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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641214/motor-system-dysfunction-in-the-schizophrenia-diathesis-neural-systems-to-neurotransmitters
#1
R Abboud, C Noronha, V A Diwadkar
Motor control is a ubiquitous aspect of human function, and from its earliest origins, abnormal motor control has been proposed as being central to schizophrenia. The neurobiological architecture of the motor system is well understood in primates and involves cortical and sub-cortical components including the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Notably all of these regions are associated in some manner to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
April 25, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636705/inflammation-in-the-neurocircuitry-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#2
Sophia Attwells, Elaine Setiawan, Alan A Wilson, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Margaret Anne Richter, Alan Kahn, Stephen J Kish, Sylvain Houle, Lakshmi Ravindran, Jeffrey H Meyer
Importance: For a small percentage of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) cases exhibiting additional neuropsychiatric symptoms, it was proposed that neuroinflammation occurs in the basal ganglia as an autoimmune response to infections. However, it is possible that elevated neuroinflammation, inducible by a diverse range of mechanisms, is important throughout the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit of OCD. Identifying brain inflammation is possible with the recent advance in positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands that bind to the translocator protein (TSPO)...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635875/-disturbances-of-gait-and-postural-stability-in-chronic-cerebral-ischemia
#3
N N Vakhnina, V V Zakharov
Disturbances of gait and postural stability are characteristic of the chronic progressive vascular lesion of the brain observed in moderate to severe stages of cerebrovascular disease. Disconnections between the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum due to the damage of the white matter (vascular leukoencephalopathy) underlie disturbances of gait and postural stability (shorter stride length, wider gait). There are difficulties in starting with possible stoppings during the walking, waiting in front of small barriers as well as difficulties in concentration (e...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634886/subcortical-brain-atrophy-in-gulf-war-illness
#4
Peka Christova, Lisa M James, Brian E Engdahl, Scott M Lewis, Adam F Carpenter, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multisystem disorder that has affected a substantial number of veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. The brain is prominently affected, as manifested by the presence of neurological, cognitive and mood symptoms. Although brain dysfunction in GWI has been well documented (EBioMedicine 12:127-32, 2016), abnormalities in brain structure have been debated. Here we report a substantial (~10%) subcortical brain atrophy in GWI comprising mainly the brainstem, cerebellum and thalamus, and, to a lesser extent, basal ganglia, amygdala and diencephalon...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633970/unified-neural-field-theory-of-brain-dynamics-underlying-oscillations-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-generalized-epilepsies
#5
E J Müller, S J van Albada, J W Kim, P A Robinson
The mechanisms underlying pathologically synchronized neural oscillations in Parkinson's disease (PD) and generalized epilepsies are explored in parallel via a physiologically-based neural field model of the corticothalamic-basal ganglia (CTBG) system. The basal ganglia (BG) are approximated as a single effective population and their roles in the modulation of oscillatory dynamics of the corticothalamic (CT) system and vice versa are analyzed. In addition to normal EEG rhythms, enhanced activity around 4 Hz and 20 Hz exists in the model, consistent with the characteristic frequencies observed in PD...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633499/lateralized-basal-ganglia-vulnerability-to-pesticide-exposure-in-asymptomatic-agricultural-workers
#6
Mechelle M Lewis, Nicholas W Sterling, Guangwei Du, Eun-Young Lee, Grace Shyu, Michael Goldenberg, Thomas Allen, Christy Stetter, Lan Kong, Shedra Amy Snipes, Byron C Jones, Honglei Chen, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
Background: Pesticide exposure is linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder marked by dopamine cell loss in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia (BG) that often presents asymmetrically. We previously reported that pesticide-exposed agricultural workers (AW) have nigral diffusion tensor (DTI) changes. The current study sought to confirm this finding, and explore its hemisphere and regional specificity within BG structures using an independent sample population...
June 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632760/the-development-of-acquired-equivalence-from-childhood-to-adulthood-a-cross-sectional-study-of-265-subjects
#7
Gábor Braunitzer, Attila Őze, Gabriella Eördegh, Anna Pihokker, Petra Rózsa, László Kasik, Szabolcs Kéri, Attila Nagy
Acquired equivalence (AE) is a form of feedback-based associative learning where the subject learns that two or more stimuli are equivalent in terms of being mapped onto the same outcomes or responses. While several studies dealt with how various neurological and psychiatric conditions affect performance on AE tasks (typically with small populations), studies dealing with AE in healthy subjects are rare, and no study has ever made an attempt to plot the development of this form of learning from the childhood through adulthood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631404/structural-connectivity-differences-in-motor-network-between-tremor-dominant-and-nontremor-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Gaetano Barbagallo, Maria Eugenia Caligiuri, Gennarina Arabia, Andrea Cherubini, Angela Lupo, Rita Nisticò, Maria Salsone, Fabiana Novellino, Maurizio Morelli, Giuseppe Lucio Cascini, Domenico Galea, Aldo Quattrone
Motor phenotypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) are recognized to have different prognosis and therapeutic response, but the neural basis for this clinical heterogeneity remains largely unknown. The main aim of this study was to compare differences in structural connectivity metrics of the main motor network between tremor-dominant and nontremor PD phenotypes (TD-PD and NT-PD, respectively) using probabilistic tractography-based network analysis. A total of 63 PD patients (35 TD-PD patients and 28 NT-PD patients) and 30 healthy controls underwent a 3 T MRI...
