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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051042/bone-disease-in-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#1
Polyzois Makras, Athanasios D Anastasilakis
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a disease of high bone turnover, decreased bone mineral density (BMD) especially at cortical sites, and increased risk of fractures at all skeletal sites. Early diagnosis during the last decades resulted in milder forms of bone involvement. New methods of imaging and validation such as high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and trabecular bone score provide evidence of disturbed bone microarchitecture and explain further the increased risk of fractures at both cortical and trabecular skeletal sites...
October 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049297/functional-connectivity-structure-of-cortical-calcium-dynamics-in-anesthetized-and-awake-mice
#2
Patrick W Wright, Lindsey M Brier, Adam Q Bauer, Grant A Baxter, Andrew W Kraft, Matthew D Reisman, Annie R Bice, Abraham Z Snyder, Jin-Moo Lee, Joseph P Culver
The interplay between hemodynamic-based markers of cortical activity (e.g. fMRI and optical intrinsic signal imaging), which are an indirect and relatively slow report of neural activity, and underlying synaptic electrical and metabolic activity through neurovascular coupling is a topic of ongoing research and debate. As application of resting state functional connectivity measures is extended further into topics such as brain development, aging and disease, the importance of understanding the fundamental physiological basis for functional connectivity will grow...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047214/tanshinone-iia-alleviates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-downregulating-trpm7-and-pro-inflammatory-factors
#3
Jie Li, Yan Zheng, Ming-Xian Li, Chu-Wei Yang, Yu-Fei Liu
The study aimed to investigate the role of Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in its regulation of TRPM7. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into the normal saline (NS), LPS, knockout (KO) + LPS, low-dose Tan IIA (Tan-L), middle-dose Tan IIA (Tan-M), high-dose Tan IIA (Tan-H) and KO + high-dose Tan IIA (KO + Tan-H) groups. The level of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, TRPM7 protein expression, current density-voltage curve and Ca(2+) concentration were detected through ELISA, Western blotting, electrophysiological experiment and a calcium-imaging technique, respectively...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045156/probing-the-interaction-mechanism-between-air-bubbles-and-bitumen-surfaces-in-aqueous-media-using-bubble-probe-afm
#4
Lei Xie, Chen Shi, Xin Cui, Jun Huang, Jingyi Wang, Qi Liu, Hongbo Zeng
Surface interactions involving deformable air bubbles have attracted tremendous interest in a wide range of engineering applications, such as mineral flotation and bitumen extraction. In this work, for the first time, the interaction forces between air bubbles and bitumen surfaces in complex aqueous media of varying pH, salinity and salts were directly measured using a bubble probe atomic force microscope (AFM) technique. The AFM topographic imaging reveals that bitumen surface tends to be rougher and form distinct domains at high NaCl concentration or under strongly alkaline environment...
October 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045067/reconnectable-fiberscopes-for-chronic-in-vivo-deep-brain-imaging
#5
M S Pochechuev, I V Fedotov, O I Ivashkina, M A Roshchina, D V Meshchankin, D A Sidorov-Biryukov, A B Fedotov, K V Anokhin, A M Zheltikov
Reconnectable bundles consisting of thousands of optical fibers are shown to enable high-quality image transmission, offering a platform for the creation of implantable fiberscopes for minimally invasive in vivo brain imaging. Experiments on various lines of transgenic mice verify the performance of this fiberscope as a powerful tool for chronic in vivo neuroimaging using genetically encoded calcium indicators, neuronal activity markers, as well as axon growth regulators and brain-specific protein drivers in deep regions of live brain...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044527/effect-of-the-combined-use-of-enamel-matrix-derivative-and-atelocollagen-sponge-scaffold-on-osteoblastic-differentiation-of-mouse-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-vitro
#6
Y Hisanaga, E Suzuki, H Aoki, M Sato, A Saito, A Saito, T Azuma
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a candidate cell source in periodontal regenerative therapy. Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) has been shown to regenerate periodontal tissues, and atelocollagen sponge (ACS) is considered a suitable scaffold or carrier for growth factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of combined use of EMD and an ACS scaffold on cell behaviors and differentiation of mouse iPSCs (miPSCs) in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Following embryonic body formation from miPSCs, dissociated cells (miPS-EB-derived cells) were seeded onto ACS with or without EMD, and cultured in osteoblast differentiation medium...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039532/puerarin-attenuates-the-daunorubicin-induced-apoptosis-of-h9c2-cells-by-activating-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-via-the-inhibition-of-ca2-influx
#7
Weihua Li, Min Lu, Yanhong Zhang, Danqin Xia, Zebin Chen, Linhua Wang, Nina Yin, Zhigang Wang
Puerarin extracted from Radix Puerariae is well known for its pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory, neuroprotective and cardioprotective properties. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of puerarin on the daunorubicin (DNR)-induced apoptosis of H9c2 cells and to elucidate the potential mechanisms involved. MTT assay and flow cytometry were performed to evaluate cell cytotoxicity and apoptosis, respectively. Western blot analysis was used to assess changes in the expression levels of proteins, including caspase-3, Akt and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt)...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034940/near-infrared-light-and-ph-responsive-au-carbon-calcium-phosphate-nanoparticles-for-imaging-and-chemo-photothermal-cancer-therapy-of-cancer-cells
#8
Huiyuan Wang, Manjie Zhang, Lingyu Zhang, Shengnan Li, Lu Li, Xiliang Li, Min Yu, Zhongcheng Mou, Tingting Wang, Chungang Wang, Zhongmin Su
A simple, mild and reproducible synthetic route was developed to fabricate the multifunctional Au@carbon/calcium phosphate core-shell nanoparticles (Au@C/CaP NPs), which act as an efficient nanoplatform for pH/near-infrared (NIR) dual-responsive drug delivery, X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging and synergistic chemo-photothermal cancer therapy in vitro.
