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Pathophysiology of spinal cord injury

Tong Niu, Liuzhong Jin, Shizhen Niu, Cunqi Gong, Hui Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Currently, scientists attempt to improve outcome of spinal cord injury (SCI) via reducing secondary injury during SCI. Oxidative stress is critical for pathophysiology of secondary damage, thus we mainly focused on the anti-oxidant effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) on PC-12 and SH-SY5Y cells as well as the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Oxidative stress was induced by H2O2 stimulation. Effects of LBPs on cell viability, apoptosis, and expression of proteins associated with apoptosis and autophagy in H2O2-induced cells were assessed by CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry assay and Western blot analysis, respectively...
October 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Karl Balsara, Andrew Jea, Jeffrey S Raskin
Spasticity is a hypertonic segmental reflex pathway caused by a central nervous system injury. Spasticity of the upper extremity causes loss of function, joint contracture, pain, and poor cosmesis. Treatment aims to reduce or change the pathophysiology underlying the hyperactive reflex from dorsal sensory rootlets through the intrinsic machinery of the spinal cord to the neuromuscular junction. There are many treatments for upper extremity spasticity including oral medication, physiotherapy, intrathecal baclofen, and lesional or neuromodulatory surgical approaches...
November 2018: Hand Clinics
Michael S Gart, Joshua M Adkinson
Spasticity is a movement disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone and a hyperexcitable stretch reflex. Common causes of spasticity include cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, and stroke. Surgical treatment plans for spasticity must be highly individualized and based on the characteristics of patients and the spasticity in order to maximize functional gains. Candidates for surgery must be carefully selected. In this article, the authors review the pathophysiology of spasticity and discuss general considerations for surgical management with an emphasis on patient factors and spasticity characteristics...
November 2018: Hand Clinics
Francisco J Angulo-Parker, Joshua M Adkinson
Spasticity is a motor disorder that manifests as a component of the upper motor neuron syndrome. It is associated with paralysis and can cause significant disability. The most common causes leading to spasticity include stroke, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, and cerebral palsy. This article discusses the pathophysiology and clinical findings associated with each of the most common etiologies of upper extremity spasticity.
November 2018: Hand Clinics
Jordan W Squair, Seth Tigchelaar, Kyung-Mee Moon, Jie Liu, Wolfram Tetzlaff, Brian K Kwon, Andrei V Krassioukov, Christopher R West, Leonard J Foster, Michael A Skinnider
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition for which there are currently no effective treatment options to restore function. A major obstacle to the development of new therapies is our fragmentary understanding of the coordinated pathophysiological processes triggered by damage to the human spinal cord. Here, we describe a systems biology approach to integrate decades of small-scale experiments with unbiased, genome-wide gene expression from the human spinal cord, revealing a gene regulatory network signature of the pathophysiological response to SCI...
October 2, 2018: ELife
Yuan Zhou, Ning Li, Lin Zhu, Yixing Lin, Huilin Cheng
Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) has imposed a great impact on the quality of life of patients due to its relatively young age of onset. The pathophysiology of SCI has been proven to be complicated. Microglia plays an important role in neuroinflammation and second injuries after SCI. Different environment and other factors may determine the microglial activation profile and what role they play. However, neither accurate time-course profiles of microglial activation nor influence factors have been demonstrated in varied SCI models...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Maria Bertuzzi, Weipang Chang, Konstantinos Ampatzis
A particularly essential determinant of a neuron's functionality is its neurotransmitter phenotype. While the prevailing view is that neurotransmitter phenotypes are fixed and determined early during development, a growing body of evidence suggests that neurons retain the ability to switch between different neurotransmitters. However, such changes are considered unlikely in motoneurons due to their crucial functional role in animals' behavior. Here we describe the expression and dynamics of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the adult zebrafish spinal motoneuron circuit assembly...
October 1, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Azim Patar, Peter Dockery, Linda Howard, Siobhan McMahon
BACKGROUND: The use of animals to model spinal cord injury (SCI) requires extensive post-operative care and can be expensive, which makes an alternative model extremely attractive. The use ofex vivo slice cultures is an alternative way to study the pathophysiological changes that can mimic in vivo conditions and support the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement) of animal use in SCI research models. NEW METHOD: In this study the presence of reactive astrocytes and NG2 proteoglycans was investigated in two ex vivo models of SCI; stab injury and transection injury...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Tim Luo, Olayinka Oladosu, Khalil S Rawji, Peng Zhai, Glen Pridham, Shahnewaz Hossain, Yunyan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Changes in myelin integrity are associated with the pathophysiology of many neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis. However, noninvasive measurement of myelin injury and repair remains challenging. Advanced MRI techniques including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), neurite orientation dispersion and density index (NODDI), and texture analysis have shown promise in quantifying subtle abnormalities in white matter structure. PURPOSE: To determine whether and how these advanced imaging methods help understand remyelination changes after demyelination using a mouse model...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
M A Urbin, Dylan A Royston, Douglas J Weber, Michael L Boninger, Jennifer L Collinger
Motor output maps within primary motor cortex are widely distributed and modified by motor skill learning and neurological injury. Functions that these maps represent after spinal cord injury remain debatable. Moreover, the pattern of reorganization and whether it supports recovery of compromised motor function is not well understood. A deeper understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of motor dysfunction after spinal cord injury is necessary to develop and optimize repair strategies. There are three purposes for this review...