June 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630871/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-the-treatment-of-cerebral-hemorrhage-with-naoxueshu-oral-liquid
#9
REVIEW
Lijun Wu, Yanda Li, Xiaofeng Wang, Xiaomeng Ren, Haiyan Zhu, Yikun Sun, Yanwei Xing, Lingqun Zhu, Yonghong Gao, Hongcai Shang
NaoXueShu oral liquid invigorates Qi and promotes blood circulation, which is mainly used for treating the acute stage of the meridian of hemorrhagic apoplexy and acute blood stasis syndrome during early convalescence. Its main clinical manifestations include hemiplegia, mouth askew, hemianesthesia, and inarticulateness. It is used mainly in patients with lobar hemorrhage, basal ganglia, and thalamus of the small amount of bleeding without disturbing consciousness of hypertensive cerebral. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of NaoXueShu oral liquid on the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629285/acute-movement-disorders-in-the-medical-setting
#10
Ifrah Zawar, Mario A Caro, Lara Feldman, Xavier F Jimenez
Objective Psychosomatic medicine psychiatrists are often tasked with the evaluation and treatment of complex neuropsychiatric states which may be motoric in phenotype. Little energy has been dedicated to understanding acute movement disorders in the hospital environment. Method Recognizing the importance of frontal-subcortical (corticostriatothalamocortical) circuitry and basal ganglia structures, we present a case series of acute movement disorder phenotypes resulting from underlying medical conditions, commonly-administered medications, or the interaction of both...
July 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628708/brain-calcifications-in-adult-onset-genetic-leukoencephalopathies-a-review
#11
Xavier Ayrignac, Gaël Nicolas, Clarisse Carra-Dallière, Didier Hannequin, Pierre Labauge
Importance: Adult-onset genetic leukoencephalopathies and leukodystrophies are increasingly recognized as a heterogeneous group of disorders with new diagnostic approaches and potential treatments. In the new era of genomics, the challenging interpretation of individual genetic variations requires an accurate phenotypic description and classification. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approaches have been proposed to improve the diagnostic process of adult-onset leukoencephalopathies...
June 19, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628422/t1%C3%AF-weighted-dynamic-glucose-enhanced-mr-imaging-in-the-human-brain
#12
Daniel Paech, Patrick Schuenke, Christina Koehler, Johannes Windschuh, Sibu Mundiyanapurath, Sebastian Bickelhaupt, David Bonekamp, Philipp Bäumer, Peter Bachert, Mark E Ladd, Martin Bendszus, Wolfgang Wick, Andreas Unterberg, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Moritz Zaiss, Alexander Radbruch
Purpose To evaluate the ability to detect intracerebral regions of increased glucose concentration at T1ρ-weighted dynamic glucose-enhanced (DGE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 7.0 T. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Nine patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and four healthy volunteers were included in this study from October 2015 to July 2016. Adiabatically prepared chemical exchange-sensitive spin-lock imaging was performed with a 7.0-T whole-body unit with a temporal resolution of approximately 7 seconds, yielding the time-resolved DGE contrast...
June 16, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628235/expanded-phenotypes-and-outcomes-among-256-lgi1-caspr2-igg-positive-patients
#13
Avi Gadoth, Sean J Pittock, Divyanshu Dubey, Andrew McKeon, Jeff W Britton, John E Schmeling, Aurelia Smith, Amy L Kotsenas, Robert E Watson, Daniel H Lachance, Eoin P Flanagan, Vanda A Lennon, Christopher J Klein
OBJECTIVE: To describe an expanded phenotypic spectrum and longitudinal outcome in 256 LGI1-IgG or CASPR2-IgG seropositive patients. METHODS: Patients were identified through service neural autoantibody evaluation. Ninety-five had longitudinal follow-up (7-456 months; median 35). RESULTS: Among 3,910 patients tested, 196 were LGI1-IgG-positive; 51 were CASPR2-IgG-positive and 9 were dual-positive. CSF-testing was less sensitive than serum-testing, detecting only 24/38 LGI1-IgG-positive (63%) and 5/6 CASPR2-IgG-positive (83%)...
