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Jan Tumajer, Václav Treml
Background and Aims: The increasing frequency of disturbances in temperate forests is responsible for the greater numbers of trees with mechanically damaged cambial zones. Adjustment of wood anatomical structure to balance between safe and efficient water conductivity is one mechanism trees employ to cope with mechanical damage. The relative role of disturbances, tree age and climate in shaping xylem conduits and affecting xylem hydraulic conductivity remains unknown. Methods: We performed an experiment with five different mechanical treatments simulating natural disturbances of juvenile Betula pendula trees (stem scarring, tilting, decapitation, root exposure and stem-base burial)...
December 14, 2018: Annals of Botany
Ling Zhu, Lihong Tong, Nan Zhao, Jie Li, Yizhong Lv
Based on the interaction between mesoscopic biochar materials and nanomaterials, the synergistic mechanism of the two materials in the process of cadmium remediation was studied. K2 CO3 activated porous biochar (KBC) loaded with nano-zero-valent iron (nZVI)/nano-α-hydroxy-iron oxide (nHIO) was studied. Macroscopically, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to describe the adsorption properties of the composites. Microscopically, the changes of surface chemical states were characterized by electron microscopy, XRD, FTIR and XPS...
December 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Timothy J Eyes, James I Austerberry, Rebecca J Dearman, Linus O Johannissen, Ian Kimber, Noel Smith, Angela Thistlethwaite, Jeremy P Derrick
Aggregation of therapeutic proteins is a key factor in the generation of unwanted immunogenicity, and can result in reduced serum half-life, neutralization of function and adverse health effects. There is currently little information regarding how aggregates interact with B-cell receptors or cognate antibodies at the protein sequence level, or whether non-native, aggregate-induced epitopes predominate in these interactions. Using an antibody fragment (single chain antibody variable fragment; scFv) that forms aggregates readily at low temperature, anti-scFv IgG antibody responses were generated by intraperitoneal injection of BALB/c strain mice with monomer or aggregate preparations...
December 11, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Meichao Zhang, Aitao Lu, Bert H Hodges
Magnitude effects (e.g., heavier or faster is longer) and valence effects (e.g., negative > positive) are widely observed in time perception studies, but not well understood. In four experiments, we explored how different action contexts (e.g., tasting, lifting) affected magnitude and valence effects. In two experiments a valence effect occurred: Tasting a sweet food (watermelon) led to temporal underestimations relative to a neutral stimulus, while sour and bitter foods led to overestimations. However, when the same foods were presented in a lifting context a magnitude effect occurred: Reproduced times for the heavier food (watermelon) were overestimated relative to the lighter foods...
December 11, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Francesco Francia, Bahia Khalfaoui-Hassani, Pascal Lanciano, Francesco Musiani, Louis Noodleman, Giovanni Venturoli, Fevzi Daldal
The ubihydroquinone:cytochrome (cyt) c oxidoreductase (or cyt bc1 ) is an important enzyme for photosynthesis and respiration. In bacteria like Rhodobacter capsulatus, this membrane complex has three subunits, the iron‑sulfur protein (ISP) with its Fe2 S2 cluster, cyt c1 and cyt b, forming two catalytic domains, the Qo (hydroquinone (QH2 ) oxidation) and Qi (quinone (Q) reduction) sites. At the Qo site, the electron transfer pathways originating from QH2 oxidation are known, but their associated proton release routes are less well defined...
December 11, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Bioenergetics
Pim Cuijpers, Mirjam Reijnders, Marcus J H Huibers
Psychotherapies may work through techniques that are specific to each therapy or through factors that all therapies have in common. Proponents of the common factors model often point to meta-analyses of comparative outcome studies that show all therapies have comparable effects. However, not all meta-analyses support the common factors model; the included studies often have several methodological problems; and there are alternative explanations for finding comparable outcomes. To date, research on the working mechanisms and mediators of therapies has always been correlational, and in order to establish that a mediator is indeed a causal factor in the recovery process of a patient, studies must show a temporal relationship between the mediator and an outcome, a dose-response association, evidence that no third variable causes changes in the mediator and the outcome, supportive experimental research, and have a strong theoretical framework...
