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Mònica Rosell, Jordi Palau, Siti Hatijah Mortan, Gloria Caminal, Albert Soler, Orfan Shouakar-Stash, Ernest Marco-Urrea
Chlorinated ethanes are frequent groundwater contaminants but compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has been scarcely applied to investigate their degradation pathways. In this study, dual carbon and chlorine isotope fractionation was used to investigate for the first time the anoxic biodegradation of 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) using a Dehalogenimonas-containing culture. The isotopic fractionation values obtained for the biodegradation of 1,1,2-TCA were ɛC  = -6.9 ± 0.4‰ and ɛCl  = -2...
August 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Preeti Prajapati, Jaya Pandey, Poonam Tandon, Kirti Sinha
Molecular structure, chemical and physical reactivity, spectroscopic behavior, intermolecular interactions play an important role in understanding the biological nature of pharmaceutical drugs. The objective of the study is to combine the spectroscopic and computational methodology for the investigation of structural behavior of ezetimibe (EZT). Computational study was done on monomeric, dimeric and trimeric models of EZT using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p). Hydrogen bond interactions were taken into consideration to validate the theoretical results with the experimental one...
August 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Carina Lundmark, Simon Matti, Annica Sandström
The aim of this study is to examine the transformative capacity of top-down imposed collaborative institutions on participants' beliefs and coordination patterns. First, do collaborative arenas enhance learning in terms of belief change and belief convergence among participating actors? Second, what types of beliefs are changed and, third, how are changes in beliefs reflected in the formation of coalitions? To answer these questions, a longitudinal study encompassing three collaborative decision-making arenas in the highly adversarial system for wildlife management in Sweden is performed...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Steve Paulson, Paul Davies, Ard Louis, Lucianne Walkowicz
From the birth of galaxies to the self-organizing dynamics of our planet to the ongoing expansion of the universe, the more we discover about the evolution of the cosmos, the more acutely we realize the enormity of what remains to be known. Just this year astrophysicists at the University of Nottingham confirmed that there are at least two trillion galaxies in the cosmos, 10 times more than had been previously thought. What guidance or wisdom can the study of cosmology and astrophysics offer us in our search for meaning and purpose? In conversation with Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, theoretical physicists Paul Davies and Ard Louis, and astrophysicist Lucianne Walkowicz share their perceptions based on years of gazing upward and beyond our own intimate planet...
August 18, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Kalarickal V Dileep, Chandran Remya, Ignatius Tintu, Pradeep K Mandal, Ponnuraj Karthe, Madathilkovilakathu Haridas, Chittalakkottu Sadasivan
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) is one of the rate limiting enzymes involved in the production of arachidonic acid, a potent inflammatory mediator. PLA2 is widely distributed all over the animal kingdom. It is also seen in inflammatory exudation and venoms of different organisms. The studies demonstrated that PLA2 inhibitors have broad spectrum activities that they can either be used against inflammation or envenomation. In this study, the inhibitory activity of 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) against porcine pancreatic PLA2 has been explained through isothermal titration calorimetry and enzyme kinetics studies...
August 18, 2018: IUBMB Life
Pierre Maurage, Séverine Lannoy, Valérie Dormal, Marine Blanco, Jean-Baptiste Trabut
BACKGROUND: Decision-making impairments have been repeatedly evaluated in severe alcohol use disorders (SAUD) using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT, capitalizing on strong theoretical background and ecological significance, allowed identifying large-scale deficits in this population and is now a standard decision-making assessment in therapeutic settings. However, the clinical usefulness of the IGT, particularly regarding its ability to predict relapse and its link with key cognitive-physiological deficits, remains to be clarified...
August 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Lisa J Strug
Concerns over reproducibility in research has reinvigorated the discourse on P-values as measures of statistical evidence. In a position statement by the American Statistical Association board of directors, they warn of P-value misuse and refer to the availability of alternatives. Despite the common practice of comparing P-values across different hypothesis tests in genetics, it is well-appreciated that P-values must be interpreted alongside the sample size and experimental design used for their computation...
August 18, 2018: Genetic Epidemiology
Aikaterini Psarou, Helen Cooper, John P H Wilding
The aim of this review is to identify peoples' perspectives of their glucose-lowering and anti-obesity drugs in relation to diabetes and weight control and to explore how these views affect medication adherence. Theoretical perspectives associated with medicine-taking behavior are also explored. The systematic review was based on a meta-ethnography of qualitative studies identified through a search of 12 medical and social science databases and subsequent citation searches. The quality of all studies was assessed...
August 17, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Michelle Bach
Violence in psychiatric clinics has been a consistent problem since the birth of modern psychiatry. In this paper, I examine current efforts to understand and reduce both violence and coercive responses to violence in psychiatry, arguing that these efforts are destined to fall short. By and large, scholarship on psychiatric violence reduction has focused on identifying discrete factors that are statistically associated with violence, such as patient demographics and clinical qualities, in an effort to quantify risk and predict violent acts before they happen...
