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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437614/engineering-highly-interconnected-neuronal-networks-on-nanowire-scaffolds
#1
Vini Gautam, Shagufta Naureen, Naeem Shahid, Qian Gao, Yi Wang, David R Nisbet, Chennupati Jagadish, Vincent R Daria
Identifying the specific role of physical guidance cues in the growth of neurons is crucial for understanding the fundamental biology of brain development and for designing scaffolds for tissue engineering. Here, we investigate the structural significance of nanoscale topographies as physical cues for neurite outgrowth and circuit formation by growing neurons on semiconductor nanowires. We monitored neurite growth using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and evaluated the spontaneous neuronal network activity using functional calcium imaging...
April 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437443/relative-predictive-value-of-lung-cancer-screening-ct-versus-myocardial-perfusion-attenuation-correction-ct-in-the-evaluation-of-coronary-calcium
#2
Grant Bailey, Abigail Healy, Bryan D Young, Esseim Sharma, Judith Meadows, Hyung J Chun, Wen-Chih Wu, Gaurav Choudhary, Alan R Morrison
Coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) from lung cancer screening computed tomography (LCSCT) or myocardial perfusion attenuation correction computed tomography (ACCT) are not routinely performed or reported. CACS from LCSCT and ACCT have not been directly compared in the same patient population. We identified 66 patients who underwent both LCSCT (non-gated) and ECG-gated cardiac CT (CCT) within a 2-year span. Of this population, 40 subjects had also undergone ACCT. Using the Agatston method, CACS for 264 individual vessels from the LCSCT population and for 160 vessels from ACCT population were calculated and evaluated for agreement with ECG-gated CCT as the gold standard...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436982/delay-activity-of-specific-prefrontal-interneuron-subtypes-modulates-memory-guided-behavior
#3
Tsukasa Kamigaki, Yang Dan
Memory-guided behavior requires maintenance of task-relevant information without sensory input, but the underlying circuit mechanism remains unclear. Calcium imaging in mice performing a delayed Go or No-Go task revealed robust delay activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, with different pyramidal neurons signaling Go and No-Go action plans. Inhibiting pyramidal neurons by optogenetically activating somatostatin- or parvalbumin-positive interneurons, even transiently during the delay, impaired task performance, primarily by increasing inappropriate Go responses...
April 24, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435761/dual-energy-ct-in-head-and-neck-imaging
#4
REVIEW
Elise D Roele, Veronique C M L Timmer, Lauretta A A Vaassen, Anna M J L van Kroonenburgh, A A Postma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explain the technique of Dual-energy CT (DECT) and highlight its applications and advantages in head and neck radiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Using DECT, additional datasets can be created next to conventional images. In head and neck radiology, three material decomposition algorithms can be used for improved lesion detection and delineation of the tumor. Iodine concentration measurements can aid in differentiating malignant from nonmalignant lymph nodes and benign posttreatment changes from tumor recurrence...
2017: Current Radiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435337/treatment-strategies-for-the-female-athlete-triad-in-the-adolescent-athlete-current-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Jill Thein-Nissenbaum, Erin Hammer
Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation has dramatically increased. The benefits of physical activity, including decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes as well as improved body image and self-esteem, far outweigh the risks. However, a select population of adolescent and young adult females may experience symptoms related to the female athlete triad (Triad), which refers to the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density (BMD). These conditions often manifest clinically as disordered eating behaviors, menstrual irregularity, and stress fractures; an individual may suffer from 1 or all of the Triad components simultaneously...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434864/sensorimotor-representations-in-cerebellar-granule-cells-in-larval-zebrafish-are-dense-spatially-organized-and-non-temporally-patterned
#6
Laura D Knogler, Daniil A Markov, Elena I Dragomir, Vilim Štih, Ruben Portugues
A fundamental question in neurobiology is how animals integrate external sensory information from their environment with self-generated motor and sensory signals in order to guide motor behavior and adaptation. The cerebellum is a vertebrate hindbrain region where all of these signals converge and that has been implicated in the acquisition, coordination, and calibration of motor activity. Theories of cerebellar function postulate that granule cells encode a variety of sensorimotor signals in the cerebellar input layer...
