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inflammation Parkinson

Ebtisam A Al-Ofi, Badrah S Al-Ghamdi
Neuroinflammation has a definitive role in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. In addition to its pathogenic ligands, toll-like receptors (TLRs) can be activated by damaged endogenous molecules that induce inflammatory signalling pathways such as high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1). Using an ex-vivo rat optic nerve (RON) model, we sought to determine the effects of lipopolysaccharides (LPS; TLR4 agonist), zymosan (TLR2 agonist) or HMGB1-with or without TLR2/4 antagonists, on the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-ҡβ) for signalling pathway and astrocyte reactivity, using double immunohistochemistry; as well as on the modulation of the neurotoxicity...
August 14, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Chao Liu, Cheng-Wu Zhang, Shun Qiang Lo, Seok Ting Ang, Katherine Chee Meng Chew, Dejie Yu, Bing Han Chai, Bobby Tan, Fai Tsang, Yee Kit Tai, Bryce Wei Quan Tan, Mui Cheng Liang, Hwee Tong Tan, Jia Ying Tang, Mitchell Kim Peng Lai, John Jia En Chua, Maxey Ching Ming Chung, Sanjay Khanna, Kah-Leong Lim, Tuck Wah Soong
Elevated iron deposition has been reported in Parkinson's disease. However, the route of iron uptake leading to high deposition in the substantia nigra is unresolved. Here, we show a mechanism in enhanced Fe2+ uptake via S-nitrosylation of DMT1. While DMT1 could be S-nitrosylated by exogenous nitric oxide donors, in human PD brains, endogenously S-nitrosylated DMT1 was detected in post-mortem substantia nigra. Patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings and iron uptake assays confirmed increased Mn2+ or Fe2+ uptake through S-nitrosylated DMT1...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
P Perez-Pardo, H B Dodiya, P A Engen, A Naqib, C B Forsyth, S J Green, J Garssen, A Keshavarzian, A D Kraneveld
The mechanism of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unknown but it has been hypothesised that the intestinal tract could be an initiating and contributing factor to the neurodegenerative processes. In PD patients as well as in animal models for PD, alpha-synuclein-positive enteric neurons in the colon and evidence of colonic inflammation have been demonstrated. Moreover, several studies reported pro-inflammatory bacterial dysbiosis in PD patients. Here, we report for the first time significant changes in the composition of caecum mucosal associated and luminal microbiota and the associated metabolic pathways in a rotenone-induced mouse model for PD...
August 13, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Cinzia Tiloca, Melissa Sorosina, Federica Esposito, Silvia Peroni, Claudia Colombrita, Nicola Ticozzi, Antonia Ratti, Filippo Martinelli Boneschi, Vincenzo Silani
Pathological repeat expansion (RE) of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide sequence is associated to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia disease continuum, although other heterogeneous clinical phenotypes have been documented. The occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in some C9orf72 carriers with a more severe ALS disease course has suggested a possible modifying role for MS. However, C9orf72 RE seems not to play a role in MS pathogenesis. In this study, we screened C9orf72 in 189 Italian patients with primary progressive MS (PPMS), a rare clinical form characterized by less inflammation over neurodegenerative features...
