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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221362/disrupted-iron-regulation-in-the-brain-and-periphery-in-cocaine-addiction
#1
K D Ersche, J Acosta-Cabronero, P S Jones, H Ziauddeen, R P L van Swelm, C M M Laarakkers, R Raha-Chowdhury, G B Williams
Stimulant drugs acutely increase dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, and chronic use leads to neuroadaptive changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system and morphological changes in basal ganglia structures. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying these changes but preclinical evidence suggests that iron, a coenzyme in dopamine synthesis and storage, may be a candidate mediator. Iron is present in high concentrations in the basal ganglia and stimulant drugs may interfere with iron homeostasis. We hypothesised that morphological brain changes in cocaine addiction relate to abnormal iron regulation in the brain and periphery...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220365/binding-of-11-c-pittsburgh-compound-b-correlated-with-white-matter-injury-in-hypertensive-small-vessel-disease
#2
Tetsuya Hashimoto, Chiaki Yokota, Kazuhiro Koshino, Takashi Temma, Makoto Yamazaki, Satoshi Iguchi, Ryo Shimomura, Toshiyuki Uehara, Naoko Funatsu, Tenyu Hino, Kazuo Minematsu, Hidehiro Iida, Kazunori Toyoda
OBJECTIVE: (11)C-Pittsburgh compound-B ((11)C-PIB) positron emission tomography (PET) is used to visualize and quantify amyloid deposition in the brain cortex in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intense (11)C-PIB retention is also observed in the white matter (WM) of both healthy individuals and AD patients. However, the clinical implications of this retention in brain WM have not been clarified. We investigated the relationship between the extent of white matter lesions (WMLs) and the binding potential of (11)C-PIB (BPND) in the WM in patients with hypertensive small vessel disease...
February 20, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219193/-analysis-of-ct-perfusion-imaging-in-chronic-cerebral-circulatory-insufficiency-and-its-relationship-with-crossed-cerebellar-diaschisis
#3
S L Liu, Y Wang, Y Zhang, H L Xu, J C Wang, W W He, X T Qin, G Q Cao, Y J Yang, Q C Zhuge, W J Chen
Objective: To investigate the change of cerebral microcirculation of chronic cerebral circulation insufficiency(CCCI) patients and the relationship between CCCI and crossed cerebellar diaschisis(CCD)by using 320-detector row of low-dose volume CT perfusion imaging. Methods: A total of 158 patients (103 males, 55 females, from 45 to 82 years old, the mean age was 62.9) with symptoms of CCCI were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from June 2013 to January 2016. Low-dose CTP imaging of whole brain was performed to them using 320-detector row volume CT scanner...
February 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218416/physiology-of-midbrain-head-movement-neurons-in-cervical-dystonia
#4
Alexey Sedov, Valentin Popov, Vladimir Shabalov, Svetlana Raeva, H A Jinnah, Aasef G Shaikh
BACKGROUND: Early theories for cervical dystonia, as promoted by Hassler, emphasized the role of the midbrain interstitial nucleus of Cajal. Focus then shifted to the basal ganglia, and it was further supported with the success of deep brain stimulation. Contemporary theories suggested the role of the cerebellum, but even more recent hypotheses renewed interest in the midbrain. Although the pretectum was visited on several occasions, we still do not know about the physiology of midbrain neurons in cervical dystonia...
February 20, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215236/hyperdopaminergism-in-lenticulostriate-stroke-related-restless-legs-syndrome-an-imaging-study
#5
Elisabeth Ruppert, Marc Bataillard, Izzie Jacques Namer, Laurent Tatu, Aurélien Hacquard, Laurence Hugueny, Jeffrey Hubbard, Ulker Kilic-Huck, Valérie Wolff, Patrice Bourgin
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS) involves a dopaminergic dysregulation that remains poorly understood, with controversial data from the literature. Stroke-related RLS is a rare condition that involves primarily the basal ganglia, the paramedian pons, and the thalamus. Given these elements, we studied dopaminergic metabolism in patients with RLS secondary to lenticulostriate infarction using structural and nuclear imaging in the striatum ipsilateral to the infarction area, as compared to the contralateral side...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213194/subcortical-mapping-using-an-electrified-cusa-in-pediatric-supratentorial-surgery
#6
Jonathan Roth, Akiva Korn, Yifat Bitan-Talmor, Rivka Kaufman, Margaret Ekstein, Shlomi Constantini
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative electrophysiology is increasingly used for various lesion resections, both in adult and pediatric brain surgery. Subcortical mapping is often used in adult surgery when lesions lie in proximity to the corticospinal tract (CST). We describe a novel technique of continuous subcortical mapping using an electrified Cavitron UltraSonic Aspirator (CUSA) in children with supratentorial lesions. METHODS: We evaluated the method of subcortical mapping using a CUSA as a stimulation probe...