April 14, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432452/fluorescent-angioscopic-imaging-of-calcium-phosphate-tribasic-precursor-of-hydroxyapatite-the-major-calcium-deposit-in-human-coronary-plaques
#7
Takanobu Kobayashi, Osamu Nakagawa, Seiichiro Shirai, Ei Shimoyama, Nobuyuki Hiruta, Yasumi Uchida
Coronary calcification is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease. Hydroxyapatite that is formed by polymerization from calcium phosphate tribasic (CPT) is the major constituent of coronary calcium deposits. If CPT could be visualized, coronary calcification could be predicted and prevented. We discovered that when CPT and collagen I, the main constituent of collagen fibers, are mixed with lac dye (LD) and then exposed to fluorescent light excited at 345 ± 15 nm and emitted at 420 nm, a purple fluorescence that is characteristic of CPT only is elicited...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432032/neuronal-excitation-and-permeabilization-by-200-ns-pulsed-electric-field-an-optical-membrane-potential-study-with-fluovolt-dye
#8
Andrei G Pakhomov, Iurii Semenov, M Casciola, Shu Xiao
Electric field pulses of nano- and picosecond duration are a novel modality for neurostimulation, activation of Ca(2+) signaling, and tissue ablation. However it is not known how such brief pulses activate voltage-gated ion channels. We studied excitation and electroporation of hippocampal neurons by 200-ns pulsed electric field (nsPEF), by means of time-lapse imaging of the optical membrane potential (OMP) with FluoVolt dye. Electroporation abruptly shifted OMP to a more depolarized level, which was reached within <1ms...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431214/interferon-%C3%AE-released-by-activated-cd8-t-lymphocytes-impairs-the-calcium-resorption-potential-of-osteoclasts-in-calcified-human-aortic-valves
#9
Edit Nagy, Yang Lei, Eduardo Martínez-Martínez, Simon C Body, Florian Schlotter, Michael Creager, Alexander Assmann, Kamal Khabbaz, Peter Libby, Göran K Hansson, Elena Aikawa
Calcium content in patients with calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) correlates with the severity of stenosis. In CAVD, activated T lymphocytes localize with osteoclast regions; however, the functional consequences of this association remain unknown. We hypothesized that CD8(+) T cells modulate calcification in CAVD. Explanted CAVD valves (n = 52) dissected into noncalcified and calcified portions were subjected to mRNA extraction, real-time quantitative PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemical analyses...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430810/efficacy-of-fluoride-varnishes-for-preventing-enamel-demineralization-after-interproximal-enamel-reduction-qualitative-and-quantitative-evaluation
#10
Ascensión Vicente, Antonio José Ortiz Ruiz, Belén Manuela González Paz, José García López, Luis-Alberto Bravo-González
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the changes produced to enamel after interproximal reduction and subjected to demineralization cycles, after applying a fluoride varnish (Profluorid) and a fluoride varnish containing tricalcium phosphate modified by fumaric acid (Clinpro White). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 138 interproximal dental surfaces were divided into six groups: 1) Intact enamel; 2) Intact enamel + demineralization cycles (DC); 3) Interproximal Reduction (IR); 4) IR + DC; 5) IR + Profluorid + DC; 6) IR + Clinpro White + DC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430241/probing-the-germination-kinetics-of-ethanol-treated-bacillus-thuringiensis-spores
#11
Guiwen Wang, Huanjun Chen, Xiaochun Wang, Lixin Peng, Yuan Peng, Yong-Qing Li
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely used microbial insecticide. To clarify the mechanism of bacterial resistance to ethanol toxicity, the present study investigated the effects of 70% (v/v) ethanol at a moderate temperature (65°C) on Bt spore germination by single-cell Raman spectroscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy. We found that over 80% of Bt spores were inviable after 30 min of treatment. Moreover, ethanol treatment affected spore germination; the time for initiation of rapid calcium dipicolinate (CaDPA) release (i...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429839/pursuing-the-second-ipsilateral-gland-during-minimally-invasive-video-assisted-parathyroidectomy
#12
Cino Bendinelli, Andrew Gray, Hassan Suradi, Dieter G Weber, Shamasunder Acharya, Anna Price, Shaun McGrath
BACKGROUND: In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and preoperative imaging suggesting a solitary parathyroid adenoma (SPA), focused parathyroidectomy is most often curative. Even so, large studies show up to 3% of patients experience persistent or recurrent PHPT. Unilateral neck exploration (UNE) aiming to identify the SPA and the other ipsilateral parathyroid may reduce this failure rate. We hypothesized that: (i) minimally invasive video-assisted (MIVA) approach would facilitate UNE and (ii) this would be a clinically relevant strategy...
April 21, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428195/progression-of-coronary-artery-calcium-and-incident-heart-failure-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#13
Hooman Bakhshi, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Xiaoying Yang, Mohammad R Ostovaneh, Colin O Wu, Matthew Budoff, Hossein Bahrami, Nathan D Wong, David A Bluemke, João A C Lima
BACKGROUND: Although the association between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and future heart failure (HF) has been shown previously, the value of CAC progression in the prediction of HF has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the association of CAC progression with subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and incident HF in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a population-based study consisting of 6814 men and women aged 45 to 84, free of overt cardiovascular disease at enrollment, who were recruited from 4 ethnicities...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426939/high-throughput-agonist-shift-assay-development-for-the-analysis-of-m1-positive-allosteric-modulators
#14
Michelle F Homsher, Douglas C Beshore, Jason Cassaday, Brian Squadroni, Elizabeth Mohammed, Michelle Hartnett, Stephen Day, Lei Ma, David Pechter, Michelle D Smith, Fredrick Monsma, Paul Zuck, Michael F Finley, Victor N Uebele, Jeffrey D Hermes
Agonist shift assays feature cross-titrations of allosteric modulators and orthosteric ligands. Information generated in agonist shift assays can include a modulator's effect on the orthosteric agonist's potency (alpha) and efficacy (beta), as well as direct agonist activity of the allosteric ligand (tauB) and the intrinsic binding affinity of the modulator to the unoccupied receptor (KB). Because of the heavy resource demand and complex data handling, these allosteric parameters are determined infrequently during the course of a drug discovery program and on a relatively small subset of compounds...