December 14, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Stuart Kininmonth, Rebecca Weeks, Rene A Abesamis, Lawrence Patrick C Bernardo, Maria Beger, Eric A Treml, David Williamson, Robert L Pressey
Instantaneous implementation of systematic conservation plans at regional scales is rare. More typically, planned actions are applied incrementally over periods of years or decades. During protracted implementation, the character of the connected ecological system will change as a function of external anthropogenic pressures, local metapopulation processes, and environmental fluctuations. For heavily exploited systems, habitat quality will deteriorate as the plan is implemented, potentially influencing the schedule of protected area implementation necessary to achieve conservation objectives...
December 14, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Michelangelo Vianello, Anna Dalla Rosa, Pasquale Anselmi, Elisa Maria Galliani
The accumulation of scientific knowledge on calling is limited by the absence of a common theoretical and measurement framework. Many different models of calling have been proposed, and we do not know how much research results that refer to a specific model are generalizable to different theoretical accounts of calling. In this article, we investigate whether two leading models of calling tackle the same construct. The two models were merged into a comprehensive framework that measures calling across seven facets: Passion, Purposefulness, Sacrifice, Pervasiveness, Prosocial Orientation, Transcendent Summons, and Identity...
2018: PloS One
Susan Jo Roberts, Genevieve E Chandler, Karen Kalmakis
Childhood trauma has been associated with negative health behaviors and conditions in adulthood. However, few primary care providers screen for trauma or alter their care to accommodate the multiple effects of trauma on patient health. The purposes of this article were to discuss the health consequences of childhood trauma and to offer a model for trauma-informed primary care (TIPC). The TIPC model provides a guide for primary care providers to screen for adverse childhood experiences and personalize the care of patients with a history of childhood trauma...
December 12, 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Eden R Brauer, Elisa F Long, Joy Melnikow, Peter M Ravdin, Patricia A Ganz
PURPOSE: According to the Institute of Medicine, high-quality cancer care should include effective communication between clinicians and patients about the risks and benefits, expected response, and impact on quality of life of a recommended therapy. In the delivery of oncology care, the barriers to and facilitators of communication about potential long-term and late effects, post-treatment expectations, and transition to survivorship care have not been fully defined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We collected qualitative data through semistructured interviews with medical oncologists and focus groups with breast cancer survivors and applied the Theoretical Domains Framework to systematically analyze and identify the factors that may influence oncologists' communication with patients with breast cancer about the long-term and late effects of adjuvant therapy...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
Katja I Häuser, Vera Demberg, Jutta Kray
Even though older adults are known to have difficulty at language processing when a secondary task has to be performed simultaneously, few studies have addressed how older adults process language in dual-task demands when linguistic load is systematically varied. Here, we manipulated surprisal, an information theoretic measure that quantifies the amount of new information conveyed by a word, to investigate how linguistic load affects younger and older adults during early and late stages of sentence processing under conditions when attention is split between two tasks...
December 2018: Psychology and Aging
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Wisdom, bias, and balance: Toward a process-sensitive measurement of wisdom-related cognition" by Justin P. Brienza, Franki Y. H. Kung, Henri C. Santos, D. Ramona Bobocel and Igor Grossmann ( Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Sep 21, 2017, np). In the article, the original supplemental material has been revised to include a clarifying note to the Tests of model fit over larger sample (Samples C-G) section and post-peer review analyses added to the Post-peer review Factor Analytic Tests section...
December 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Johanna M Grosse Rueschkamp, Peter Kuppens, Michaela Riediger, Elisabeth S Blanke, Annette Brose
Within the study of emotions, researchers have increasingly stressed the importance of studying individual differences in emotion dynamics and emotional responding and the way these relate to more stable differences in well-being. However, there is no clear picture regarding affective reactivity to positive events and how different emotional reactions relate to differences in well-being, particularly higher levels of well-being. Theoretical work and empirical findings from different lines of research (e.g., clinical studies, aging literature, positive and personality psychology) support either of 2 predictions: Higher well-being is related to an enhanced or reduced affective reactivity to positive events in daily life...
