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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112262/rhabdomyolysis-associated-with-influenza-a-virus-infection
#1
Abdisamad M Ibrahim, Sukesh Manthri, Paolo K Soriano, Vikrampal Bhatti, Chaitanya K Mamillapalli
Influenza A associated with rhabdomyolysis has become more commonly recognized in recent years. It requires prompt recognition and treatment in order to prevent heme pigment-induced acute kidney injury. Here we report a 50-year-old female without a significant past medical history who presented with a one-week history of fevers, chills, fatigue, and generalized body aches. She was on no prior medication. Laboratory studies were significant for leukocytosis and elevated creatinine kinase up to a peak of 28,216 IU/L...
June 11, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105022/immune-effects-of-corticosteroids-in-sepsis
#2
REVIEW
Nicholas Heming, Sivanthiny Sivanandamoorthy, Paris Meng, Rania Bounab, Djillali Annane
Sepsis, a life-threatening organ dysfunction, results from a dysregulated host response to invading pathogens that may be characterized by overwhelming systemic inflammation or some sort of immune paralysis. Sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Treatment is nonspecific and relies on source control and organ support. Septic shock, the most severe form of sepsis is associated with the highest rate of mortality. Two large multicentre trials, undertaken 15 years apart, found that the combination of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone significantly reduces mortality in septic shock...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098397/molecular-pathophysiology-and-genetic-mutations-in-congenital-sideroblastic-anemia
#3
Tohru Fujiwara, Hideo Harigae
Sideroblastic anemia is a heterogeneous congenital and acquired disorder characterized by anemia and the presence of ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow. Congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) is a rare disease caused by mutations in genes involved in the heme biosynthesis, iron-sulfur [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis, and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The most prevalent form of CSA is X-linked sideroblastic anemia, caused by mutations in the erythroid-specific δ-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2), which is the first enzyme of the heme biosynthesis pathway in erythroid cells...
August 8, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092350/handling-heme-the-mechanisms-underlying-the-movement-of-heme-within-and-between-cells
#4
Rebecca K Donegan, Courtney M Moore, David A Hanna, Amit R Reddi
Heme is an essential cofactor and signaling molecule required for virtually all aerobic life. However, excess heme is cytotoxic. Therefore, heme must be safely transported and trafficked from the site of synthesis in the mitochondria or uptake at the cell surface, to hemoproteins in most subcellular compartments. While heme synthesis and degradation are relatively well characterized, little is known about how heme is trafficked and transported throughout the cell. Herein, we review eukaryotic heme transport, trafficking, and mobilization, with a focus on factors that regulate bioavailable heme...
August 6, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090295/mechanisms-of-catalytic-reduction-of-co-2-with-heme-and-nonheme-metal-complexes
#5
REVIEW
Shunichi Fukuzumi, Yong-Min Lee, Hyun S Ahn, Wonwoo Nam
The catalytic conversion of CO2 into valuable chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention, providing a promising route for mitigating the greenhouse effect of CO2 and also meeting the global energy demand. Among many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for CO2 reduction, this mini-review is focused on heme and nonheme metal complexes that act as effective catalysts for the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic reduction of CO2 . Because metalloporphyrinoids show strong absorption in the visible region, which is sensitive to the oxidation states of the metals and ligands, they are suited for the detection of reactive intermediates in the catalytic CO2 reduction cycle by electronic absorption spectroscopy...
July 28, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071861/value-and-mechanisms-of-eeg-reactivity-in-the-prognosis-of-patients-with-impaired-consciousness-a-systematic-review
#6
Eric Azabou, Vincent Navarro, Nathalie Kubis, Martine Gavaret, Nicholas Heming, Alain Cariou, Djillali Annane, Fréderic Lofaso, Lionel Naccache, Tarek Sharshar
BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) is a well-established tool for assessing brain function that is available at the bedside in the intensive care unit (ICU). This review aims to discuss the relevance of electroencephalographic reactivity (EEG-R) in patients with impaired consciousness and to describe the neurophysiological mechanisms involved. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the term "EEG reactivity and coma" using the PubMed database...
