Hospital, Angamaly, Kerala...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Prakash Chandra Pandey, Sarita Bajaj, Anubha Srivastava
OBJECTIVE: Snake bite in India is a common medical emergency and an occupational hazard for majority of Indian population especially farmers. Epidemiological data on snake bite from the North India is sparse. Hence we conducted this study to find clinico-epidemiological profile of neuroparalytic snake bite. METHODS: This is a record-based, descriptive study carried out at the Department of Medicine, M.L.N. Medical College and associated Swaroop Rani Nehru Hospital, Allahabad, U...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Shibendu Ghosh, Prabuddha Mukhopadhyay, Tanmoy Chatterjee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Fabien Aubret, Florent Bignon, Philippe J R Kok, Gaëlle Blanvillain
Egg-clustering and communal nesting behaviours provide advantages to offspring. Advantages range from anti-predatory benefits, maintenance of moisture and temperature levels within the nest, preventing the eggs from rolling, to enabling hatching synchrony through embryo communication. It was recently suggested that embryo communication may extend beyond development fine-tuning, and potentially convey information about the quality of the natal environment as well as provide an indication of forthcoming competition amongst siblings, conspecifics or even heterospecifics...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jie Zhang, Jiao Peng, Xiaoyong Chen, Yajun Gong, Lesheng Wan, Fei Gao, Suran Gan, Feng Wei, Shuangcheng Ma, Jiachun Chen, Jing Nie
Snake bile, a precious traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used as the major ingredient of some Chinese patent drugs, such as Shedan Chuanbei powder and Shedan Chenpi powder for hundred years. However, there is still requirement for the comprehensive and definite composition of bile acids in snake bile. In order to rapidly identify the bile acids constituents in snake bile to avoid the adulteration, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) has been applied to conduct a qualitative analysis on snake bile acids...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Simone Grassini, Suvi K Holm, Henry Railo, Mika Koivisto
Snakes were probably one of the earliest predators of primates, and snake images produce specific behavioral and electrophysiological reactions in humans. Pictures of snakes evoke enhanced activity over the occipital cortex, indexed by the "early posterior negativity" (EPN), as compared with pictures of other dangerous or non-dangerous animals. The present study investigated the possibility that the response to snake images is independent from visual awareness. The observers watched images of threatening and non-threatening animals presented in random order during rapid serial visual presentation...
October 17, 2016: Biological Psychology
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