December 13, 2018: Emotion
Jaclyn Koopmann, Russell E Johnson, Mo Wang, Klodiana Lanaj, Guofeng Wang, Junqi Shi
Although previous research suggests that regulatory focus matters for organizational citizenship behaviors, it is unclear how promotion and prevention focus relate to such behaviors. Integrating regulatory focus theory with theories of self-regulation, we propose a conceptual model that links trait promotion and prevention foci with specific citizenship behaviors through an emotion-related self-regulation mechanism. Using a sample of 227 nurses working in a hospital context, we observed that trait promotion focus and trait prevention focus predict helping and voice via differential effects on emotional exhaustion...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Chunyu Cui, Jiantie Xu, Yiqiong Zhang, Zengxi Wei, Minglei Mao, Xin Lian, Shuangyin Wang, Chongyin Yang, Xiulin Fan, Jianmin Ma, Chunsheng Wang
Antimony (Sb) based materials have been considered as one of promising anodes for sodium ion batteries (SIBs) owing to their high theoretical capacities and appropriate sodium inserting potentials. So far, the reported energy density and cycling stability of the Sb based anodes for SIBs are quite limited and need to be significantly improved. Here, we develop a novel Sb/C hybrid encapsulating the Sb nanorods into highly conductive N & S co-doped carbon (Sb@(N, S-C)) frameworks. As an anode for SIBs, the Sb@(N, S-C) hybrid maintains high reversible capacities of 621...
December 14, 2018: Nano Letters
Tanping Li, Xiaofang Wang
Correlations between the nonequilibrium solvation dynamics upon the photon excitation of the chromophore and system's equilibrium fluctuations are deeply studied. As linear response of the solvent has been linked with Gaussian statistics of the energy fluctuations in literatures, we specifically explore the cases beyond the regime of the linear response theory due to deviation from Gaussian fluctuations. As a continuation of our previous work, an analytical formalism is presented to project the energy shift with various order moments, where the non-Gaussian statistics arise from the overlap of the energy basins on the perturbed potential energy surface...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Haihua Chen, Hao Liang, Fang Peng, Huishan Li, Bin Wang, Xinxin Xia, Xiaodong Li, Pei Wang, Liping Wang
Zirconium disilicide (ZrSi2 ) has been investigated experimentally and theoretically for its structural and physical properties at high pressures. In situ compression experiments demonstrate that at low pressure, ZrSi2 adopts the C49 structure (space group Cmcm), which persists up to 54.5 GPa at room temperature, and the unit cell of ZrSi2 along b-axis is at least twice as compressible as along a- and c-axis. A bulk modulus of 170.0 ± 0.7 GPa ( K'0 = 4) is derived from the compression experiment employing methanol-ethanol mixture as the pressure-transmitting medium...
December 14, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Martin Dresler, Anders Sandberg, Christoph Bublitz, Kathrin Ohla, Carlos Trenado, Aleksandra Mroczko-Wąsowicz, Simone Kühn, Dimitris Repantis
In an increasingly complex information society, demands for cognitive functioning are growing steadily. In recent years, numerous strategies to augment brain function have been proposed. Evidence for their efficacy (or lack thereof) and side effects has prompted discussions about ethical, societal and medical implications. In the public debate, cognitive enhancement is often seen as a monolithic phenomenon. On a closer look, however, cognitive enhancement turns out to be a multifaceted concept: There is not one cognitive enhancer that augments brain function per se, but a great variety of interventions that can be clustered into biochemical, physical and behavioral enhancement strategies...
December 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
L Tian, D Lin
Objective: To analyze the risk factors of secondary post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) in children, and to provide a theoretical basis for reducing complications after tonsillectomy. Method: A retrospective analysis of 354 children underwent tonsillectomy was performed, among which 42 secondary hemorrhage cases were divided into bleeding group, and other 312 cases were divided into non-bleeding group. To analyze the risk factors of secondary PTH and to discusses the pathogenesis of the hemorrhage, statistical analysis was conducted among eight clinical data including gender, age, reason of surgery, degree of tonsil embedding, surgery approach, surgeon' s skill level, intra-operative hemorrhagic volume, and postoperative absence of upper respiratory tract infection...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Mario Zapata-Vanegas, Pedro J Saturno-Hernández
OBJECTIVE: To adapt and validate an instrument to measure the context factors which favor quality improvement initiatives and accreditation of hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The model and questionnaire Model for Understanding Success in Quality (MUSIQ) is adapted and validated for application in Spanish-speaking countries and its specific use in hospital accreditation projects. The theoretical construct of its dimensions is assessed by confirmatory factor analysis (Bartlett test and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkim index) and internal consistency (Cronbach's a), in a study carried out in a sample of 54 hospitals of medium and high complexity in Colombia...
September 2018: Salud Pública de México
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