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Gut permeability exercise

Rhiannon M J Snipe, Ricardo J S Costa
This study aimed to determine the influence of biological sex on intestinal injury, permeability, gastrointestinal symptoms, and systemic cytokine profile in response to exertional-heat stress. Male (n= 13) and eumenorrheic female (n= 11) endurance runners completed 2 h running at 60% V̇O2max in 35°C. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-exercise and during recovery to determine plasma intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (I-FABP) and systemic cytokine profile. Urinary lactulose:L-rhamnose ratio was used to determine small intestine permeability...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Daniel S March, Arwel W Jones, Rhys Thatcher, Glen Davison
PURPOSE: Exercise-induced changes in intestinal permeability are exacerbated in the heat. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 14 days of bovine colostrum (Col) supplementation on intestinal cell damage (plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, I-FABP) and bacterial translocation (plasma bacterial DNA) following exercise in the heat. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 males completed two experimental arms (14 days of 20 g/day supplementation with Col or placebo, Plac) consisting of 60 min treadmill running at 70% maximal aerobic capacity (30 °C, 60% relative humidity)...
March 24, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Francesca Romana Ponziani, Antonio Gasbarrini
Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and function, affecting up to 70% of patients with advanced liver disease. Liver cirrhosis is characterized by an altered glucose metabolism, lipid oxidation, ketogenesis and protein catabolism, leading to the loss of adipose and muscle tissue. The gastrointestinal dysfunction of cirrhotic patients results in inadequate nutrients intake and is responsible for muscle weakness thus limiting physical exercise and perpetuating the reduction of muscle mass. Recently, alterations of hormonal pathways involved in muscle growth, increased intestinal permeability and changes in the gut microbiota composition have been reported in cirrhotic patients...
2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Daniel S March, Tania Marchbank, Raymond J Playford, Arwel W Jones, Rhys Thatcher, Glen Davison
PURPOSE: Intestinal cell damage due to physiological stressors (e.g. heat, oxidative, hypoperfusion/ischaemic) may contribute to increased intestinal permeability. The aim of this study was to assess changes in plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) in response to exercise (with bovine colostrum supplementation, Col, positive control) and compare this to intestinal barrier integrity/permeability (5 h urinary lactulose/rhamnose ratio, L/R). METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 18 males completed two experimental arms (14 days of 20 g/day supplementation with Col or placebo, Plac)...
May 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Glen Davison, Tania Marchbank, Daniel S March, Rhys Thatcher, Raymond J Playford
BACKGROUND: Heavy exercise causes gut symptoms and, in extreme cases, heat stroke that is due to the increased intestinal permeability of luminal toxins. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether zinc carnosine (ZnC), a health-food product taken alone or in combination with bovine colostrum (a natural source of growth factors), would moderate such effects. DESIGN: Eight volunteers completed a 4-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover protocol (14 d of placebo, ZnC, colostrum, or ZnC plus colostrum) before undertaking standardized exercise 2 and 14 d after the start of treatment...
August 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Brian E Lacy, William D Chey, Anthony J Lembo
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder associated with abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, or a mix of symptoms. The pathophysiology of IBS is not completely understood but appears to involve genetics, the gut microbiome, immune activation, altered intestinal permeability, and brain-gut interactions. There is no gold standard for diagnosis. Several sets of symptom-based guidelines exist. Treatment strategies for IBS may include both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches...
April 2015: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Jason M Van Houten, Robert J Wessells, Heidi L Lujan, Stephen E DiCarlo
Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and many of these conditions are linked to chronic inflammation. One potential cause of chronic inflammation is an increased intestinal epithelial permeability. Recent studies have demonstrated that parasympathetic stimulation via the efferent abdominal vagus nerve increases the expression and proper localization of tight junction proteins and decreases intestinal epithelial permeability. This finding may provide a novel approach for treating and preventing many chronic conditions...
