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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923040/a-low-correlation-resting-state-of-the-striatum-during-cortical-avalanches-and-its-role-in-movement-suppression
#1
Andreas Klaus, Dietmar Plenz
During quiet resting behavior, involuntary movements are suppressed. Such movement control is attributed to cortico-basal ganglia loops, yet population dynamics within these loops during resting and their relation to involuntary movements are not well characterized. Here, we show by recording cortical and striatal ongoing population activity in awake rats during quiet resting that intrastriatal inhibition maintains a low-correlation striatal resting state in the presence of cortical neuronal avalanches. Involuntary movements arise from disturbed striatal resting activity through two different population dynamics...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922596/pathological-overeating-emerging-evidence-for-a-compulsivity-construct
#2
REVIEW
Catherine F Moore, Valentina Sabino, George F Koob, Pietro Cottone
Compulsive eating behavior is a transdiagnostic construct that is characteristic of medical and psychiatric conditions such as forms of obesity and eating disorders. While feeding research is moving towards a better understanding of the proposed addictive properties of food, the components and the mechanisms contributing to compulsive eating are not yet clearly defined or understood. Current understanding highlights three elements of compulsive behavior as it applies to pathological overeating: 1) habitual overeating; 2) overeating to relieve a negative emotional state; and 3) overeating despite aversive consequences...
December 6, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920268/clinical-value-of-perfusion-abnormalities-of-brain-on-technetium-99m-hmpao-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-in-children-with-sydenham-chorea
#3
Sara Maria Delle Acque Giorgio, Maria Grazia Caprio, Flavia Galante, Giustina Russo, Alfonso Romano, Emilia Vergara, Maria Alessio, Alberto Cuocolo
We evaluated whether perfusion brain abnormalities by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging improves diagnostic and prognostic assessment in Sydenham chorea. Twenty-three children with acute autoimmune chorea underwent technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime brain SPECT imaging. In 16 children, SPECT was repeated during the follow-up. A pattern of basal ganglia hyperperfusion was observed in 20 (87%) patients. In 4 of 10 patients with generalized chorea, perfusion was comparable in right and left striatum and right and left thalamus...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920266/variability-of-ponto-cerebellar-fibers-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-diverse-brain-malformations
#4
Nancy K Rollins, Timothy N Booth, Maria H Chahrour
To describe pontine axonal anomalies across diverse brain malformations. Institutional review board-approved review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genetic testing of 31 children with brain malformations and abnormal pons by diffusion tensor imaging. Anomalous dorsal pontocerebellar tracts were seen in mid-hindbrain anomalies and in diffuse malformations of cortical development including lissencephaly, gyral disorganization with dysplastic basal ganglia, presumed congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 3, and in callosal agenesis without malformations of cortical development...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917146/a-unified-theoretical-framework-for-cognitive-sequencing
#5
Tejas Savalia, Anuj Shukla, Raju S Bapi
The capacity to sequence information is central to human performance. Sequencing ability forms the foundation stone for higher order cognition related to language and goal-directed planning. Information related to the order of items, their timing, chunking and hierarchical organization are important aspects in sequencing. Past research on sequencing has emphasized two distinct and independent dichotomies: implicit vs. explicit and goal-directed vs. habits. We propose a theoretical framework unifying these two streams...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916455/phosphodiesterase-10a-inhibition-improves-cortico-basal-ganglia-function-in-huntington-s-disease-models
#6
Vahri Beaumont, Sheng Zhong, Hai Lin, WenJin Xu, Amyaouch Bradaia, Esther Steidl, Melanie Gleyzes, Kristian Wadel, Bruno Buisson, Fernando E Padovan-Neto, Shreaya Chakroborty, Karen M Ward, John F Harms, Jose Beltran, Mei Kwan, Afshin Ghavami, Jenny Häggkvist, Miklós Tóth, Christer Halldin, Andrea Varrone, Christoph Schaab, J Nikolaj Dybowski, Sarah Elschenbroich, Kimmo Lehtimäki, Taneli Heikkinen, Larry Park, James Rosinski, Ladislav Mrzljak, Daniel Lavery, Anthony R West, Christopher J Schmidt, Margaret M Zaleska, Ignacio Munoz-Sanjuan
Huntington's disease (HD) symptoms are driven to a large extent by dysfunction of the basal ganglia circuitry. HD patients exhibit reduced striatal phoshodiesterase 10 (PDE10) levels. Using HD mouse models that exhibit reduced PDE10, we demonstrate the benefit of pharmacologic PDE10 inhibition to acutely correct basal ganglia circuitry deficits. PDE10 inhibition restored corticostriatal input and boosted cortically driven indirect pathway activity. Cyclic nucleotide signaling is impaired in HD models, and PDE10 loss may represent a homeostatic adaptation to maintain signaling...
