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Calcium imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525289/high-throughput-phenotyping-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-and-neurons-using-electric-field-stimulation-and-high-speed-fluorescence-imaging
#1
Neil J Daily, Zhong-Wei Du, Tetsuro Wakatsuki
Electrophysiology of excitable cells, including muscle cells and neurons, has been measured by making direct contact with a single cell using a micropipette electrode. To increase the assay throughput, optical devices such as microscopes and microplate readers have been used to analyze electrophysiology of multiple cells. We have established a high-throughput (HTP) analysis of action potentials (APs) in highly enriched motor neurons and cardiomyocytes (CMs) that are differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
May 19, 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522470/three-dimensional-ca-2-imaging-advances-understanding-of-astrocyte-biology
#2
Erika Bindocci, Iaroslav Savtchouk, Nicolas Liaudet, Denise Becker, Giovanni Carriero, Andrea Volterra
Astrocyte communication is typically studied by two-dimensional calcium ion (Ca(2+)) imaging, but this method has not yielded conclusive data on the role of astrocytes in synaptic and vascular function. We developed a three-dimensional two-photon imaging approach and studied Ca(2+) dynamics in entire astrocyte volumes, including during axon-astrocyte interactions. In both awake mice and brain slices, we found that Ca(2+) activity in an individual astrocyte is scattered throughout the cell, largely compartmented between regions, preponderantly local within regions, and heterogeneously distributed regionally and locally...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521138/transformation-of-cortex-wide-emergent-properties-during-motor-learning
#3
Hiroshi Makino, Chi Ren, Haixin Liu, An Na Kim, Neehar Kondapaneni, Xin Liu, Duygu Kuzum, Takaki Komiyama
Learning involves a transformation of brain-wide operation dynamics. However, our understanding of learning-related changes in macroscopic dynamics is limited. Here, we monitored cortex-wide activity of the mouse brain using wide-field calcium imaging while the mouse learned a motor task over weeks. Over learning, the sequential activity across cortical modules became temporally more compressed, and its trial-by-trial variability decreased. Moreover, a new flow of activity emerged during learning, originating from premotor cortex (M2), and M2 became predictive of the activity of many other modules...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521133/camkii-autophosphorylation-is-necessary-for-optimal-integration-of-ca-2-signals-during-ltp-induction-but-not-maintenance
#4
Jui-Yun Chang, Paula Parra-Bueno, Tal Laviv, Erzsebet M Szatmari, Seok-Jin R Lee, Ryohei Yasuda
CaMKII plays a critical role in decoding calcium (Ca(2+)) signals to initiate long-lasting synaptic plasticity. However, the properties of CaMKII that mediate Ca(2+) signals in spines remain elusive. Here, we measured CaMKII activity in spines using fast-framing two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging. Following each pulse during repetitive Ca(2+) elevations, CaMKII activity increased in a stepwise manner. Thr286 phosphorylation slows the decay of CaMKII and thus lowers the frequency required to induce spine plasticity by several fold...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520841/chronic-inflammatory-pain-impairs-mglur5-mediated-depolarization-induced-suppression-of-excitation-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#5
Baolin Guo, Jiaqi Wang, Han Yao, Keke Ren, Jing Chen, Jing Yang, Guohong Cai, Haiying Liu, Yunlong Fan, Wenting Wang, Shengxi Wu
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a critical hub for nociceptive perception and pain-related anxiety. Long-term synaptic plasticity in ACC was found to be important for chronic inflammatory pain and pain-related anxiety. As short-term synaptic plasticity, depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE) is involved in several conditions, such as chronic stress, epilepsy, and autism. However, it is still unknown whether DSE in the ACC is involved in the central sensitization of pain and anxiety. Using a whole-cell patch clamp, calcium imaging, western blot, and behavioral testing, we found that DSE was induced by a 2 s depolarization in postsynaptic pyramidal cells in ACC...
May 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516281/tof-sims-study-of-differentiation-of-human-bone-derived-stromal-cells-new-insights-into-osteoporosis
#6
Kaija Schaepe, Janina Werner, Kristina Glenske, Tessa Bartges, Anja Henss, Marcus Rohnke, Sabine Wenisch, Jürgen Janek
Lipids have numerous important functions in the human body, as they form the cells' plasma membranes and play a key role in many disease states, presumably also in osteoporosis. Here, the fatty acid composition of the outer plasma membranes of cells differentiated into the osteogenic and adipogenic direction is studied with surface-sensitive time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). For data evaluation, principal component analysis (PCA) is applied. Human (bone-derived) mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) from an osteoporotic donor and a control donor are compared to reveal differences in the fatty acid composition of the membranes...