August 2, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071692/heme-oxygenase-1-in-the-nervous-system-does-it-favor-neuronal-cell-survival-or-induce-neurodegeneration
#7
REVIEW
Mariapaola Nitti, Sabrina Piras, Lorenzo Brondolo, Umberto Maria Marinari, Maria Adelaide Pronzato, Anna Lisa Furfaro
Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) up-regulation is recognized as a pivotal mechanism of cell adaptation to stress. Under control of different transcription factors but with a prominent role played by Nrf2, HO-1 induction is crucial also in nervous system response to damage. However, several lines of evidence have highlighted that HO-1 expression is associated to neuronal damage and neurodegeneration especially in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the role of HO-1 in nervous system pointing out different molecular mechanisms possibly responsible for HO-1 up-regulation in nervous system homeostasis and neurodegeneration...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058304/-advances-in-hydroxylation-of-hydrophobic-amino-acid
#8
Dengyue Sun, Xiaotao Cheng, Qianqian Guo, Panpan Xu, Zhangliang Zhu, Huimin Qin, Fuping Lu
Hydroxy amino acids, constituents of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates or precursors, have a variety of unique functions in the research fields of biotechnology and molecular biology, i.e. antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral and anticancer properties. Biosynthesis of hydroxy amino acids is preferred because of its high specificity and selectivity. The hydroxylation of hydrophobic amino acids is catalyzed by hydroxylase, which belongs to the mononuclear non-heme Fe(Ⅱ)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (Fe/αKGDs)...
July 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057992/the-role-of-clpx-in-erythropoietic-protoporphyria
#9
REVIEW
Jared C Whitman, Barry H Paw, Jacky Chung
Hemoglobin is an essential biological component of human physiology and its production in red blood cells relies upon proper biosynthesis of heme and globin protein. Disruption in the synthesis of these precursors accounts for a number of human blood disorders found in patients. Mutations in genes encoding heme biosynthesis enzymes are associated with a broad class of metabolic disorders called porphyrias. In particular, one subtype - erythropoietic protoporphyria - is caused by the accumulation of protoporphyrin IX...
April 2018: Hematology, transfusion and cell therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051777/role-of-heme-oxygenases-in-cardiovascular-syndromes-and-co-morbidities
#10
David D Haines, Arpad Tosaki
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), are the leading cause of human mortality worldwide and the focus of intensive investigation to characterize their pathogenesis. This review examines contribution to CVD of heme oxygenases (HOs), heat shock protein enzymes, comprising 3 isoforms: HO-1 (inducible), HO-2 (constitutively expressed) and HO-3 (function presently undefined), which constitute a primary endogenous countermeasure to oxidative tissue damage. Their role as CVD countermeasures are considered in the context of atherosclerosis, consequences of which are the leading cause of CVD deaths and from which 5 major syndromes may develop, namely: coronary artery disease and stroke, peripheral artery disease, kidney disease, cardiopulmonary disease and cerebrovascular disease...
July 26, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051776/heme-oxygenase-1-and-autophagy-linked-for-cytoprotection
#11
L R Vasconcellos, M S Siqueira, R Moraes, L A Carneiro, M T Bozza, L H Travassos
BACKGROUND: Heme-oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the main enzymatic step of heme degradation and generates anti-inflammatory end products with protective roles in physiological and pathological situations. The importance of HO in pathological conditions is evidenced by its pharmacological inhibition or genetic blockage in different models of stress such as infection, inflammation and oxidative stress. Under these situations, another well-known protective process triggered is autophagy. Autophagy is a homeostatic process that eliminates defective cytosolic components and organelles, allowing cells and tissues to recover through recycling of functional blocks for anabolic reactions...
July 26, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050658/hydrogen-sulfide-biochemistry-and-interplay-with-other-gaseous-mediators-in-mammalian-physiology
#12
REVIEW
Alessandro Giuffrè, João B Vicente
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) has emerged as a relevant signaling molecule in physiology, taking its seat as a bona fide gasotransmitter akin to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). After being merely regarded as a toxic poisonous molecule, it is now recognized that mammalian cells are equipped with sophisticated enzymatic systems for H2 S production and breakdown. The signaling role of H2 S is mainly related to its ability to modify different protein targets, particularly by promoting persulfidation of protein cysteine residues and by interacting with metal centers, mostly hemes...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019640/heme-oxygenase-and-the-skin-in-health-and-disease
#13
Imre Lorinc Szabo, Anna Kenyeres, Andrea Szegedi, Attila Gabor Szollosi
The skin is often introduced as the largest organ of the human body which - being uniquely exposed to external stress - faces several types of challenges, from physical, chemical, biological, and immunological origin. Therefore, the skin is also a site where inflammation, oxidative stress and cellular damage occurs regularly. Heme oxygenase (HO), primarily functioning in the catabolism of heme, is a very important cytoprotective enzyme that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Given the need for an enzyme with such a combination of attributes in the skin, it is not surprising that HO is involved in physiological processes as well as pathological conditions of the skin...