February 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207506/higher-subcortical-and-white-matter-cerebral-blood-flow-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children
#7
Charlotte Blokhuis, Henri J M M Mutsaerts, Sophie Cohen, Henriëtte J Scherpbier, Matthan W A Caan, Charles B L M Majoie, Taco W Kuijpers, Peter Reiss, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Dasja Pajkrt
This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, and its role in HIV-related cerebral injury and cognitive impairment.This cross-sectional observational study compared 28 perinatally HIV-infected children (8-18 years) to 34 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. All participants underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, using arterial spin labeling to assess CBF in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), basal ganglia, and thalamus...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205498/cognitive-control-learning-and-clinical-motor-ratings-are-most-highly-associated-with-basal-ganglia-brain-volumes-in-the-premanifest-huntington-s-disease-phenotype
#8
Maria B Misiura, Spencer Lourens, Vince D Calhoun, Jeffrey Long, Jeremy Bockholt, Hans Johnson, Ying Zhang, Jane S Paulsen, Jessica A Turner, Jingyu Liu, Betul Kara, Elizabeth Fall
OBJECTIVES: Huntington's disease (HD) is a debilitating genetic disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities associated with neuropathological decline. HD pathology is the result of an extended chain of CAG (cytosine, adenine, guanine) trinucleotide repetitions in the HTT gene. Clinical diagnosis of HD requires the presence of an otherwise unexplained extrapyramidal movement disorder in a participant at risk for HD. Over the past 15 years, evidence has shown that cognitive, psychiatric, and subtle motor dysfunction is evident decades before traditional motor diagnosis...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205494/language-deficits-as-a-preclinical-window-into-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-from-asymptomatic-parkin-and-dardarin-mutation-carriers
#9
Adolfo M García, Lucas Sedeño, Natalia Trujillo, Yamile Bocanegra, Diana Gomez, David Pineda, Andrés Villegas, Edinson Muñoz, William Arias, Agustín Ibáñez
OBJECTIVES: The worldwide spread of Parkinson's disease (PD) calls for sensitive and specific measures enabling its early (or, ideally, preclinical) detection. Here, we use language measures revealing deficits in PD to explore whether similar disturbances are present in asymptomatic individuals at risk for the disease. METHODS: We administered executive, semantic, verb-production, and syntactic tasks to sporadic PD patients, genetic PD patients with PARK2 (parkin) or LRRK2 (dardarin) mutation, asymptomatic first-degree relatives of the latter with similar mutations, and socio-demographically matched controls...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203148/dopamine-d1-receptor-immunoreactivity-on-fine-processes-of-gfap-positive-astrocytes-in-the-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-of-adult-mouse
#10
Katsuhiro Nagatomo, Sechiko Suga, Masato Saitoh, Masahito Kogawa, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yoshio Yamamoto, Katsuya Yamada
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives dopamine from dendrites extending from dopaminergic neurons of the adjacent nucleus pars compacta (SNc), which is known for its selective degeneration in Parkinson's disease. As a recipient for dendritically released dopamine, the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is a primary candidate due to its very dense immunoreactivity in the SNr. However, the precise location of D1R remains unclear at the cellular level in the SNr except for that reported on axons/axon terminals of presumably striatal GABAergic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202703/investigations-in-gabaa-receptor-antibody-associated-encephalitis
#11
Marianna Spatola, Mar Petit-Pedrol, Mateus Mistieri Simabukuro, Thaís Armangue, Fernanda J Castro, Maria I Barcelo Artigues, Maria R Julià Benique, Leslie Benson, Mark Gorman, Ana Felipe, Ruben L Caparó Oblitas, Myrna R Rosenfeld, Francesc Graus, Josep Dalmau
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical features, comorbidities, receptor subunit targets, and outcome in patients with anti-GABAA receptor (GABAAR) encephalitis. METHODS: Clinical study of 26 patients, including 17 new (April 2013-January 2016) and 9 previously reported patients. Antibodies to α1, β3, and γ2 subunits of the GABAAR were determined using reported techniques. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 40.5 years (interquartile range 48...
