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heme review

V Kalidasan, Narcisse Joseph, Suresh Kumar, Rukman Awang Hamat, Vasantha Kumari Neela
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multi-drug-resistant global opportunistic nosocomial pathogen, which possesses a huge number of virulence factors and antibiotics resistance characteristics. Iron has a crucial contribution toward growth and development, cell growth and proliferation, and pathogenicity. The bacterium found to acquire iron for its cellular process through the expression of two iron acquisition systems. Two distinct pathways for iron acquisition are encoded by the S. maltophilia genome-a siderophore-and heme-mediated iron uptake system...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Silvia Ravalli, Marta Anna Szychlinska, Rosalia Maria Leonardi, Giuseppe Musumeci
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease of articular cartilage with limited treatment options. This reality encourages clinicians to suggest preventive measures to delay and contain the outbreak of the pathological conditions. Articular cartilage and synovium suffering from OA are characterised by an inflammatory state and by significant oxidative stress, responsible for pain, swelling and loss of mobility in the advanced stages. This review will focus on the ability of olive oil to exert positive effects on the entire joint to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine release and increase lubricin synthesis, olive leaf extract, since it maintains lubrication by stimulating high molecular weight hyaluronan synthesis in synovial cells, curcumin, which delays the start of pathological cartilage breakdown, sanguinarine, which downregulates catabolic proteases, vitamin D for its capacity to influence the oxidative and pro-inflammatory environment, and carnosic acid as an inducer of heme oxygenase-1, which helps preserve cartilage degeneration...
November 18, 2018: World Journal of Orthopedics
Rahul Pasupureddy, Atul Yadav, Sriram Seshadri, Veena Pande, Rajnikant Dixit, Kailash C Pandey
Despite several setbacks in the fight against malaria such as insecticide and drug resistance as well as low efficacy of available vaccines, considerable success in reducing malaria burden has been achieved in the past decade. Artemisinins (ARTs and their combination therapies, ACTs), the current frontline drugs against uncomplicated malaria, rapidly kill plasmodial parasites and are non-toxic at short exposures. Though the exact mode of action remains unclear, the endoperoxide bridge, indispensable for ART activity, is thought to react with heme released from hemoglobin hydrolysis and generate free radicals that alkylate multiple protein targets, thereby disrupting proteostasis pathways...
November 26, 2018: Parasitology Research
Alex Chao, Paul J Sieminski, Cedric P Owens, Celia W Goulding
The highly contagious disease tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which has been evolving drug resistance at an alarming rate. Like all human pathogens, Mtb requires iron for growth and virulence. Consequently, Mtb iron transport is an emerging drug target. However, the development of anti-TB drugs aimed at these metabolic pathways has been restricted by the dearth of information on Mtb iron acquisition. In this Review, we describe the multiple strategies utilized by Mtb to acquire ferric iron and heme iron...
November 26, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Yifan Bao, Xiaochao Ma, Theodore P Rasmussen, Xiao-Bo Zhong
Purpose of this Review: In order to combat the development of drug resistance, the clinical treatment of tuberculosis requires the combined use of several anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs, including isoniazid and rifampicin. Combinational treatment approaches are suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and are widely accepted throughout the world. Unfortunately, a major side effect of the treatment is the development of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury (AT-DILI). Many factors contribute to isoniazid- and rifampicin-mediated AT-DILI and genetic variations are among the most common factors...
June 2018: Current Pharmacology Reports
Cheolhee Yang, Minseo Choi, Jong Goo Kim, Hanui Kim, Srinivasan Muniyappan, Shunsuke Nozawa, Shin-Ichi Adachi, Robert Henning, Irina Kosheleva, Hyotcherl Ihee
The quaternary transition between the relaxed (R) and tense (T) states of heme-binding proteins is a textbook example for the allosteric structural transition. Homodimeric hemoglobin (HbI) from Scapharca inaequivalvis is a useful model system for investigating the allosteric behavior because of the relatively simple quaternary structure. To understand the cooperative transition of HbI, wild-type and mutants of HbI have been studied by using time-resolved X-ray solution scattering (TRXSS), which is sensitive to the conformational changes...