August 17, 2018: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
Tam Truong Donnelly, Jassim Mohd Al Suwaidi, Awad Al-Qahtani, Nidal Asaad, Rajvir Singh
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Among cardiovascular patients, depression is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. Understanding how depression is conceptualized from cardiovascular patients' perspective can help with prevention, early detection, and treatment for depression. This might reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and save health care costs. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study in the Gulf region exploring depression among Arab cardiovascular patients...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Matthias Brand, Stephanie Antons, Elisa Wegmann, Marc N Potenza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Mariano Méndez, Andrés Cedillo
The chemical reactivity of a set of borophosphines of the general formula R2 B-G-PY2 , where G is the connector group between the Lewis acidic site, a borane group, and the Lewis basic site, a phosphine fragment, is theoretically investigated through their Lewis acidity and Lewis basicity, as well as the location of the Fukui function and the shape of the molecular electrostatic potential. The role of some global reactivity descriptors, like the vertical ionization potential, I, and the vertical electron affinity, A, is also analyzed in order to gain a deeper insight on the intrinsic chemical reactivity of these borophosphines...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Joanne A Deocampo, Gretchen N L Smith, William G Kronenberger, David B Pisoni, Christopher M Conway
Purpose: Statistical learning-the ability to learn patterns in environmental input-is increasingly recognized as a foundational mechanism necessary for the successful acquisition of spoken language. Spoken language is a complex, serially presented signal that contains embedded statistical relations among linguistic units, such as phonemes, morphemes, and words, which represent the phonotactic and syntactic rules of language. In this review article, we first review recent work that demonstrates that, in typical language development, individuals who display better nonlinguistic statistical learning abilities also show better performance on different measures of language...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Constanze Schmitt, Steffen Klingenhoefer, Frank Bremmer
Interaction with the environment requires fast and reliable sensory processing. The visual system is confronted with a continuous flow of high-dimensional input (e.g. orientation, color, motion). From a theoretical point of view, it would be advantageous if critical information was processed independent of attentional load, i.e. preattentively. Here, we hypothesized that visual motion is such a critical signal and aimed for a neural signature of its preattentive encoding. Furthermore, we were interested in the neural correlates of predictability of linear motion trajectories based on the presence or absence of preceding motion...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
D Chekrygina, A Rothkirch, I Baev, F Kielgast, P Pandit, W Wurth, M Martins
Ultra-small clusters containing few atoms are of high interest in both fundamental research and applications due to their specific functional, magnetic or chemical properties which depend on size and composition. The experimental results of the morphology of the size-selected clusters, consisting of few atoms can be an ideal benchmark for sophisticated theoretical models. With this motivation we have investigated the geometrical structure of mass-selected Au9 clusters deposited on a silicon substrate prepared by soft-landing conditions...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matthias Brunner, Gabriela Czanner, Riccardo Vinciguerra, Vito Romano, Sajjad Ahmad, Mark Batterbury, Claire Britten, Colin E Willoughby, Stephen B Kaye
To investigate a method for precision analysis to discriminate true corneal change from measurement imprecision in keratoconus (KC). Thirty patients with KC and 30 healthy controls were included. Coefficients of repeatability and limits of agreement (LOA) were compared using multiple measurements for inter-observer and inter-device agreement with the Pentacam HR, Orbscan IIz, and Tomey Casia SS-1000. Correlation of repeated measurements was evaluated using a linear mixed effect model (also called random effect model)...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jens Koed Madsen, Richard M Bailey, Toby D Pilditch
Echo chambers (ECs) are enclosed epistemic circles where like-minded people communicate and reinforce pre-existing beliefs. It remains unclear if cognitive errors are necessarily required for ECs to emerge, and then how ECs are able to persist in networks with available contrary information. We show that ECs can theoretically emerge amongst error-free Bayesian agents, and that larger networks encourage rather than ameliorate EC growth. This suggests that the network structure itself contributes to echo chamber formation...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
O Richoux, V Achilleos, G Theocharis, I Brouzos
Utilizing the effect of losses, we show that symmetric 3-port devices exhibit coherent perfect absorption of waves and we provide the corresponding conditions on the reflection and transmission coefficients. Infinite combinations of asymmetric inputs with different amplitudes and phase at each port as well as a completely symmetric input, are found to be perfectly absorbed. To illustrate the above we study an acoustic 3-port network operating in a subwavelength frequency both theoretically and experimentally...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Logan Chariker, Robert Shapley, Lai-Sang Young
We studied mechanisms for cortical gamma-band activity in the cerebral cortex and identified neurobiological factors that affect such activity. This was done by analyzing the behavior of a previously-developed, data-driven, large-scale network model that simulated many visual functions of monkey V1 cortex [Chariker et al 2016]. Gamma activity was an emergent property of the model. The model's gamma activity, like that of the real cortex, was 1) episodic, 2) variable in frequency and phase, and 3) graded in power with stimulus variables like orientation...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Janneke Francisca Maria Scheerman, Pepijn van Empelen, Cor van Loveren, Berno van Meijel
BACKGROUND: The insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances increases the risk of dental caries, particularly in adolescents. Caries can be prevented through good oral health behavior. To support adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances and for promoting oral health behavior, we developed a theory- and evidence-based mHealth program, the WhiteTeeth app. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our paper was to describe the systematic development and content of the WhiteTeeth app...
August 17, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
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