December 2015: Medical Hypotheses
Janice K Kiecolt-Glaser, Heather M Derry, Christopher P Fagundes
Depression and inflammation fuel one another. Inflammation plays a key role in depression's pathogenesis for a subset of depressed individuals; depression also primes larger cytokine responses to stressors and pathogens that do not appear to habituate. Accordingly, treatment decisions may be informed by attention to questions of how (pathways) and for whom (predispositions) these links exist, which are the focus of this article. When combined with predisposing factors (moderators such as childhood adversity and obesity), stressors and pathogens can lead to exaggerated or prolonged inflammatory responses...
November 1, 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
Matthew Kuennen, Lisa Jansen, Trevor Gillum, Jorge Granados, Weston Castillo, Ahmad Nabiyar, Kevin Christmas
PURPOSE: Dietary nitrate (NO3 (-)) supplementation reduces the O2 cost of fixed-workload tasks performed in temperate environments but has not been examined in the heat. If this effect were retained it could reduce heatstroke risk in military personnel that are deployed for desert combat. METHODS: Nine men completed three 45 min loaded battle marches at a standard cadence (4.83 km h(-1)/1.5 % grade) while wearing full combat gear [BDU, boots, body armor (8 kg), NBC suit] and carrying a loaded rucksack (16 kg)...
December 2015: European Journal of Applied Physiology
William D Chey, Jacob Kurlander, Shanti Eswaran
IMPORTANCE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 7% to 21% of the general population. It is a chronic condition that can substantially reduce quality of life and work productivity. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the existing evidence on epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of IBS and to provide practical treatment recommendations for generalists and specialists according to the best available evidence. EVIDENCE REVIEW: A search of Ovid (MEDLINE) and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was performed for literature from 2000 to December 2014 for the terms pathophysiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, irritable bowel syndrome, and IBS...
March 3, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Maria Emília Rabelo Andrade, Raquel Silva Araújo, Patrícia Aparecida Vieira de Barros, Anne Danieli Nascimento Soares, Fernanda Alves Abrantes, Simone de Vasconcelos Generoso, Simone Odília Antunes Fernandes, Valbert Nascimento Cardoso
The intestinal epithelium is composed of specialized epithelial cells that form a physical and biochemical barrier to commensal and pathogenic microorganisms. However, dysregulation of the epithelial barrier function can lead to increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation across the intestinal mucosa, which contributes to local and systemic immune activation. The increase in these parameters is associated with inflammatory bowel disease, physical exercise under heat stress, intestinal obstruction, ischemia, and mucositis, among other conditions...
December 2015: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
David C Nieman, Johannes Scherr, Beibei Luo, Mary Pat Meaney, Didier Dréau, Wei Sha, Dustin A Dew, Dru A Henson, Kirk L Pappan
OBJECTIVES: Pistachio nut ingestion (3 oz./d, two weeks) was tested for effects on exercise performance and 21-h post-exercise recovery from inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and metabolite shifts. METHODS: Using a randomized, crossover approach, cyclists (N = 19) engaged in two 75-km time trials after 2-weeks pistachio or no pistachio supplementation, with a 2-week washout period. Subjects came to the lab in an overnight fasted state, and ingested water only or 3 oz...
2014: PloS One
Erick Prado de Oliveira, Roberto Carlos Burini, Asker Jeukendrup
Gastrointestinal problems are common, especially in endurance athletes, and often impair performance or subsequent recovery. Generally, studies suggest that 30-50% of athletes experience such complaints. Most gastrointestinal symptoms during exercise are mild and of no risk to health, but hemorrhagic gastritis, hematochezia, and ischemic bowel can present serious medical challenges. Three main causes of gastrointestinal symptoms have been identified, and these are either physiological, mechanical, or nutritional in nature...
