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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732170/angiotensin-ii-receptors-modulation-of-calcium-homeostasis-in-human-vascular-endothelial-cells
#1
Maud Kamal, Danielle Jacques, Ghassan Bkaily
Angiotensin II (AngII) plays an important role in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle function. However, little is known about AngII and its receptors AT1 (AT1R) and AT2 (AT2R) and their modulation of intracellular calcium in vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in general and more particularly of human origin. Using western blots, our results showed that AT1Rs and AT2Rs are present in human VECs (hVECs). Using quantitative 3D confocal imaging, our results showed that AngII is present at the cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic levels and its relative density is lower in the nucleoplasm...
July 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732113/cover-image-volume-114-number-9-september-2017
#2
Scott C Pierobon, Jason Riordon, Brian Nguyen, Matthew D Ooms, David Sinton
Cover Legend The cover image, by Scott C. Pierobon et al., is based on the Article Periodic harvesting of microalgae from calcium alginate hydrogels for sustained high-density production, DOI: 10.1002/bit.26325.
September 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730896/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-potential-mechanisms-for-the-benefit-of-capsaicin-and-hot-water-hydrotherapy-in-treatment
#3
John R Richards, Jeff M Lapoint, Guillermo Burillo-Putze
INTRODUCTION: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a clinical disorder that has become more prevalent with increasing use of cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids, and which is difficult to treat. Standard antiemetics commonly fail to alleviate the severe nausea and vomiting characteristic of the syndrome. Curiously, cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome patients often report dramatic relief of symptoms with hot showers and baths, and topical capsaicin. OBJECTIVES: In this review, we detail the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of capsaicin and explore possible mechanisms for its beneficial effect, including activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and neurohumoral regulation...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729692/extensive-astrocyte-synchronization-advances-neuronal-coupling-in-slow-wave-activity-in-vivo
#4
Zsolt Szabó, László Héja, Gergely Szalay, Orsolya Kékesi, András Füredi, Kornélia Szebényi, Árpád Dobolyi, Tamás I Orbán, Orsolya Kolacsek, Tamás Tompa, Zsombor Miskolczy, László Biczók, Balázs Rózsa, Balázs Sarkadi, Julianna Kardos
Slow wave activity (SWA) is a characteristic brain oscillation in sleep and quiet wakefulness. Although the cell types contributing to SWA genesis are not yet identified, the principal role of neurons in the emergence of this essential cognitive mechanism has not been questioned. To address the possibility of astrocytic involvement in SWA, we used a transgenic rat line expressing a calcium sensitive fluorescent protein in both astrocytes and interneurons and simultaneously imaged astrocytic and neuronal activity in vivo...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729628/a-new-approach-for-ratiometric-in-vivo-calcium-imaging-of-microglia
#5
Bianca Brawek, Yajie Liang, Daria Savitska, Kaizhen Li, Natalie Fomin-Thunemann, Yury Kovalchuk, Elizabeta Zirdum, Johan Jakobsson, Olga Garaschuk
Microglia, resident immune cells of the brain, react to the presence of pathogens/danger signals with a large repertoire of functional responses including morphological changes, proliferation, chemotaxis, production/release of cytokines, and phagocytosis. In vitro studies suggest that many of these effector functions are Ca(2+)-dependent, but our knowledge about in vivo Ca(2+) signalling in microglia is rudimentary. This is mostly due to technical reasons, as microglia largely resisted all attempts of in vivo labelling with Ca(2+) indicators...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724786/emergent-cortical-circuit-dynamics-contain-dense-interwoven-ensembles-of-spike-sequences
#6
Joseph B Dechery, Jason N MacLean
Temporal codes are theoretically powerful encoding schemes, but their precise form in neocortex remains unknown in part because of the large number of possible codes and the difficulty in disambiguating informative spikes from statistical noise. A biologically plausible and computationally powerful temporal coding scheme is the Hebbian assembly phase sequence (APS), which predicts reliable propagation of spikes between functionally related assemblies of neurons. Here, we sought to measure the inherent capacity of neocortical networks to produce reliable sequences of spikes, as would be predicted by an APS code...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723285/case-244-systemic-amyloidosis-a-complication-of-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-macroglobulinemia
#7
Maja Hrabak-Paar, Marko Kralik
History A 68-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for work-up because of generalized fatigue, anorexia, chronic diarrhea, and weight loss. Laboratory work-up revealed an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 58 mm/h (reference range, 3-23 mm/h), a hemoglobin level of 14.1 g/dL (reference range, 13.8-17.5 g/dL), a leukocyte count of 8.1 × 10(9)/L (reference range, [3.4-9.7] × 10(9)/L), a platelet count of 223 × 10(9)/L (reference range, [158-424] × 10(9)/L), an alkaline phosphatase level of 85 U/L (1.42 μkat/L) (normal level, <142 U/L [2...