November 25, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913800/the-transvenous-pressure-cooker-technique-a-treatment-for-brain-arteriovenous-malformations
#7
Guang Zhang, Shiyi Zhu, Pei Wu, Shancai Xu, Huaizhang Shi
The treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remains a significant challenge, especially hemorrhagic AVMs which are unsuitable for microsurgery or radiosurgery. We demonstrate an AVM located in the left basal ganglia area, supplied by slender arteries, and treated by the transvenous pressure cooker technique. Herein, we describe the procedure and outline the crucial points and indications for this technique.
December 2, 2016: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911752/frontosubthalamic-circuits-for-control-of-action-and-cognition
#8
Adam R Aron, Damian M Herz, Peter Brown, Birte U Forstmann, Kareem Zaghloul
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia appears to have a potent role in action and cognition. Anatomical and imaging studies show that different frontal cortical areas directly project to the STN via so-called hyperdirect pathways. This review reports some of the latest findings about such circuits, including simultaneous recordings from cortex and the STN in humans, single-unit recordings in humans, high-resolution fMRI, and neurocomputational modeling. We argue that a major function of the STN is to broadly pause behavior and cognition when stop signals, conflict signals, or surprise signals occur, and that the fronto-STN circuits for doing this, at least for stopping and conflict, are dissociable anatomically and in terms of their spectral reactivity...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911248/international-multicenter-cohort-study-of-pediatric-brain-arteriovenous-malformations-part-1-predictors-of-hemorrhagic-presentation
#9
Dale Ding, Robert M Starke, Hideyuki Kano, David Mathieu, Paul P Huang, Caleb Feliciano, Rafael Rodriguez-Mercado, Luis Almodovar, Inga S Grills, Danilo Silva, Mahmoud Abbassy, Symeon Missios, Douglas Kondziolka, Gene H Barnett, L Dade Lunsford, Jason P Sheehan
OBJECTIVE Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are the most common cause of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric patients (age < 18 years). Since the cumulative lifetime risk of AVM hemorrhage is considerable in children, an improved understanding of the risk factors influencing hemorrhagic presentation may aid in the management of pediatric AVMs. The aims of this first of a 2-part multicenter, retrospective cohort study are to evaluate the incidence and determine the predictors of hemorrhagic presentation in pediatric AVM patients...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909395/reversal-learning-in-humans-and-gerbils-dynamic-control-network-facilitates-learning
#10
Christian Jarvers, Tobias Brosch, André Brechmann, Marie L Woldeit, Andreas L Schulz, Frank W Ohl, Marcel Lommerzheim, Heiko Neumann
Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909006/a-neural-mechanism-for-surprise-related-interruptions-of-visuospatial-working-memory
#11
Jan R Wessel
Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST)...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906525/the-clinical-utility-of-qsm-disease-diagnosis-medical-management-and-surgical-planning
#12
REVIEW
Sarah Eskreis-Winkler, Yan Zhang, Jingwei Zhang, Zhe Liu, Alexey Dimov, Ajay Gupta, Yi Wang
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is an MR technique that depicts and quantifies magnetic susceptibility sources. Mapping iron, the dominant susceptibility source in the brain, has many important clinical applications. Herein, we review QSM applications in the diagnosis, medical management, and surgical treatment of disease. To assist in early disease diagnosis, QSM can identify elevated iron levels in the motor cortex of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, in the globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate of Huntington's disease patients, and in the basal ganglia of Wilson's disease patients...
December 1, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905264/biotin-thiamine-responsive-basal-ganglia-disease-catastrophic-consequences-of-delay-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#13
Hussein Algahtani, Saeed Ghamdi, Bader Shirah, Bader Alharbi, Raghad Algahtani, Abdulrahman Bazaid
BACKGROUND: Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTBGD) is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the SLC19A3 gene. The disease is characterized by subacute encephalopathy with confusion, dysphagia, dysarthria, and seizures. METHODS: We diagnosed a family affected by BTBGD and studied them including prognosis of cases when diagnosed and treated early in the disease process. We also review the literature comprehensively and summarize all published data about this disorder...