August 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Maryam Haghshomar, Mahsa Dolatshahi, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Hossein Sanjari Moghaddam, Mehdi Shirin Shandiz, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by a series of pathological mechanisms which contribute to a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in structural diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in PD which has shed light on our understanding of structural abnormalities underlying PD symptoms or its associations with pathological mechanisms. One of the white matter tracts shown to be disrupted in PD with a possible contribution to some PD symptoms is the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Shahnawaz Ali Bhat, Anika Sood, Rakesh Shukla, Kashif Hanif
Microglia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inflammation play an imperative role in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). It has been established that angiotensin II type-2 receptor (AT2R) activation is neuroprotective in central nervous system diseases like stroke and AD. However, the involvement of AT2R in NADPH oxidase (NOX)-mediated microglia activation is still elusive. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of AT2R in angiotensin II (Ang II) or Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced microglia activation in BV2 cells, primary microglia, p47phox knockout (p47KO) microglia, and in vivo...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Pedro Elói Antunes Dionísio, Sara Rodrigues Oliveira, Joana São José Dias Amaral, Cecília Maria Pereira Rodrigues
Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in Parkinson's disease (PD). Necroptosis is a regulated form of cell death that depends on receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and 3 (RIP3). Importantly, parkin has been implicated in ubiquitination events that can alter inflammation and necroptosis. Here, we investigated how parkin influences microglial function. Incubation of BV-2 microglial cells with zVAD.fmk (zVAD) induced high levels of cell death and viability loss, while N9 microglial cells and primary microglia required further stimuli...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Muhammad Shahid Riaz Rajoka, Haobin Zhao, Na Li, Yao Lu, Ziyang Lian, Dongyan Shao, Mingliang Jin, Qi Li, Liqing Zhao, Junling Shi
The age-related changes in the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota are well described in recent studies. These changes have been suggested to be influenced by age-associated weakening of the immune system and low-grade chronic inflammation, resulting in numerous age-associated pathological conditions. Gut microbiota homeostasis is important throughout the life of the host by providing vital functions to regulate various immunological functions and homeostasis. Based on published results, we summarize the relationship between the gut microbiota and aging-related diseases, especially Parkinson's disease, immunosenescence, rheumatoid arthritis, bone loss, and metabolic syndrome...
July 31, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Dewei He, Bingxu Huang, Shoupeng Fu, Yuhang Li, Xin Ran, Yandan Liu, Guangxin Chen, Juxiong Liu, Dianfeng Liu
Parkinson's disease (PD), a frequent degenerative disease in the elderly, is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Neuroinflammation caused by over-activated microglia plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of PD. Tubeimoside I (TBMS1) has a broad anti-inflammatory effect in peripheral tissues, but the effect on neuroinflammation has not been reported. Therefore, we explored whether TBMS1 could protect dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting the activation of microglia in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD rat model...
July 31, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sara Mostafalou, Mohammad Abdollahi
Organophosphorus (OP) compounds have been known as the most widely used pesticides during the past half century and there have been a huge body of literature regarding their association with human chronic diseases. Neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders including Alzheimer, Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism are among the afflicting neurological diseases which overshadow human life and their higher risk in relation to OP exposures have been uncovered by epidemiological studies...
July 24, 2018: Toxicology
Adaze Bijou Enogieru, William Haylett, Donavon Charles Hiss, Soraya Bardien, Okobi Eko Ekpo
A wide range of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and prion diseases, share common mechanisms such as neuronal loss, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Intervention strategies using plant-derived bioactive compounds have been offered as a form of treatment for these debilitating conditions, as there are currently no remedies to prevent, reverse, or halt the progression of neuronal loss. Rutin, a glycoside of the flavonoid quercetin, is found in many plants and fruits, especially buckwheat, apricots, cherries, grapes, grapefruit, plums, and oranges...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Uilson Pereira Dos Santos, Georgina S Tolentino, Jorge Sá Morais, Kely de Picoli Souza, Leticia M Estevinho, Edson Lucas Dos Santos
Hancornia speciosa Gomes is a fruit tree, commonly known as the mangaba tree, which is widespread throughout Brazil. The leaves of this plant are used in traditional medicine for medicinal purposes. Thus, the objective of this study was to perform a physicochemical characterization, identify the lipophilic antioxidants and fatty acids, and determine the microbiological quality and safety of H. speciosa leaves. In addition, the antioxidant, antimutagenic, and inhibitory activities of the ethanolic extract of H...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Jie Cao, Yan Zhuang, Juyi Zhang, Zhuwei Zhang, Shuai Yuan, Peng Zhang, Haiying Li, Xiang Li, Haitao Shen, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the genetic cause of both familial and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), and it is associated with neuronal death, vesicle trafficking, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation. However, its role in secondary brain injury (SBI) induced by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been evaluated. In this study, an ICH model was induced by injecting autologous whole blood into the right basal ganglia of adult rats. Meanwhile, primary rat cortical neurons treated with Oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) were used as an in vitro ICH model...