May 18, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515697/trpa1-channels-modify-trpv1-mediated-current-responses-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#7
Takayoshi Masuoka, Makiko Kudo, Yuka Yamashita, Junko Yoshida, Noriko Imaizumi, Ikunobu Muramatsu, Matomo Nishio, Takaharu Ishibashi
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is highly expressed in a subset of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia of experimental animals, responsible for nociception. Many researches have revealed that some TRPV1-positive neurons co-express the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel whose activities are closely modulated by TRPV1 channel. However, it is less investigated whether the activities of TRPV1 channel are modulated by the presence of TRPA1 channel in primary sensory neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514967/at1-receptor-response-to-non-saturating-ang-ii-concentrations-is-amplified-by-calcium-channel-blockers
#8
Kristoffer Bernhem, Kalaiselvan Krishnan, Alexander Bondar, Hjalmar Brismar, Anita Aperia, Lena Scott
BACKGROUND: Blockers of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and the voltage gated calcium channel 1.2 (CaV1.2) are commonly used for treatment of hypertension. Yet there is little information about the effect of physiological concentrations of angiotensin II (AngII) on AT1R signaling and whether there is a reciprocal regulation of AT1R signaling by CaV1.2. METHODS: To elucidate these questions, we have studied the Ca(2+) signaling response to physiological and pharmacological AngII doses in HEK293a cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes using a Ca(2+) sensitive dye as the principal sensor...
May 17, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514229/an-open-source-wireless-capable-miniature-microscope-system
#9
William A Liberti, L Nathan Perkins, Daniel P Leman, Timothy J Gardner
OBJECTIVE: Fluorescence imaging through head-mounted microscopes in freely behaving animals is becoming a standard method to study neural circuit function. Flexible, open-source designs are needed to spur evolution of the method. APPROACH: We describe a miniature microscope for single-photon fluorescence imaging in freely behaving animals. The device is made from 3D printed parts and off-the-shelf components. These microscopes weigh less than 1.8 g, can be configured to image a variety of fluorophores, and can be used wirelessly or in conjunction with active commutators...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512498/treatment-outcomes-of-full-pulpotomy-as-an-alternative-to-tooth-extraction-in-molars-with-hyperplastic-irreversible-pulpitis-a-case-report
#10
Saeed Asgary, Prashant Verma, Ali Nosrat
Root canal therapy (RCT) is a common and successful treatment for irreversible pulpitis due to carious pulp exposure in mature permanent teeth. However, it is often an expensive procedure, may require multiple appointments, and requires a high level of training and clinical skill, specifically in molars. Uninsured patients, low-income patients, and patients with limited access to specialist care often elect for extraction of restorable teeth with irreversible pulpitis. There is a need for an alternative affordable treatment option to preserve their teeth and maintain chewing function...
2017: Iranian Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510528/identification-of-octopaminergic-neurons-that-modulate-sleep-suppression-by-male-sex-drive
#11
Daniel R Machado, Dinis Js Afonso, Alexandra R Kenny, Arzu Öztu Rk-Çolak, Emilia H Moscato, Benjamin Mainwaring, Matthew Kayser, Kyunghee Koh
Molecular and circuit mechanisms for balancing competing drives are not well understood. While circadian and homeostatic mechanisms generally ensure sufficient sleep at night, other pressing needs can overcome sleep drive. Here, we demonstrate that the balance between sleep and sex drives determines whether male flies sleep or court, and identify a subset of octopaminergic neurons (MS1) that regulate sleep specifically in males. When MS1 neurons are activated, isolated males sleep less, and when MS1 neurons are silenced, the normal male sleep suppression in female presence is attenuated and mating behavior is impaired...
May 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506554/selective-dopamine-receptor-4-activation-mediates-the-hippocampal-neuronal-calcium-response-via-ip3-and-ryanodine-receptors
#12
Ya-Li Wang, Jian-Gang Wang, Fang-Li Guo, Xia-Huan Gao, Dan-Dan Zhao, Lin Zhang, Jian-Zhi Wang, Cheng-Biao Lu
Intracellular calcium is a key factor in most cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, proliferation and neurotransmitter release. Dopamine (DA) mediates synaptic transmission by regulating the intracellular calcium content. It is not clear, however, which specific subunit of the DA receptor contributes to DA modulation of intracellular calcium content changes. Through the traditional technique of Fura-2 calcium imaging, this study demonstrated that the DA can induce transient calcium in cultured hippocampal neurons and that this response can be mimicked by a selective dopamine receptor 4 (DR4) agonist PD168077 (PD)...
May 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506204/antibiotic-effects-of-loperamide-homology-of-human-targets-of-loperamide-with-targets-in-acanthamoeba-spp
#13
Abdul Mannan Baig, Zohaib Rana, M Mohsin Mannan, S Sumayya Tariq, H R Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Loperamide is an anti-diarrheal drug prescribed for non-infectious diarrhea. The drug is an opioid receptor agonist, a blocker of voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav) and a calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor on human cells. Loperamide has been reported to exert anti-amoebic effects against pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba castellanii. OBJECTIVES: The precise mode of antibiotic action, cellular target homology with human counterparts and the pattern of cell death induced by loperamide in Acanthamoeba castellanii remain to be established...