October 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034066/novel-spect-technologies-and-approaches-in-cardiac-imaging
#9
Piotr Slomka, Guang-Uei Hung, Guido Germano, Daniel S Berman
Recent novel approaches in myocardial perfusion single photon emission CT (SPECT) have been facilitated by new dedicated high-efficiency hardware with solid-state detectors and optimized collimators. New protocols include very low-dose (1 mSv) stress-only, two-position imaging to mitigate attenuation artifacts, and simultaneous dual-isotope imaging. Attenuation correction can be performed by specialized low-dose systems or by previously obtained CT coronary calcium scans. Hybrid protocols using CT angiography have been proposed...
December 1, 2016: Cardiovasc Innov Appl
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032823/bortezomib-facilitates-reparative-dentin-formation-after-pulp-access-cavity-preparation-in-mouse-molar
#10
Jae-Kwang Jung, Gi-Jeong Gwon, Sanjiv Neupane, Wern-Joo Sohn, Ki-Rim Kim, Ji-Youn Kim, Seo-Young An, Tae-Yub Kwon, Chang-Hyeon An, Youngkyun Lee, Jae-Young Kim, Jung-Hong Ha
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and ex vivo roles of bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor that binds to the active site of the 26S proteasome, in tertiary dentin formation. METHODS: We established pulpal access cavity preparation that was treated with or without bortezomib before direct pulp capping with a calcium hydroxide-based material. We also analyzed bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)- and Wnt-related signaling molecules using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031416/zinc-silicate-mineral-coated-scaffold-improved-in-vitro-osteogenic-differentiation-of-equine-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#11
Behnaz Bageshlooyafshar, Saeid Vakilian, Mousa Kehtari, Tarlan Eslami-Arshaghi, Farjad Rafeie, Rouhallah Ramezanifard, Reza Rahchamani, Abdollah Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Yousef Mostafaloo, Ehsan Seyedjafari
In current study we aimed to coat the PLLA scaffold with zinc (Zn) silicate mineral nanoparticles. Then, using equine adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) we intended to compare the osteogenic induction potency of Zn silicate mineral-coated PLLA scaffold with uncoated PLLA scaffold and tissue culture plastic (TCPS). Adipose tissues were collected from 3 horses, and isolation of ASCs was achieved by enzymatic digestion. PLLA scaffold was successfully prepared using a phase separation method and coated with Zn silicate mineral nanoparticles...
September 18, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030922/the-role-of-mitochondria-in-axon-development-and-regeneration
#12
REVIEW
George M Smith, Gianluca Gallo
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo transport, fission and fusion. The three main functions of mitochondria are to generate ATP, buffer cytosolic calcium and generate reactive oxygen species. A large body of evidence indicates that mitochondria are either primary targets for neurological disease states and nervous system injury, or are major contributors to the ensuing pathologies. However, the roles of mitochondria in the development and regeneration of axons have just begun to be elucidated. Advances in the understanding of the functional roles of mitochondria in neurons had been largely impeded by insufficient knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial transport, stalling, fission/fusion and a paucity of approaches to image and analyze mitochondria in living axons at the level of the single mitochondrion...
October 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030562/astrocyte-calcium-waves-propagate-proximally-by-gap-junction-and-distally-by-extracellular-diffusion-of-atp-released-from-volume-regulated-anion-channels
#13
Yuki Fujii, Shohei Maekawa, Mitsuhiro Morita
Wave-like propagation of [Ca(2+)]i increases is a remarkable intercellular communication characteristic in astrocyte networks, intercalating neural circuits and vasculature. Mechanically-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases and their subsequent propagation to neighboring astrocytes in culture is a classical model of astrocyte calcium wave and is known to be mediated by gap junction and extracellular ATP, but the role of each pathway remains unclear. Pharmacologic analysis of time-dependent distribution of [Ca(2+)]i revealed three distinct [Ca(2+)]i increases, the largest being in stimulated cells independent of extracellular Ca(2+) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca(2+) release...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029790/dynamics-of-surface-neurotransmitter-receptors-and-transporters-in-glial-cells-single-molecule-insights
#14
REVIEW
Silvia Ciappelloni, Ciaran Murphy-Royal, Julien P Dupuis, Stéphane H R Oliet, Laurent Groc
The surface dynamics of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters, as well as ion channels, has been well-documented in neurons, revealing complex molecular behaviour and key physiological functions. However, our understanding of the membrane trafficking and dynamics of the signalling molecules located at the plasma membrane of glial cells is still in its infancy. Yet, recent breakthroughs in the field of glial cells have been obtained using combination of superresolution microscopy, single molecule imaging, and electrophysiological recordings...