December 1, 2016: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903707/formation-of-long-term-locomotor-memories-is-associated-with-functional-connectivity-changes-in-the-cerebellar-thalamic-cortical-network
#14
Firas Mawase, Simona Bar-Haim, Lior Shmuelof
: Although motor adaptation is typically rapid, accumulating evidence shows that it is also associated with long-lasting behavioural and neuronal changes. Two processes were suggested to explain the formation of long-term motor memories: recall -- reflecting a retrieval of previous motor actions, and faster relearning -- reflecting an increased sensitivity to errors. While these manifestations of motor memories were initially demonstrated in the context of adaptation experiments in reaching, indications of long-term motor memories were also recently demonstrated in other kinds of adaptation, such as in locomotor adaptation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901100/imaging-analysis-of-parkinson-s-disease-patients-using-spect-and-tractography
#15
Seong-Jin Son, Mansu Kim, Hyunjin Park
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder that affects the central nervous system. PD-related alterations in structural and functional neuroimaging have not been fully explored. This study explored multi-modal PD neuroimaging and its application for predicting clinical scores on the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS). Multi-modal imaging that combined (123)I-Ioflupane single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were adopted to incorporate complementary brain imaging information...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899331/comparison-of-7t-and-3t-mri-in-patients-with-moyamoya-disease
#16
Byeong Ho Oh, Hyeong Cheol Moon, Hyeon Man Baek, Youn Joo Lee, Sang Woo Kim, Young Jai Jeon, Gun Seok Lee, Hong Rae Kim, Jai Ho Choi, Kyung Soo Min, Mou Seop Lee, Young Gyu Kim, Dong Ho Kim, Won Seop Kim, Young Seok Park
Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography (MRI/MRA) are widely used for evaluating the moyamoya disease (MMD). This study compared the diagnostic accuracy of 7Tesla (T) and 3T MRI/MRA in MMD. In this case control study, 12 patients [median age: 34years; range (10-66years)] with MMD and 12 healthy controls [median age: 25years; range (22-59years)] underwent both 7T and 3T MRI/MRA. To evaluate the accuracy of MRI/MRA in MMD, five criteria were compared between imaging systems of 7T and 3T: Suzuki grading system, internal carotid artery (ICA) diameter, ivy sign, flow void of the basal ganglia on T2-weighted images, and high signal intensity areas of the basal ganglia on time-of-flight (TOF) source images...
November 27, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898200/transcranial-sonography-in-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-multiple-system-atrophy
#17
Xudong Li, Shuang Xue, Shuhong Jia, Zhi Zhou, Yanan Qiao, Chunlei Hou, Kun Wei, Wenjing Zheng, Pei Rong, Jinsong Jiao
AIMS: We investigated preclinical abnormalities revealed by transcranial sonography (TCS) in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) compared with those revealed in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) or Parkinson's disease (PD) and in normal controls. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with iRBD, 21 patients with MSA, 22 patients with PD and 21 normal controls were included in this study. All participants underwent one night of video-polysomnography (PSG) monitoring, and the sleep parameters were analyzed using Polysmith software and by visual analysis...
November 29, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894611/the-threshold-theory-for-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Simone Engelender, Ole Isacson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is recognized by the accumulation of α-synuclein within neurons. In contrast to the current ascending theory where α-synuclein would propagate from neuron to neuron, we now propose the threshold theory for PD based on evidence of parallel degeneration of both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) in PD. The functional threshold is lower for the emergence of early symptoms before the classical motor symptoms of PD. This is due to the larger functional reserve of the midbrain dopamine and integrated basal ganglia motor systems to control movement...
November 25, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894359/can-morphological-mri-differentiate-between-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-and-glioblastoma
#19
H Malikova, E Koubska, J Weichet, J Klener, A Rulseh, R Liscak, Z Vojtech
BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare, aggressive brain neoplasm that accounts for roughly 2-6% of primary brain tumors. In contrast, glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and severe glioma subtype, accounting for approximately 50% of diffuse gliomas. The aim of the present study was to evaluate morphological MRI characteristics in histologically-proven PCNSL and GBM at the time of their initial presentation. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated standard diagnostic MRI examinations in 54 immunocompetent patients (26 female, 28 male; age 62...
November 29, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893017/evaluation-of-cognitive-deficits-and-structural-hippocampal-damage-in-encephalitis-with-leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-1-antibodies
#20
Carsten Finke, Harald Prüss, Josephine Heine, Sigrid Reuter, Ute A Kopp, Florian Wegner, Florian Then Bergh, Sebastian Koch, Olav Jansen, Thomas Münte, Günther Deuschl, Klemens Ruprecht, Winfried Stöcker, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Friedemann Paul, Thorsten Bartsch
Importance: Limbic encephalitis with leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibodies is one of the most frequent variants of autoimmune encephalitis with antibodies targeting neuronal surface antigens. However, the neuroimaging pattern and long-term cognitive outcome are not well understood. Objective: To study cognitive outcome and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alterations in patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Departments of Neurology at Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin and University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany...
November 21, 2016: JAMA Neurology
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