August 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723268/assay-of-calcium-transients-and-synapses-in-rat-hippocampal-neurons-by-kinetic-image-cytometry-and-high-content-analysis-an-in-vitro-model-system-for-postchemotherapy-cognitive-impairment
#8
Patrick M McDonough, Natalie L Prigozhina, Ranor C B Basa, Jeffrey H Price
Postchemotherapy cognitive impairment (PCCI) is commonly exhibited by cancer patients treated with a variety of chemotherapeutic agents, including the endocrine disruptor tamoxifen (TAM). The etiology of PCCI is poorly understood. Our goal was to develop high-throughput assay methods to test the effects of chemicals on neuronal function applicable to PCCI. Rat hippocampal neurons (RHNs) were plated in 96- or 384-well dishes and exposed to test compounds (forskolin [FSK], 17β-estradiol [ES]), TAM or fulvestrant [FUL], aka ICI 182,780) for 6-14 days...
July 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721356/targeted-ischemic-stroke-induction-and-mesoscopic-imaging-assessment-of-blood-flow-and-ischemic-depolarization-in-awake-mice
#9
Matilde Balbi, Matthieu P Vanni, Gergely Silasi, Yuki Sekino, Luis Bolanos, Jeffrey M LeDue, Timothy H Murphy
Despite advances in experimental stroke models, confounding factors such as anesthetics used during stroke induction remain. Furthermore, imaging of blood flow during stroke is not routinely done. We take advantage of in vivo bihemispheric transcranial windows for longitudinal mesoscopic imaging of cortical function to establish a protocol for focal ischemic stroke induction in target brain regions using photothrombosis in awake head-fixed mice. Our protocol does not require any surgical steps at the time of stroke induction or anesthetics during either head fixation or photoactivation...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721219/two-rare-manifestations-of-primary-hyperparathyroidism-paralysis-and-peptic-ulcer-bleeding
#10
Maryam Heidarpour, Mehdi Karami, Pegah Hedayat, Ashraf Aminorroaya
Primary hyperparathyroidism revealed by thoracic spine brown tumor and peptic ulcer bleeding is rare. We presented a case of 33-year-old male patient who was admitted with paraplegia. Thoracic spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed extradural lesion at T4 level. He underwent surgical decompression in T4. According to histopathologic finding and elevated serum parathormone (PTH) and hypercalcemia (total serum calcium 12.1 mg/dL), the diagnosis of brown tumor was down. Ultrasonography of his neck showed a well-defined lesion of 26 × 14 × 6 mm...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720369/metabolic-work-up-of-patients-with-urolithiasis-indications-and-diagnostic-algorithm
#11
REVIEW
Hans-Göran Tiselius, Michel Daudon, Kay Thomas, Christian Seitz
CONTEXT: The incidence of urinary tract stone disease is increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high. Appropriate therapeutic procedures with the aim of counteracting the progress of stone formation are highly desirable. Metabolic work-up is considered essential as a base for optimal design and follow-up of effective recurrence prevention. OBJECTIVE: To scrutinize the current literature with regard to principles of metabolic work-up for this heterogeneous group of patients...
February 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720119/calcified-amorphous-tumor-of-the-heart-with-mitral-annular-calcification-a-case-report
#12
Ryo Nakamaru, Hiroki Oe, Katsuomi Iwakura, Takafumi Masai, Kenshi Fujii
BACKGROUND: Calcified amorphous tumor of the heart is a rare, non-neoplastic cardiac mass characterized by nodular calcium in the background of amorphous degenerating fibrinous material. Clinical diagnosis of calcified amorphous tumor can be difficult, and current single imaging techniques do not specifically differentiate calcified amorphous tumor from other cardiac tumors such as calcified atrial myxoma, calcified thrombi, or vegetation. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice for both symptom improvement and prevention of embolization, as well as for pathological diagnosis...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719447/diffuse-increased-sodium-fluoride-gastric-activity-in-a-patient-with-hypercalcemia
#13
Fuqiang Shao, Shumao Zhang, Chi Qi, Yu Wang, Yue Chen
Increased extraosseous uptake of sodium fluoride can be visualized because of many different etiologies. A 62-year-old man with a history of osteoporosis had an F-sodium fluoride PET/CT scan for accessing chest pain caused by an accident. The images showed multiple fractures. Unexpectedly, diffuse activity was noted in the gastric wall, which was suggestive of possible hypercalcemia. The serum calcium level confirmed the patient had hypercalcemia.
July 17, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719042/serotonergic-paraneurons-in-the-female-mouse-urethral-epithelium-and-their-potential-role-in-peripheral-sensory-information-processing
#14
F Aura Kullmann, Huiyi H Chang, Christian Gauthier, Bronagh M McDonnell, Jih-Chao Yeh, Dennis R Clayton, Anthony J Kanai, William C de Groat, Gerard L Apodaca, Lori A Birder
AIM: The mechanisms underlying detection and transmission of sensory signals arising from visceral organs, such as the urethra, are poorly understood. Recently, specialized ACh-expressing cells embedded in the urethral epithelium have been proposed as chemosensory sentinels for detection of bacterial infection. Here we examined the morphology and potential role in sensory signaling of a different class of specialized cells that express serotonin (5-HT), termed paraneurons. METHODS: Urethrae, dorsal root ganglia neurons and spinal cords were isolated from adult female mice and used for immunohistochemistry and calcium imaging...