April 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424932/inverse-relationship-of-ca-2-dependent-flagellar-response-between-animal-sperm-and-prasinophyte-algae
#15
Kogiku Shiba, Kazuo Inaba
Symmetry/asymmetry conversion of eukaryotic flagellar waveform is caused by the changes in intracellular Ca(2+). Animal sperm flagella show symmetric or asymmetric waveform at lower or higher concentration of intracellular Ca(2+), respectively. In Chlamydomonas, high Ca(2+) induces conversion of flagellar waveform from asymmetric to symmetry, resulting in the backward movement. This mirror image relationship between animal sperm and Chlamydomonas could be explained by the distinct calcium sensors used to regulate the outer arm dyneins (Inaba 2015)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424781/postembedding-decalcification-of-mineralized-tissue-sections-preserves-the-integrity-of-implanted-biomaterials-and-minimizes-number-of-experimental-animals
#16
Thaqif El Khassawna, Diaa Eldin S Daghma, Sabine Stoetzel, Seemun Ray, Stefanie Kern, Deeksha Malhan, Volker Alt, Ulrich Thormann, Anja Henß, Marcus Rohnke, Annette Stengel, Fathi Hassan, Stefan Maenz, Klaus D Jandt, Michael Diefenbeck, Matthias Schumacher, Michael Gelinsky, Katrin Susanne Lips, Christian Heiss
Bone histology of decalcified or undecalcified samples depends on the investigation. However, in research each method provides different information to answer the scientific question. Decalcification is the first step after sample fixation and governs what analysis is later feasible on the sections. Besides, decalcification is favored for immunostaining and in situ hybridization. Otherwise, sample decalcification can be damaging to bone biomaterials implants that contains calcium or strontium. On the other hand, after decalcification mineralization cannot be assessed using histology or imaging mass spectrometry...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424589/the-calcium-channel-c-terminal-and-synaptic-vesicle-tethering-analysis-by-immuno-nanogold-localization
#17
Robert H C Chen, Qi Li, Christine A Snidal, Sabiha R Gardezi, Elise F Stanley
At chemical synapses the incoming action potential triggers the influx of Ca(2+) through voltage-sensitive calcium channels (CaVs, typically CaV2.1 and 2.2) and the ions binds to sensors associated with docked, transmitter filled synaptic vesicles (SVs), triggering their fusion and discharge. The CaVs and docked SVs are located within the active zone (AZ) region of the synapse which faces a corresponding neurotransmitter receptor-rich region on the post-synaptic cell. Evidence that the fusion of a SV can be gated by Ca(2+) influx through a single CaV suggests that the channel and docked vesicle are linked by one or more molecular tethers (Stanley, 1993)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422648/fast-and-stable-signal-deconvolution-via-compressible-state-space-models
#18
Abbas Kazemipour, Ji Liu, Krystyna Solarana, Daniel Nagode, Patrick Kanold, Min Wu, Behtash Babadi
OBJECTIVE: Common biological measurements are in the form of noisy convolutions of signals of interest with possibly unknown and transient blurring kernels. Examples include EEG and calcium imaging data. Thus, signal deconvolution of these measurements is crucial in understanding the underlying biological processes. The objective of this paper is to develop fast and stable solutions for signal deconvolution from noisy, blurred and undersampled data, where the signals are in the form of discrete events distributed in time and space...
April 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421035/antiepileptic-drugs-impair-shortening-of-isolated-cardiomyocytes
#19
Johanna Hulbert, Christian E Elger, Rainer Meyer, Rainer Surges
BACKGROUND: Most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) inhibit seizure generation by acting on voltage-dependent ion channels. Voltage-dependent sodium and calcium channels are commonly expressed in brain and heart, suggesting that AEDs may have considerable cardiodepressive effects, thereby facilitating sudden cardiac death as a potential cause of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Here, we investigated the effects of carbamazepine (CBZ), lamotrigine (LTG), and levetiracetam (LEV) alone and in combination on the shortening properties of isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes of wild-type mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420889/evaluation-of-urinary-stone-composition-and-differentiation-between-urinary-stones-and-phleboliths-using-single-source-dual-energy-computed-tomography
#20
Nanako Ogawa, Shuhei Sato, Kentaro Ida, Katsuya Kato, Yuichi Ariyoshi, Koichiro Wada, Yasutomo Nasu, Susumu Kanazawa
The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of single-source dual-energy computed tomography (SS-DECT) composition analysis in characterizing different types of urinary stones and differentiating them from phleboliths. This study included 29 patients with urinary stones who were scheduled for surgery. All patients were scanned, first using single-energy computed tomography acquisition and then DECT acquisition on SS-DECT. Dual-energy data were archived to a Gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) viewer (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA)...
April 2017: Acta Medica Okayama
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