May 2014: Sports Medicine
Kim van Wijck, Karolina A P Wijnands, Dennis M Meesters, Bas Boonen, Luc J C van Loon, Wim A Buurman, Cornelis H C Dejong, Kaatje Lenaerts, Martijn Poeze
PURPOSE: Splanchnic hypoperfusion is a physiological phenomenon during strenuous exercise. It has been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and intestinal injury and may hamper athletic performance. We hypothesized that L-citrulline supplementation improves splanchnic perfusion and decreases intestinal injury by enhancing arginine availability. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of L-citrulline intake on splanchnic perfusion, intestinal injury, and barrier function during exercise...
November 2014: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
R B Shartau, C J Brauner
The evolution of air breathing during the Devonian provided early fishes with bimodal respiration with a stable O2 supply from air. This was, however, probably associated with challenges and trade-offs in terms of acid-base balance and ionoregulation due to reduced gill:water interaction and changes in gill morphology associated with air breathing. While many aspects of acid-base and ionoregulation in air-breathing fishes are similar to water breathers, the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unstudied...
March 2014: Journal of Fish Biology
Lisa M Robertson, Chris M Wood
The influence of swimming activity on gill paracellular permeability has not been measured previously in fishes. We critically assessed the use of tritium-labeled polyethylene glycol ([(3)H]PEG-4000) for this purpose, a substance that is also a classic marker for extracellular fluid volume, glomerular filtration rate and drinking rate. Tests (8 h) on resting freshwater trout showed that when measuring [(3)H]PEG-4000 clearance from the plasma in the efflux direction, correction for a large excretion via glomerular filtration was essential, necessitating urinary catheterization...
May 1, 2014: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ishwarlal Jialal, Harmeet Kaur, Sridevi Devaraj
CONTEXT: The prevalence of both obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing at alarming rates globally. Both predispose to diabetes, cardiovascular disease, fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and certain cancers. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to increased cardiometabolic risk in obesity and MetS is of utmost importance. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: For this review, we performed a detailed literature search on PubMed of all publications related to Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and obesity and MetS for the last 20 years...
January 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Manfred Lamprecht, Anita Frauwallner
Athletes exposed to high-intensity exercise show an increased occurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms like cramps, diarrhea, bloating, nausea, and bleeding. These problems have been associated with alterations in intestinal permeability and decreased gut barrier function. The increased GI permeability, a so-called 'leaky gut', also leads to endotoxemia, and results in increased susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases, due to absorption of pathogens/toxins into tissue and the bloodstream. Key components that determine intestinal barrier function and GI permeability are tight junctions, protein structures located in the paracellular channels between epithelial cells of the intestinal wall...
2012: Medicine and Sport Science
Manfred Lamprecht, Simon Bogner, Gert Schippinger, Kurt Steinbauer, Florian Fankhauser, Seth Hallstroem, Burkhard Schuetz, Joachim F Greilberger
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are an upcoming group of nutraceuticals claiming positive effects on athlete's gut health, redox biology and immunity but there is lack of evidence to support these statements. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial to observe effects of probiotic supplementation on markers of intestinal barrier, oxidation and inflammation, at rest and after intense exercise. 23 trained men received multi-species probiotics (1010 CFU/day, Ecologic®Performance or OMNi-BiOTiC®POWER, n = 11) or placebo (n = 12) for 14 weeks and performed an intense cycle ergometry over 90 minutes at baseline and after 14 weeks...
September 20, 2012: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Kim Van Wijck, Kaatje Lenaerts, Annemarie A Van Bijnen, Bas Boonen, Luc J C Van Loon, Cornelis H C Dejong, Wim A Buurman
INTRODUCTION: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used by athletes to prevent anticipated exercise-induced pain, thereby putatively improving physical performance. However, these drugs may have potentially hazardous effects on the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa during strenuous physical exercise. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of oral ibuprofen administration before exercise on GI integrity and barrier function in healthy individuals. METHODS: Nine healthy, trained men were studied on four different occasions: 1) 400 mg ibuprofen twice before cycling, 2) cycling without ibuprofen, 3) 400 mg ibuprofen twice at rest, and 4) rest without ibuprofen intake...
December 2012: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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