July 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019639/parkinson-s-disease-alpha-synuclein-heme-oxygenase-and-biotherapeutic-countermeasures
#14
David D Haines, Maxim V Trushin, Stephen Rose, Iloki Assanga Simon Bernard, Fadia F Mahmoud
Neurodegenerative disorders have been and remain a persistent source of enormous suffering throughout human history. The tragedy of their impact on human relationships, physical vitality, and fundamental dignity cannot be understated. Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most common of these terrible illnesses, has a global incidence of approximately one-to-two percent of the human population, along with devastating social and economic impact. The present review analyzes aspects of PD pathophysiology that offer particularly attractive strategies for the development of improved prevention and therapy...
July 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019638/involvement-of-heme-oxygenase-1-in-neuropsychiatric-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#15
Vivian B Neis, Priscila B Rosa, Morgana Moretti, Ana Lucia S Rodrigues
Heme oxygenase (HO) family catalyzes the conversion of heme into free iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. It possesses two well characterized isoforms: HO-1 and HO-2. Under brain physiological conditions, the expression of HO-2 is constitutive, abundant and ubiquitous, whereas HO-1 mRNA and protein are restricted to small populations of neurons and neuroglia. HO-1 is an inducible enzyme that has been shown to participate as an essential defensive mechanism for neurons exposed to oxidant challenges, being related to antioxidant defenses in certain neuropathological conditions...
July 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30015233/electron-transfer-and-transport-through-multi-heme-proteins-recent-progress-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
Jochen Blumberger
I review recent experimental measurements probing electron transfer (ET) and electron transport (ETp) through multi-heme cytochromes (MHCs) as well as their theoretical interpretation. Examples include pump-probe spectroscopy of Ru-labeled MHCs aimed at determining heme-heme ET rates in MHCs and the measurement of the I-V characteristics of MHCs in bioelectronic junctions. While the ET mechanism appears to be well established for MHCs in aqueous solution, the ETp mechanism in bioelectronic junctions such as STM remains elusive partly due to the complexities of the electrode-protein interface...
July 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014798/heme-oxygenase-1-clinical-relevance-in-ischemic-stroke
#17
Daniel Bereczki, Jozsef Balla, Daniel Bereczki
Stroke is the second-leading cause of death and a leading cause of serious long-term disability worldwide, with an icreasing global burden due to the growing and aging population. However, strict eligibility criteria for current treatment opportunities make novel therapeutic apporaches desirable. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role during cerebral ischemia, eventually leading to neuronal injury and cell death. The significant correlation between redox imbalance and ischemic stroke has led to various treatment strategies targeting the endogenous antioxidant system in order to ameliorate the adverse prognosis in patients with cerebral infarction...
July 16, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014796/m1-m2-macrophages-in-diabetic-nephropathy-nrf2-ho-1-as-therapeutic-targets
#18
R Clive Landis, Kim R Quimby, Andre R Greenidge
The process of inflammation is orchestrated by macrophages, according to their state of differentiation: thus, classically activated (M1) macrophages initiate the process by elaborating proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, whereas the latter phase is controlled by alternatively activated macrophages (M2) to resolve inflammation and promote tissue remodelling with the release of growth factors. In a simple human inflammatory response, such as acute crystal arthropathy, macrophages progress linearly through M1 and M2 phases; however, in chronic inflammatory responses, such as atherosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy (DN), both M1 and M2 macrophages may coexist, leading to persistent inflammation and fibrosis...
July 16, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009872/the-sinister-face-of-heme-oxygenase-1-in-brain-aging-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Hyman M Schipper, Wei Song, Ayda Tavitian, Marisa Cressatti
Under stressful conditions, cellular heme catabolism to carbon monoxide, iron and biliverdin is mediated by the 32 kDa enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). A wide range of pro-oxidant and inflammatory stimuli act on diverse consensus sequences within the Hmox1 promoter to rapidly induce the gene. There is ample evidence attesting to the beneficial effects of HO-1 upregulation in brain. By converting pro-oxidant heme to the antioxidants, biliverdin and bilirubin, HO-1/biliverdin reductase may help restore a more favorable tissue redox microenvironment...
July 28, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992530/neuroglobin-expression-in-the-brain-a-story-of-tissue-homeostasis-preservation
#20
REVIEW
Zoë P Van Acker, Evi Luyckx, Sylvia Dewilde
After its discovery in 2000, the notion grew that neuroglobin, a neuronal specific heme protein, is involved in cytoprotection. To date, neuroglobin levels have been positively correlated with a beneficial outcome in a plethora of neurotoxic insults, e.g., ischemic and traumatic brain injuries and Alzheimer's disease. The first part of this review goes further into these changes of neuroglobin expression upon different neuronal insults as well as the underlying regulation. In the second part, we shed light on the mechanisms by which neuroglobin contributes to neuroprotection, being (i) the scavenging and detoxification of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, (ii) the augmentation of the threshold for apoptosis initiation, (iii) its contribution to an anti-inflammatory milieu, and (iv) tissue regeneration...
July 10, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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