September 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Qingqing Wang, Hongyu Zhang, Helin Xu, Yingzheng Zhao, Zhengmao Li, Jiawei Li, Haoli Wang, Deli Zhuge, Xin Guo, Huazi Xu, Salazar Jones, Xiaokun Li, Xiaofeng Jia, Jian Xiao
Proper selection and effective delivery of combination drugs targeting multiple pathophysiological pathways key to spinal cord injury (SCI) hold promise to address the thus far scarce clinical therapeutics for improving recovery after SCI. In this study, we aim to develop a clinically feasible way for targeted delivery of multiple drugs with different physiochemical properties to the SCI site, detail the underlying mechanism of neural recovery, and detect any synergistic effect related to combination therapy...
2018: Theranostics
Marisa Gray, Jacqueline Zillioux, Iyad Khourdaji, Ryan P Smith
Although erectile dysfunction is the most common disorder of male sexual health, ejaculatory dysfunction is the most common form of sexual dysfunction experienced by men. Ejaculatory dysfunction covers a broad range of disorders that we have divided into four main categories: premature ejaculation, delayed ejaculation (DE)/anorgasmia, unsatisfactory sensation of ejaculation (including painful ejaculation and ejaculatory anhedonia), and absent ejaculate (including retrograde ejaculation and aspermia). We also cover several special scenarios including hematospermia, spinal cord injury and fertility with anejaculation...
August 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Jacob Archer, Andrew Jea
Tethered cord syndrome is a constellation of signs and symptoms involving sensory and motor dysfunction of the lower extremities, bladder, and bowel. The pathophysiology may be from a mechanical stretch of the distal spinal cord causing deleterious changes in blood supply and metabolism. The standard of care for tethered cord syndrome has been tethered cord release. However, drawbacks of traditional tethered cord release include neurological injury, cerebrospinal fluid leak, and intradural scarring and retethering of the spinal cord (secondary tethering)...
August 30, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Zhengyan Qi, James W Middleton, Allison Malcolm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate and report current evidence regarding the management of bowel dysfunction in spinal cord injury. There is a paucity of high-quality large studies on which to base management advice. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research has focused on defining the nature of symptomatology of bowel dysfunction in SCI and describing the effects on quality of life and social interactions. Technical aspects of colonoscopy have received attention, and aspects of understanding the pathophysiology in relation to both neural and non-neural dysfunction have been studied...
August 29, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Bin Yu, Xiaosong Gu
The inhibitory environment that surrounds the lesion site and the lack of intrinsic regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) impede the regrowth of injured axons and thereby the reestablishment of neural circuits required for functional recovery after spinal cord injuries (SCI). To circumvent these barriers, biomaterial scaffolds are applied to bridge the lesion gaps for the regrowing axons to follow, and, often by combining stem cell transplantation, to enable the local environment in the growth-supportive direction...
August 30, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Sonia Kartha, Christine L Weisshaar, Blythe H Philips, Beth A Winkelstein
Painful neuropathic injuries are accompanied by robust inflammatory and oxidative stress responses that contribute to the development and maintenance of pain. After neural trauma the inflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) increases concurrent with pain onset. Although pre-treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor, meloxicam, before a painful nerve root compression prevents the development of pain, the pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown. This study evaluated if pre-treatment with meloxicam prior to painful root injury prevents pain by reducing spinal inflammation and peripheral oxidative stress...
September 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Anna Badner, Justin Hacker, James Hong, Mirriam Mikhail, Reaz Vawda, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: The spleen plays an important role in erythrocyte turnover, adaptive immunity, antibody production, and the mobilization of monocytes/macrophages (Mφ) following tissue injury. In response to trauma, the spleen initiates production of inflammatory cytokines, which in turn recruit immune cells to the inflamed tissue, exacerbating damage. Our previous work has shown that intravenous mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) infusion has potent immunomodulatory effects following spinal cord injury (SCI), associated with the transplanted cells homing to and persisting within the spleen...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Longfei Ma, Hongmei Liu, Guowu Chen, Mingtai Chen, Lina Wang, Xu Zhang, Daiqiang Liu, Chunyang Meng
Neuropathic pain is a severe and chronic neurological disease caused by injury or disease of the somatosensory system. Currently, there are no effective treatments for neuropathic pain. Neuroinflammation, characterized by activation of spinal glial cells and increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (for example, IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6), is a pathophysiological process closely related to neuropathic pain. The anti-inflammatory drug sulfasalazine (SFZ) is approved for inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis...
July 31, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Steve Casha, Tiffany Rice, David P Stirling, Claudia Silva, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Gavin Giovannoni, R John Hurlbert, V Wee Yong
Inflammatory changes after spinal cord injury (SCI) have been reported in animal models, but human studies are relatively limited. We examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from subjects enrolled in a phase II placebo-controlled trial of minocycline for evidence of inflammatory and structural changes after acute human SCI. CSF was collected from 29 subjects every 6 h for 7 days and investigated for eight molecules. CSF from 6 normal subjects (lumbar microdiscectomy patients without central nervous system pathology) was also examined for comparison...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Y-D Fan, M-L Zhu, D Geng, K Zhou, G-J Du, Z-L Wang
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at investigating the pathological mechanism changing of injury during reperfusion injury, reperfusion time correlation and compliance, finding the blood supply and improving the secondary damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 180 patients who underwent a surgical procedure and that received normal saline intraperitoneally immediately after the patients' aortic occlusions were investigated. Patients were divided in three groups. Experimental conditions and programs were designed for various approaches...
July 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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