April 25, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502656/temporal-cohorts-of-lineage-related-neurons-perform-analogous-functions-in-distinct-sensorimotor-circuits
#14
Christopher C Wreden, Julia L Meng, Weidong Feng, Wanhao Chi, Zarion D Marshall, Ellie S Heckscher
Neuronal stem cell lineages are the fundamental developmental units of the brain, and neuronal circuits are the fundamental functional units of the brain. Determining lineage-circuitry relationships is essential for deciphering the developmental logic of circuit assembly. While the spatial distribution of lineage-related neurons has been investigated in a few brain regions [1-9], an important, but unaddressed question is whether temporal information that diversifies neuronal progeny within a single lineage also impacts circuit assembly...
May 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501905/investigation-of-pain-mechanisms-by-calcium-imaging-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Michael Anderson, Qin Zheng, Xinzhong Dong
Due to the complex circuitry and plethora of cell types involved in somatosensation, it is becoming increasingly important to be able to observe cellular activity at the population level. In addition, since cells rely on an intricate variety of extracellular factors, it is important to strive to maintain the physiological environment. Many electrophysiological techniques require the implementation of artificially-produced physiological environments and it can be difficult to assess the activity of many cells simultaneously...
May 13, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501773/trpv4-functions-in-flow-shear-stress-induced-early-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Kongzu Hu, Heyan Sun, Binjie Gui, Cong Sui
Mechanical cues have been shown to induce osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs). The TRPV4 channel, a Ca(2+)-permeable membrane ion channel, is implicated in the transduction of external mechanical stimulation into specific intracellular responses in a wide variety of bone cells. However, the role of TRPV4 in transducing and regulating the differentiation of human MSCs in response to flow shear stress (FSS) is unclear. In this study, using FSS and calcium imaging, we demonstrated that FSS activated early osteogenic differentiation, as shown by the early osteogenic differentiation marker osterix (Osx) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining...
May 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500220/environmental-enrichment-rescues-binocular-matching-of-orientation-preference-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#17
Jared Levine, Hui Chen, Yu Gu, Jianhua Cang
Neural circuits are shaped by experience during critical periods of development. Sensory deprivation during these periods permanently compromises an organism's ability to perceive the outside world. In the mouse visual system, normal visual experience during a critical period in early life drives the matching of individual cortical neurons' orientation preferences through the two eyes, likely a key step in the development of binocular vision. Here, in mice of both sexes, we show that the binocular matching process is completely blocked by monocular deprivation spanning the entire critical period...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496430/cholinergic-nociceptive-mechanisms-in-rat-meninges-and-trigeminal-ganglia-potential-implications-for-migraine-pain
#18
Irina Shelukhina, Nikita Mikhailov, Polina Abushik, Leniz Nurullin, Evgeny E Nikolsky, Rashid Giniatullin
BACKGROUND: Parasympathetic innervation of meninges and ability of carbachol, acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (AChR) agonist, to induce headaches suggests contribution of cholinergic mechanisms to primary headaches. However, neurochemical mechanisms of cholinergic regulation of peripheral nociception in meninges, origin place for headache, are almost unknown. METHODS: Using electrophysiology, calcium imaging, immunohistochemistry, and staining of meningeal mast cells, we studied effects of cholinergic agents on peripheral nociception in rat hemiskulls and isolated trigeminal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494967/visualizing-calcium-flux-in-freely-moving-nematode-embryos
#19
Evan L Ardiel, Abhishek Kumar, Joseph Marbach, Ryan Christensen, Rishi Gupta, William Duncan, Jonathan S Daniels, Nico Stuurman, Daniel Colón-Ramos, Hari Shroff
The lack of physiological recordings from Caenorhabditis elegans embryos stands in stark contrast to the comprehensive anatomical and gene expression datasets already available. Using light-sheet fluorescence microscopy to address the challenges associated with functional imaging at this developmental stage, we recorded calcium dynamics in muscles and neurons and developed analysis strategies to relate activity and movement. In muscles, we found that the initiation of twitching was associated with a spreading calcium wave in a dorsal muscle bundle...
May 9, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494965/multiscale-determinants-of-delayed-afterdepolarization-amplitude-in-cardiac-tissue
#20
Christopher Y Ko, Michael B Liu, Zhen Song, Zhilin Qu, James N Weiss
Spontaneous calcium (Ca) waves in cardiac myocytes underlie delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) that trigger cardiac arrhythmias. How these subcellular/cellular events overcome source-sink factors in cardiac tissue to generate DADs of sufficient amplitude to trigger action potentials is not fully understood. Here, we evaluate quantitatively how factors at the subcellular scale (number of Ca wave initiation sites), cellular scale (sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load), and tissue scale (synchrony of Ca release in populations of myocytes) determine DAD features in cardiac tissue using a combined experimental and computational modeling approach...
May 9, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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