November 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sarada Preeta Kalainayakan, Keely E FitzGerald, Purna Chaitanya Konduri, Chantal Vidal, Li Zhang
Contrary to Warburg's hypothesis, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) contributes significantly to fueling cancer cells. Several recent studies have demonstrated that radiotherapy-resistant and chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells depend on OXPHOS for survival and progression. Several cancers exhibit an increased risk in association with heme intake. Mitochondria are widely known to carry out oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, mitochondria are also involved in heme synthesis. Heme serves as a prosthetic group for several proteins that constitute the complexes of mitochondrial electron transport chain...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
M T Lee, W C Lin, T T Lee
Phytochemicals which exist in various plants and fungi are non-nutritive compounds that exert numerous beneficial bioactive actions for animals. In recent years following the restriction of antibiotics, phytochemicals have been regarded as a primal selection when dealing with the challenges during the producing process in the poultry industry. The selected fast-growing broiler breed was more fragile when confronting the stressors in their growing environments. The disruption of oxidative balance that impairs the production performance in birds may somehow be linked to the immune system since oxidative stress and inflammatory damage are multi-stage processes...
October 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Suzanne M Adam, Gayan B Wijeratne, Patrick J Rogler, Daniel E Diaz, David A Quist, Jeffrey J Liu, Kenneth D Karlin
Heme-copper oxidases (HCOs) are terminal enzymes on the mitochondrial or bacterial respiratory electron transport chain, which utilize a unique heterobinuclear active site to catalyze the 4H+ /4e- reduction of dioxygen to water. This process involves a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) from a tyrosine (phenolic) residue and additional redox events coupled to transmembrane proton pumping and ATP synthesis. Given that HCOs are large, complex, membrane-bound enzymes, bioinspired synthetic model chemistry is a promising approach to better understand heme-Cu-mediated dioxygen reduction, including the details of proton and electron movements...
November 28, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Kichul Yoon, Nayoung Kim
Although genetic background is known to contribute to colon carcinogenesis, the exact etiology of the disease remains elusive. The organ's extensive interaction with microbes necessitated research on the role of microbiota on development of colon cancer. In this review, we summarized the defense mechanism of colon from foreign organism, and germ-free animal models that have been employed to elucidate microbial effect. We also comprehensively discussed the metabolic property of microbiota such as butyrate production, facilitation of heme toxicity, bile acid transformation, and nitrate reduction that has been shown to contribute to the development of the tumor...
September 2018: Journal of Cancer Prevention
Xinyue Zhang, Jieyu Guo, Xiangxiang Wei, Cong Niu, Mengping Jia, Qinhan Li, Dan Meng
The transcription factor BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) is widely expressed in most mammalian tissues and functions primarily as a transcriptional suppressor by heterodimerizing with small Maf proteins and binding to Maf recognition elements in the promoters of targeted genes. It has a key regulatory role in the production of reactive oxygen species, cell cycle, heme homeostasis, hematopoiesis, and immunity and has been shown to suppress ischemic angiogenesis and promote breast cancer metastasis. This review summarizes how Bach1 controls these and other cellular and physiological and pathological processes...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Shuya Kasai, Junsei Mimura, Taku Ozaki, Ken Itoh
Iron has played an important role in energy production since the beginning of life, as iron-catalyzed redox reactions are required for energy production. Oxygen, a highly efficient electron acceptor with high reduction potential, facilitates highly efficient energy production in eukaryotic cells. However, the increasing atmospheric oxygen concentration produces new threats to the organism, as oxygen reacts with iron and produces reactive oxygen species unless its levels are strictly regulated. As the size of multicellular organisms increases, these organisms must transport oxygen to the peripheral tissues and begin to employ red blood cells containing hemoglobin...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Naiara Santana-Codina, Joseph D Mancias
Nuclear receptor coactivator 4 (NCOA4) is a selective cargo receptor that mediates the autophagic degradation of ferritin ("ferritinophagy"), the cytosolic iron storage complex. NCOA4-mediated ferritinophagy maintains intracellular iron homeostasis by facilitating ferritin iron storage or release according to demand. Ferritinophagy is involved in iron-dependent physiological processes such as erythropoiesis, where NCOA4 mediates ferritin iron release for mitochondrial heme synthesis. Recently, ferritinophagy has been shown to regulate ferroptosis, a newly described form of iron-dependent cell death mediated by excess lipid peroxidation...
