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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446082/development-of-a-dual-energy-computed-tomography-quality-control-program-characterization-of-scanner-response-and-definition-of-relevant-parameters-for-a-fast-kvp-switching-dect-system
#1
Jessica L Nute, Megan C Jacobsen, Wolfgang Stefan, Wei Wei, Dianna D Cody
PURPOSE: A prototype QC phantom system and analysis process were developed to characterize the spectral capabilities of a fast kV-switching dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) scanner. This work addresses the current lack of quantitative oversight for this technology, with the goal of identifying relevant scan parameters and test metrics instrumental to the development of a dual-energy quality control (DEQC). METHODS: A prototype elliptical phantom (effective diameter: 35 cm) was designed with multiple material inserts for DECT imaging...
February 15, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445727/molecular-features-underlying-selectivity-in-chicken-bitter-taste-receptors
#2
Antonella Di Pizio, Nitzan Shy, Maik Behrens, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Masha Y Niv
Chickens sense the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptors ( Gallus gallus taste 2 receptors, ggTas2rs), representing a minimal case of bitter perception. Some bitter compounds like quinine, diphenidol and chlorpheniramine, activate all three ggTas2rs, while others selectively activate one or two of the receptors. We focus on bitter compounds with different selectivity profiles toward the three receptors, to shed light on the molecular recognition complexity in bitter taste...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445584/acid-sensing-ion-channel-1a-regulates-fate-of-rat-nucleus-pulposus-cells-in-acid-stimulus-through-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#3
Zhi-Yang Xie, Lu Chen, Cong Zhang, Lei Liu, Feng Wang, Feng Cai, Xiao-Hu Wang, Rui Shi, Arjun Sinkemani, Hao-Min Yu, Xin Hong, Xiao-Tao Wu
Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) participates in human intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) and regulates the destiny of nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) in acid stimulus. However, the mechanism of ASIC1a activation and its downstream pathway remain unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress also participates in the acid-induced apoptosis of NPCs. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is any connection between ASIC1a and ER stress in an acid-induced nucleus pulposus degeneration model...
2018: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444988/nmda-type-glutamate-receptor-activation-promotes-vascular-remodeling-and-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#4
Sébastien J Dumas, Gilles Bru-Mercier, Audrey Courboulin, Marceau Quatredeniers, Catherine Rücker-Martin, Fabrice Antigny, Morad K Nakhleh, Benoit Ranchoux, Elodie Gouadon, Maria-Candida Vinhas, Matthieu Vocelle, Nicolas Raymond, Peter Dorfmüller, Elie Fadel, Frédéric Perros, Marc Humbert, Sylvia Cohen-Kaminsky
Background -Excessive proliferation and apoptosis resistance in pulmonary vascular cells underlie vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Specific treatments for PAH exist, mostly targeting endothelial dysfunction, but high pulmonary arterial pressure still causes heart failure and death. Pulmonary vascular remodeling may be driven by metabolic reprogramming of vascular cells to increase glutaminolysis and glutamate production. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), a major neuronal glutamate receptor, is also expressed on vascular cells, but its role in PAH is unknown...
February 14, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444473/adhesive-properties-of-calcium-pectinate-gels-prepared-from-callus-cultures-pectins
#5
Elena A Günter, Anatoliy K Melekhin, Vladislav S Belozerov, Boris A Ananchenko, Ekaterina A Martinson, Sergey G Litvinets
The aim of this research is to investigate the influence of the surface morphology of the calcium pectinate gel (CaPG) beads as well as the physicochemical characteristics of pectins and the CaPG beads on the adhesive properties of gels against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis. The adhesion of the bacteria depends on the type of pectin and the surface morphology of the beads. The faster adhesion on CaPG beads appeared to be related to a lower degree of methyl esterification (DE), a higher molecular weight (Mw) and specific viscosity of the pectin and a higher gel strength...