June 19, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626050/admission-brain-cortical-volume-an-independent-determinant-of-poststroke-cognitive-vulnerability
#14
Sharmila Sagnier, Gwenaëlle Catheline, Bixente Dilharreguy, Fanny Munsch, Antoine Bigourdan, Mathilde Poli, Sabrina Debruxelles, Stéphane Olindo, Pauline Renou, François Rouanet, Vincent Dousset, Thomas Tourdias, Igor Sibon
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several markers of poststroke cognitive impairment have been reported. The role of brain cortical volume remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of brain cortical volume on cognitive outcomes using a voxel-based morphometry approach in subjects without prestroke dementia. METHODS: Ischemic stroke patients were prospectively recruited 24 to 72 hours post-stroke (M0). Cognition was evaluated at M0, 3 months, and 1 year (M12) using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the Isaacs set test, and the Zazzo's cancellation task...
June 16, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626012/pharmacological-modulation-of-noradrenergic-arousal-circuitry-disrupts-functional-connectivity-of-the-locus-coeruleus-in-humans
#15
Andrew H Song, Aaron Kucyi, Vitaly Napadow, Emery N Brown, Marco L Loggia, Oluwaseun Akeju
State dependent activity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons has long suggested a role for noradrenergic modulation of arousal. However, in vivo insights into noradrenergic arousal circuitry have been constrained by the fundamental inaccessibility of the human brain for invasive studies. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies performed during site-specific pharmacological manipulations of arousal levels may be used to study brain arousal circuitry. Dexmedetomidine is an anesthetic that alters the level of arousal by selectively targeting α2 adrenergic receptors on LC neurons, resulting in reduced firing rate and norepinephrine release...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625938/language-disturbances-after-non-thalamic-subcortical-stroke-a-review-of-the-literature
#16
Liziane Bouvier, Bertrand Groulx, Vincent Martel-Sauvageau, Laura Monetta
Language disorders following subcortical non-thalamic stroke show great variability across literature and a well-defined profile in these aphasic disturbances is yet to be established. The lack of recent and consistent literature on the subject complicates the management of subcortical aphasia. The aim of this study is to review the literature describing oral language disturbances following subcortical non-thalamic stoke affecting the basal ganglia and the surrounding white matter. A review of the literature of three databases (PubMed, PsycNet and LLBA), identifying research articles from 1997 to 2015, was completed...
June 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625346/the-role-of-the-motor-system-in-action-naming-in-patients-with-neurodegenerative-extrapyramidal-syndromes
#17
REVIEW
Maria Cotelli, Rosa Manenti, Michela Brambilla, Barbara Borroni
Previous studies of patients with brain damage have suggested a close relationship between aphasia and movement disorders. Neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndromes associated with cognitive impairment provide an interesting model for studying the neural substrates of cognitive and motor symptoms. In this review, we focused on studies investigating language production abilities in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP). According to some reports, these patients exhibit a reduction in performance in both action and object naming or verb production compared to healthy individuals...
May 26, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624121/leptin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-digestive-organs-and-gonads-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#18
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Yotsawan Tinikul, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anurucpreeda, Prasert Sobhon
Leptin, a highly conserved adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the control of fat storage and metabolic status which are linked to food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction in all vertebrates. In the present study, we hypothesize that leptin is also present in various organs of the fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The existence and distribution of a leptin-like peptide in prawn tissues were verified by using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical detection (ID) using primary antibody against human leptin...
June 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623483/normal-appearing-white-matter-permeability-a-marker-of-inflammation-and-information-processing-speed-deficit-among-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#19
Eldar Eftekhari, Seyed-Parsa Hojjat, Rita Vitorino, Timothy J Carroll, Charles Grady Cantrell, Liesly Lee, Matthew W Taylor, Sarah A Morrow, Haddas Benhabib, Richard I Aviv, Andrea Kassner
PURPOSE: Blood-brain barrier breakdown (BBBB) occurs in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Relative recirculation (rR), a BBBB surrogate, may show inflammation undetectable by gadolinium. We compared normal appearing white matter (NAWM) rR in patients with and without disability measured with Symbol Digit Modalities Test and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). METHODS: Thirty-nine RRMS patients were prospectively recruited and classified as impaired or non-impaired based on the SDMT and EDSS threshold ≥3...
June 16, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620756/preliminary-data-on-utility-of-subcutaneous-unfractionated-heparin-in-patients-with-deep-cerebral-venous-thrombosis
#20
Girish Baburao Kulkarni, Abbas Masoom Mirza, Subasree Ramakrishnan, Veerendrakumar Mustare
Subcutaneous unfractionated heparin (SCUFH) has been proved effective in puerperal cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), but its efficacy in the more serious form of the disease such as deep CVT patients (DCVT) unreported. We describe the outcomes of 37 (isolated:combined: 11:26) patients of DCVT diagnosed by MRI, treated with SCUFH in a tertiary care stroke unit. It was a prospective observational cohort study using 5000 U of SCUFH every 6 hourly for 10 days with oral Acenocoumarol started on day 7, with monitoring...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
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