October 23, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Cheng Wang, Qiang Niu, Rulin Ma, Guanling Song, Yunhua Hu, Shangzhi Xu, Yu Li, Haixia Wang, Shugang Li, Yusong Ding
Arsenic is known to cause oxidative damage. Nuclear factor E2-relate factor-2 (Nrf2) can resist this toxicity. Scholars demonstrated that Nrf2 pathway was activated by arsenic. In contrast, other articles established arsenic-induced inhibition of Nrf2 pathway. To resolve the contradiction and elucidate the mechanism of Nrf2 induced by arsenic, 39 publications involving mouse models were identified through exhaustive database retrieval and were analyzed. The pooled results suggested that arsenic obviously elevated transcription and translation levels of Nrf2 and its downstream genes, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), and GST-glutathione-S-transferase1/2 (GSTO1/2)...
October 25, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Deborah Chiabrando, Veronica Fiorito, Sara Petrillo, Emanuela Tolosano
Heme (iron-protoporphyrin IX) is an essential co-factor involved in several biological processes, including neuronal survival and differentiation. Nevertheless, an excess of free-heme promotes oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, thus leading to cell death. The toxic properties of heme in the brain have been extensively studied during intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhages. Recently, a growing number of neurodegenerative disorders have been associated to alterations of heme metabolism. Hence, the etiology of such diseases remains undefined...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Guilherme Curty Lechuga, Mirian C S Pereira, Saulo C Bourguignon
Neglected tropical diseases caused by protozoan parasites affect the life of millions of people worldwide, causing mortality, morbidity and high economic and social burden. The search for new drug targets and therapeutic strategies to fight these pathogens are necessary, since many current drugs have limited effects, cause severe side effects and their use has resulted in pathogen resistance. Heme (iron protoporphyrin IX) is a ubiquitous molecule important in many biological processes, including the homeostasis, growth and development of human pathogens such as trypanosomatids (Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania spp...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
Caroline C Philpott, Shyamalagauri Jadhav
Mammalian cells contain thousands of metalloproteins and have evolved sophisticated systems for ensuring that metal cofactors are correctly assembled and delivered to their proper destinations. Equally critical in this process are the strategies to avoid the insertion of the wrong metal cofactor into apo-proteins and to avoid the damage that redox-active metals can catalyze in the cellular milieu. Iron and zinc are the most abundant metal cofactors in cells and iron cofactors include heme, iron-sulfur clusters, and mono- and dinuclear iron centers...
October 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yirui Guo, Michael A Marletta
Heme-nitric oxide/oxygen binding (H-NOX) proteins are a family of gas-binding hemoproteins that bind diatomic gas ligands such as nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen (O₂). In bacteria, H-NOXs are often associated with signaling partners, including histidine kinases (HKs), diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) or methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs), either as a stand-alone protein or as a domain of a larger polypeptide. H-NOXs regulate the activity of cognate signaling proteins through ligand-induced conformational changes in the H-NOX domain and protein/protein interactions between the H-NOX and the cognate signaling partner...
October 15, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Tohru Fujiwara
Sideroblastic anemias (SAs) are heterogeneous congenital and acquired disorders characterized by anemia and the presence of ring sideroblasts in bone marrow. Congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) is a rare disease caused by mutations in genes that are involved in heme biosynthesis, iron-sulfur [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis, and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The most common form of CSA is X-linked sideroblastic anemia; it occurs because of mutations in the erythroid-specific δ-aminolevulinate synthase gene (ALAS2), which is the first enzyme of the heme biosynthesis pathway in erythroid cells...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Irina I Vlasova
The heme in the active center of peroxidases reacts with hydrogen peroxide to form highly reactive intermediates, which then oxidize simple substances called peroxidase substrates. Human peroxidases can be divided into two groups: (1) True peroxidases are enzymes whose main function is to generate free radicals in the peroxidase cycle and (pseudo)hypohalous acids in the halogenation cycle. The major true peroxidases are myeloperoxidase, eosinophil peroxidase and lactoperoxidase. (2) Pseudo-peroxidases perform various important functions in the body, but under the influence of external conditions they can display peroxidase-like activity...
October 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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