July 18, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717111/usefulness-of-cardiotoxicity-assessment-using-calcium-transient-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#15
Hitoshi Watanabe, Yayoi Honda, Jiro Deguchi, Toru Yamada, Kiyoko Bando
Monitoring dramatic changes in intracellular calcium ion levels during cardiac contraction and relaxation, known as calcium transient, in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) would be an attractive strategy for assessing compounds on cardiac contractility. In addition, as arrhythmogenic compounds are known to induce characteristic waveform changes in hiPSC-CMs, it is expected that calcium transient would allow evaluation of not only compound-induced effects on cardiac contractility, but also compound arrhythmogenic potential...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717079/severe-hypocalcemia-in-a-patient-with-recurrent-chondrosarcoma
#16
Jung Nam Eun, Yoo Duk Choi, Jeong Ho Lee, Yun Ah Jeong, Jee Hee Yoon, Hee Kyung Kim, Ho-Cheol Kang
Hypocalcemia is relatively uncommon paraneoplastic syndrome. Only one case of hypocalcemia has been reported in a patient with chondrosarcoma. We herein report a case of a 32-year-old woman with metastatic chondrosarcoma with tetany. Her imaging findings revealed multiple calcific metastatic lesions in the lungs, pancreas, left atrium, and pulmonary vein. A laboratory examination showed hypocalcemia with no evidence of any other disease that could induce hypocalcemia. On the basis of the laboratory and clinical findings, we concluded the etiology of her severe hypocalcemia to be excessive calcium consumption by the tumor itself...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716465/fibroblast-like-synoviocyte-mechanosensitivity-to-fluid-shear-is-modulated-by-interleukin-1%C3%AE
#17
Eben G Estell, Lance A Murphy, Amy M Silverstein, Andrea R Tan, Roshan P Shah, Gerard A Ateshian, Clark T Hung
Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) reside in the synovial membrane of diarthrodial joints and are exposed to a dynamic fluid environment that presents both physical and chemical stimuli. The ability of FLS to sense and respond to these stimuli plays a key role in their normal function, and is implicated in the alterations to function that occur in osteoarthritis (OA). The present work characterizes the response of FLS to fluid flow-induced shear stress via real-time calcium imaging, and tests the hypothesis that this response is modulated by interleukin-1α (IL-1α), a cytokine elevated in OA...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715368/loading-a-calcium-dye-into-frog-nerve-endings-through-the-nerve-stump-calcium-transient-registration-in-the-frog-neuromuscular-junction
#18
Dmitry V Samigullin, Eduard F Khaziev, Nikita V Zhilyakov, Ellya A Bukharaeva, Eugeny E Nikolsky
One of the most feasible methods of measuring presynaptic calcium levels in presynaptic nerve terminals is optical recording. It is based on using calcium-sensitive fluorescent dyes that change their emission intensity or wavelength depending on the concentration of free calcium in the cell. There are several methods used to stain cells with calcium dyes. Most common are the processes of loading the dyes through a micropipette or pre-incubating with the acetoxymethyl ester forms of the dyes. However, these methods are not quite applicable to neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) due to methodological issues that arise...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714854/evaluation-of-bone-formation-in-calcium-phosphate-scaffolds-with-%C3%A2%C2%B5ct-method-validation-using-sem
#19
Susanne Lewin, Albert Barba, Cecilia Persson, Jordi Franch Serracanta, Maria Pau Ginebra, Caroline Öhman
There is a plethora of Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds used as synthetic substitutes to bone grafts. The scaffold performance is often evaluated from the quantity of bone formed within or in direct contact with the scaffold. Micro computed tomography (µCT) allows three-dimensional evaluation of bone formation inside scaffolds. However, the almost identical x-ray attenuation of CaP and bone obtrude the separation of these phases in µCT images. Commonly, segmentation of bone in µCT images is based on gray scale intensity, with manually determined global thresholds...
July 17, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712653/neural-circuit-specialized-astrocytes-transcriptomic-proteomic-morphological-and-functional-evidence
#20
Hua Chai, Blanca Diaz-Castro, Eiji Shigetomi, Emma Monte, J Christopher Octeau, Xinzhu Yu, Whitaker Cohn, Pradeep S Rajendran, Thomas M Vondriska, Julian P Whitelegge, Giovanni Coppola, Baljit S Khakh
Astrocytes are ubiquitous in the brain and are widely held to be largely identical. However, this view has not been fully tested, and the possibility that astrocytes are neural circuit specialized remains largely unexplored. Here, we used multiple integrated approaches, including RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), mass spectrometry, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, serial block-face-scanning electron microscopy, morphological reconstructions, pharmacogenetics, and diffusible dye, calcium, and glutamate imaging, to directly compare adult striatal and hippocampal astrocytes under identical conditions...
July 11, 2017: Neuron
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