February 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443112/ratiometric-calcium-imaging-of-individual-neurons-in-behaving-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Bhavya Ravi, Layla M Nassar, Richard J Kopchock, Pravat Dhakal, Michael Scheetz, Kevin M Collins
It has become increasingly clear that neural circuit activity in behaving animals differs substantially from that seen in anesthetized or immobilized animals. Highly sensitive, genetically encoded fluorescent reporters of Ca2+have revolutionized the recording of cell and synaptic activity using non-invasive optical approaches in behaving animals. When combined with genetic and optogenetic techniques, the molecular mechanisms that modulate cell and circuit activity during different behavior states can be identified...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442833/hexamethyldisilazane-removal-with-mesoporous-materials-prepared-from-calcium-fluoride-sludge
#7
Ching-Yang Kao, Min-Fa Lin, Nhat-Thien Nguyen, Hsiao-Hsin Tsai, Luh-Maan Chang, Po-Han Chen, Chang-Tang Chang
A large amount of calcium fluoride sludge is generated by the semiconductor industry every year. It also requires a high amount of fuel consumption using rotor concentrators and thermal oxidizers to treat VOCs. The mesoporous adsorbent prepared by calcium fluoride sludge was used for VOCs treatment. The semiconductor industry employs HMDS to promote the adhesion of photo-resistant material to oxide(s) due to the formation of silicon dioxide, which blocks porous adsorbents. The adsorption of HMDS (Hexamethyldisiloxane) was tested with mesoporous silica materials synthesized from calcium fluoride (CF-MCM)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442350/occult-phosphaturic-mesenchymal-tumor-of-femur-cortex-causing-oncogenic-osteomalacia-diagnostic-challenges-and-clinical-outcomes
#8
Deep Dutta, Raghuvansh Kumar Pandey, Rakhee Gogoi, Nagender Solanki, Renu Madan, Anupam Mondal, Shruti Dogra, Pradeep Thapa
BACKGROUND: Tumor induced osteomalacia (TIO) are extremely rare paraneoplastic syndrome with less than 300 reported cases. This report highlights the pitfalls and challenges in diagnosing and localizing TIO in patients with refractory and resistant osteomalacia. PATIENT AND METHODS: 41- year gentleman with 4-year history of musculoskeletal weakness and pathologic fractures presented in wheelchair bound incapacitated state of 1-year duration. Investigations were significant for severe hypophosphatemia, severe phosphaturia, normal serum calcium, reduced 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin-D, elevated ALP, elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and pseudo-fractures involving pelvis and bilateral femur...
February 14, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439854/rapid-sensing-of-l-leucine-by-human-and-murine-hypothalamic-neurons-neurochemical-and-mechanistic-insights
#9
Nicholas Heeley, Peter Kirwan, Tamana Darwish, Marion Arnaud, Mark L Evans, Florian T Merkle, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble, Clemence Blouet
OBJECTIVE: Dietary proteins are sensed by hypothalamic neurons and strongly influence multiple aspects of metabolic health, including appetite, weight gain, and adiposity. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which hypothalamic neural circuits controlling behavior and metabolism sense protein availability. The aim of this study is to characterize how neurons from the mediobasal hypothalamus respond to a signal of protein availability: the amino acid l-leucine. METHODS: We used primary cultures of post-weaning murine mediobasal hypothalamic neurons, hypothalamic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, and calcium imaging to characterize rapid neuronal responses to physiological changes in extracellular l-Leucine concentration...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438745/an-automated-epifluorescence-microscopy-imaging-assay-for-the-identification-of-phospho-akt-level-modulators-in-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Elke Kaemmerer, Dane Turner, Amelia A Peters, Sarah J Roberts-Thomson, Gregory R Monteith
AKT is an enzyme of the PI3K/pAKT pathway, regulating proliferation and cell survival. High basal levels of active, phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) are associated with tumor progression and therapeutic resistance in some breast cancer subtypes, including HER2 positive breast cancers. Various stimuli can increase pAKT levels and elevated basal pAKT levels are a feature of PTEN-deficient breast cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to develop an assay able to identify modulators of pAKT levels using an automated epifluorescence microscope and high content analysis...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438657/biocompatibility-and-efficiency-of-biodegradable-magnesium-based-plates-and-screws-in-the-facial-fracture-model-of-beagles
#11
Byung Jun Kim, Yinglan Piao, Maierdanjiang Wufuer, Woo-Chan Son, Tae Hyun Choi
PURPOSE: A biodegradable magnesium alloy system has been developed as a substitute for conventional plates and screws made of titanium or absorbable polymer. However, previous studies were limited to small animal experiments using screws or wires. In the present study, we preliminarily evaluated the biocompatibility and effectiveness of human standard-size biodegradable magnesium-based plates and screws in facial fractures of beagles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fracture lines were created bilaterally in the zygomatic arches of 6 beagles...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438539/survey-of-imaging-technology-and-patient-dose-recording-practice-in-developing-countries
#12
Madan M Rehani, Jenia Vassileva
A survey was conducted through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to assess the use of older imaging technologies and availability of dose information in radiography, computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional machines. Responses from 55 countries indicated 55.8% having non-digital radiography systems, only 9.1% having all systems that are digital (CR and DR), nearly one-third (36.4%) still use calcium tungstate screens in radiography cassettes and only 16.9% having all mammography systems as digital...