November 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029315/7-8-dihydroxyflavone-rescues-lead-induced-impairment-of-vesicular-release-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-for-lead-intoxicated-children
#15
Xiao-Lei Zhang, Jennifer L McGlothan, Omid Miry, Kirstie H Stansfield, Meredith K Loth, Patric K Stanton, Tomás R Guilarte
Childhood lead (Pb2+) intoxication is a public health problem of global proportion. Lead exposure during development produces multiple effects on the central nervous system including impaired synapse formation, altered synaptic plasticity, and learning deficits.In primary hippocampal neurons in culture and hippocampal slices, Pb2+ exposure inhibits vesicular release and reduces the number of fast-releasing sites, an effect associated with Pb2+ inhibition of NMDA receptor-mediated trans-synaptic Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling...
October 4, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028848/the-stability-of-augmented-bone-between-two-different-membranes-used-for-guided-bone-regeneration-simultaneous-with-dental-implant-placement-in-the-esthetic-zone
#16
Sirida Arunjaroensuk, Soontra Panmekiate, Atiphan Pimkhaokham
PURPOSE: This randomized controlled clinical trial compared the stability of augmented bone between a synthetic resorbable membrane and a collagen resorbable membrane with guided bone regeneration (GBR) simultaneous with dental implant placement in the esthetic zone in terms of facial bone thickness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 dental implants from patients requiring implant placement with simultaneous GBR in the esthetic zone were equally allocated to the test group or control group by block randomization...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028830/er-stress-and-subsequent-activated-calpain-play-a-pivotal-role-in-skeletal-muscle-wasting-after-severe-burn-injury
#17
Li Ma, Wanli Chu, Jiake Chai, Chuanan Shen, Dawei Li, Xiaoteng Wang
Severe burns are typically followed by hypermetabolism characterized by significant muscle wasting, which causes considerable morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore the underlying mechanisms of skeletal muscle damage/wasting post-burn. Rats were randomized to the sham, sham+4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA, a pharmacological chaperone promoting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) folding/trafficking, commonly considered as an inhibitor of ER), burn (30% total body surface area), and burn+4-PBA groups; and sacrificed at 1, 4, 7, 14 days after the burn injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028549/mta-promotes-chemotaxis-and-chemokinesis-of-immune-cells-through-distinct-calcium-sensing-receptor-signaling-pathways
#18
Fengjiao Chang, Jin Man Kim, Youngnim Choi, Kyungpyo Park
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been introduced as a choice material for regenerative dentistry. To date, the diverse biological activities of MTA, including its anti-inflammatory effects, have been extensively discussed. However, there is limited insight into the link between MTA and immune cell migration. In this study, we report the role of MTA in enhancing both chemotactic and chemokinetic immune cell migration through distinct signaling pathways. By using versatile live imaging techniques, we demonstrated that MTA-mediated CaSR activation induced diverse downstream pathways to govern cell migratory capacity...
October 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027248/ursodeoxycholic-acid-protects-cardiomyocytes-against-cobalt-chloride-induced-hypoxia-by-regulating-transcriptional-mediator-of-cells-stress-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-and-p53-protein
#19
Anis Syamimi Mohamed, Noorul Izzati Hanafi, Siti Hamimah Sheikh Abdul Kadir, Julina Md Noor, Narimah Abdul Hamid Hasani, Sharaniza Ab Rahim, Rosfaiizah Siran
In hepatocytes, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) activates cell signalling pathways such as p53, intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-receptor via Gαi -coupled-receptor. Recently, UDCA has been shown to protect the heart against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. However, it is not clear whether UDCA cardioprotection against hypoxia acts through a transcriptional mediator of cells stress, HIF-1α and p53. Therefore, in here, we aimed to investigate whether UDCA could protect cardiomyocytes (CMs) against hypoxia by regulating expression of HIF-1α, p53, [Ca(2+) ]i , and S1P-Gαi -coupled-receptor...
October 12, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027094/multimodal-functional-neuroimaging-by-simultaneous-bold-fmri-and-fiber-optic-calcium-recordings-and-optogenetic-control
#20
REVIEW
Franziska Albers, Lydia Wachsmuth, Timo Mauritz van Alst, Cornelius Faber
Recent developments of optogenetic tools and fluorescence-based calcium recording techniques enable the manipulation and monitoring of neural circuits on a cellular level. Non-invasive imaging of brain networks, however, requires the application of methods such as blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is commonly used for functional neuroimaging. While BOLD fMRI provides brain-wide non-invasive reading of the hemodynamic response, it is only an indirect measure of neural activity...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
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