July 23, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Yueran Li, Jinhua Wu, Xuming Yu, Shufang Na, Ke Li, Zheqiong Yang, Xianfei Xie, Jing Yang, Jiang Yue
CYP2J proteins are present in the neural cells of human and rodent brain regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of brain CYP2J in Parkinson's disease. Rats received right unilateral injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the substantia nigra following transfection with or without the CYP2J3 expression vector. Compared with LPS-treated rats, CYP2J3 transfection significantly decreased apomorphine-induced rotation by 57.3% at day 12 and 47.0% at day 21 after LPS treatment; moreover, CYP2J3 transfection attenuated the accumulation of α -synuclein...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Shokoofeh Borzabadi, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Akram Eidi, Esmat Aghadavod, Reza Daneshvar Kakhaki, Omid Reza Tamtaji, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Zatollah Asemi
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation on gene expression related to inflammation, insulin and lipid in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 patients with PD as a pilot study. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups to take either 8×109 CFU/day probiotic supplements or placebo (n = 25 each group, one capsule daily) for 12 weeks...
July 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Jeanette M Metzger, Colleen F Moore, Carissa A Boettcher, Kevin G Brunner, Rachel A Fleddermann, Helen N Matsoff, Henry A Resnikoff, Viktoriya Bondarenko, Timothy J Kamp, Timothy A Hacker, Todd E Barnhart, Patrick J Lao, Bradley T Christian, R Jerry Nickles, Catherine L Gallagher, James E Holden, Marina E Emborg
Loss of cardiac postganglionic sympathetic innervation is a characteristic pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). It progresses over time independently of motor symptoms and is not responsive to typical anti-parkinsonian therapies. Cardiac sympathetic neurodegeneration can be mimicked in animals using systemic dosing of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). As in PD, 6-OHDA-induced neuronal loss is associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress. To assess the feasibility of detecting changes over time in cardiac catecholaminergic innervation, inflammation, and oxidative stress, myocardial positron emission tomography with the radioligands [11 C] meta -hydroxyephedrine (MHED), [11 C]PBR28 (PBR28), and [61 Cu]diacetyl- bis ( N (4))-methylthiosemicarbazone (ATSM) was performed in 6-OHDA-intoxicated adult, male rhesus macaques ( n  = 10; 50 mg/kg i...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
Yongyi Ye, Xiaozheng He, Fengfei Lu, Hengxu Mao, Zhiyuan Zhu, Longping Yao, Wanxian Luo, Xiang Sun, Baoyan Wang, Chen Qian, Yizhou Zhang, Guohui Lu, Shizhong Zhang
The role of microglial-mediated sustained neuroinflammation in the onset and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) is well established, but the mechanisms contributing to microglial activation remain unclear. LincRNA-p21, a well studied long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA), plays pivotal roles in diverse biological processes and diseases. Its role in microglial activation and inflammation-induced neurotoxicity, however, has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we report that lincRNA-p21 promotes microglial activation through a p53-dependent transcriptional pathway...
July 23, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Bingqing Cao, Tao Wang, Qiumin Qu, Tao Kang, Qian Yang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorders. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. Long noncoding RNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1) was elevated in the brain specimens of PD patients and MPP+-treated SH-SY5Y cells. The expression of mouse Snhg1 and miR-7 was firstly determined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 cells. The role and mechanism of SNHG1 in the neuroinflammation of PD were investigated using gain- and loss-of function approaches both in vitro and in vivo...
July 18, 2018: Neuroscience
Liping Zhang, Lingyu Zhang, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and there is no recognised therapy to cure it. Recently, it has been shown that treatments to improve insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) may be useful for PD patients. In previous studies, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide showed good neuroprotective effects in animal models of PD. In addition, the GLP-1 mimetic exendin-4 has shown good protective effects in PD patients in a phase II clinical trial...
July 11, 2018: Neuropeptides
Rituraj Niranjan
Neuroinflammation is associated with the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington disease. Current studies in this area have advanced the mechanism of neuroinflammation and its role in neurodegeneration. Studies from epidemiologic, clinical and animal models also contributed in the various new mechanisms of neuroinflammation. In this line, activation of monocytes is an important emerging mechanism that has a, profound role in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration...
July 19, 2018: Neurochemistry International
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