February 9, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435486/transient-receptor-potential-channels-trpm4-and-trpc3-critically-contribute-to-respiratory-motor-pattern-formation-but-not-rhythmogenesis-in-rodent-brainstem-circuits
#13
Hidehiko Koizumi, Tibin T John, Justine X Chia, Mohammad F Tariq, Ryan S Phillips, Bryan Mosher, Yonghua Chen, Ryan Thompson, Ruli Zhang, Naohiro Koshiya, Jeffrey C Smith
Transient receptor potential channel, TRPM4, the putative molecular substrate for Ca2+-activated nonselective cation current (ICAN), is hypothesized to generate bursting activity of pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) inspiratory neurons and critically contribute to respiratory rhythmogenesis. Another TRP channel, TRPC3, which mediates Na+/Ca2+ fluxes, may be involved in regulating Ca2+-related signaling, including affecting TRPM4/ICAN in respiratory pre-BötC neurons. However, TRPM4 and TRPC3 expression in pre-BötC inspiratory neurons and functional roles of these channels remain to be determined...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435208/reasonable-outcome-of-avulsed-permanent-upper-incisor-after-seven-years-follow-up-period-a-case-report
#14
Egle Bendoraitiene, Sandra Zemgulyte, Marija Borisovaite
Background: Avulsion of the permanent teeth is one of the most serious oral health problems among active children and adolescents. Traumatized patients require immediate and correct treatment in order to restore damaged structures and function that have major impact on daily patient's life. As a result, proper guidelines and fast treatment methods are necessary. This case report discusses treatment of maxillary right central incisor with an open apex that had been avulsed and replanted...
October 2017: Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434686/pulmonary-alveolar-microlithiasis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Xu-Dong Zhang, Jin-Ming Gao, Jin-Mei Luo, Yu Zhao
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the formation of calcium phosphate microliths in the alveoli. Mutations in the gene encoding the solute carrier family 34 member 2 gene are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of PAM. Although PAM can develop in children, the majority of patients with PAM are diagnosed in adulthood due to the slow progressive nature of the disease within the lungs. In childhood, the majority of patients with PAM are asymptomatic and changes in the lung parenchyma are usually identified incidentally...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433417/clinical-findings-and-neurologic-outcome-in-neonatal-encephalopathy-with-white-matter-injury-accompanied-by-rotavirus
#16
Jae Kyun Ku, Young Jin Heo, Keun Soo Lee, Bo Lyun Lee
Our objective was to elucidate the clinical characteristics and neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonatal encephalopathy with characteristic white matter injury as compared with other injury patterns on magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging. We conducted a retrospective study comparing clinical and laboratory findings, and neurologic outcomes between 17 newborns with diffuse lesions in the periventricular white matter and white matter tract (group I) and 22 newborns with other patterns (group II). Stool samples indicated that 16 neonates (94...
March 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431423/osmosis-driven-motion-type-modulation-of-biological-nanopores-for-parallel-optical-nucleic-acid-sensing
#17
Yuqin Wang, Shuanghong Yan, Pan-Ke Zhang, Zidao Zeng, Di Zhao, Jiaxin Wang, Hong-Yuan Chen, Shuo Huang
Recent developments in nanopore sequencing have inspired new concepts in precision medicine but limited in throughput. By optically encoding calcium flux from an array of nanopores, parallel measurements from hundreds of nanopores were reported while lateral drifts of biological nanopores set obstacles for signal processing. In this paper, optical single channel recording (oSCR) serves to track nanopores with high precision and a general principle of nanopore motion kinetics is quantitatively investigated. By finely adjusting the osmosis oriented interactions between the lipid/substrate interfaces,motions of nanopores could be controllably restricted...
February 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431119/hypermetabolic-macrophages-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-coronary-artery-disease-due-to-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3b-inactivation
#18
Markus Zeisbrich, Rolando E Yanes, Hui Zhang, Ryu Watanabe, Yinyin Li, Lukas Brosig, Jison Hong, Barbara B Wallis, John C Giacomini, Themistocles L Assimes, Jörg J Goronzy, Cornelia M Weyand
OBJECTIVES: Accelerated atherosclerotic disease typically complicates rheumatoid arthritis (RA), leading to premature cardiovascular death. Inflammatory macrophages are key effector cells in both rheumatoid synovitis and the plaques of coronary artery disease (CAD). Whether both diseases share macrophage-dependent pathogenic mechanisms is unknown. METHODS: Patients with RA or CAD (at least one myocardial infarction) and healthy age-matched controls were recruited into the study...
February 3, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430885/abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-calcification-trying-to-identify-a-reliable-semiquantitative-method
#19
Marina Dias-Neto, Emmanuel Neves, Fábio Sousa-Nunes, Tiago Henriques-Coelho, Sérgio Sampaio
BACKGROUND: The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between three semiquantitative and one computerized method based on Agatston Score (AS), when measuring abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. Secondary aim was to access differences in AAC upon clinical variables, when different methods of calcium scoring are used. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study. A database of AAA patients consecutively submitted to elective repair between 2008 and 2015 was used...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430520/reward-predictive-neural-activities-in-striatal-striosome-compartments
#20
Tomohiko Yoshizawa, Makoto Ito, Kenji Doya
The striatum has been shown to play a critical role in reward prediction. It is composed of two neurochemically and anatomically distinct compartments known as the striosomes and the matrix. The striosomes comprise only about 15% of the striatum by volume and are distributed mosaically therein. Accordingly, it has been difficult to identify striosomal neurons in electrophysiological recordings and it has been unclear whether striosomal neurons, which project to midbrain dopaminergic neurons, engage in reward prediction...
January 2018: ENeuro
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