February 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198698/a-role-for-cerebellum-in-the-hereditary-dystonia-dyt1
#12
Rachel Fremont, Ambika Tewari, Chantal Angueyra, Kamran Khodakhah
DYT1 is a debilitating movement disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in torsinA. How these mutations cause dystonia remains unknown. Mouse models which have embryonically targeted torsinA have failed to recapitulate the dystonia seen in patients, possibly due to differential development compensation between rodents and humans. To address this issue, torsinA was acutely knocked down in select brain regions of adult mice using shRNAs. TorsinA knockdown in the cerebellum, but not in the basal ganglia, was sufficient to induce dystonia...
February 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196631/effects-of-12-weeks-of-chiropractic-care-on-central-integration-of-dual-somatosensory-input-in-chronic-pain-patients-a-preliminary-study
#13
Heidi Haavik, Imran Khan Niazi, Kelly Holt, Bernadette Murphy
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess whether the dual somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) technique is sensitive enough to measure changes in cortical intrinsic inhibitory interactions in patients with chronic neck or upper extremity pain and, if so, whether changes are associated with changes in pain scores. METHODS: The dual peripheral nerve stimulation SEP ratio technique was used for 6 subjects with a history of chronic neck or upper limb pain...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196306/effects-of-isoflurane-anesthesia-and-intravenous-morphine-self-administration-on-regional-glucose-metabolism-18-f-fdg-pet-of-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#14
Thomas Y Park, Kevin S Nishida, Colin M Wilson, Shalini Jaiswal, Jessica Scott, Andrew R Hoy, Reed G Selwyn, Bernard J Dardzinski, Kwang H Choi
Although certain drugs of abuse are known to disrupt brain glucose metabolism (BGluM), the effects of opiates on BGluM are not well characterized. Moreover, preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) studies anesthetize animals during the scan, which limits clinical applications. We investigated the effects of 1) isoflurane anesthesia and 2) intravenous morphine self-administration (MSA) on BGluM in rats. Jugular vein cannulated adult male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered either saline (SSA) or morphine (0...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194630/source-based-morphometry-multivariate-approach-to-analyze-123-i-fp-cit-spect-imaging
#15
Enrico Premi, V D Calhoun, V Garibotto, R Turrone, A Alberici, E Cottini, A Pilotto, S Gazzina, M Magoni, B Paghera, B Borroni, A Padovani
PURPOSE: [(123)I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN®) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is widely used to study neurodegenerative parkinsonism, by measuring presynaptic dopamine transporter (DAT) in striatal regions. Beyond DAT, [(123)I]FP-CIT may be considered for other monoaminergic systems, in particular the serotonin transporter (SERT). Independent component analysis (ICA) implemented in source-based morphometry (SBM) could represent an alternative method to explore monoaminergic pathways, studying the relationship among voxels and grouping them into "neurotransmission" networks...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194282/localizing-age-related-changes-in-brain-structure-using-voxel-based-morphometry
#16
Shu Hua Mu, Min Xu, Jun Xiu Duan, Jian Zhang, Li Hai Tan
Aim. We report the dynamic anatomical sequence of human cortical gray matter development from late childhood to young adults using VBM and ROI-based methods. Method. The structural MRI of 91 normal individuals ranging in age from 6 to 26 years was obtained and the GMV for each region was measured. Results. Our results showed that the earliest loss of GMV occurred in left olfactory, right precuneus, caudate, left putamen, pallidum, and left middle temporal gyrus. In addition, the trajectory of maturational and aging showed a linear decline in GMV on both cortical lobes and subcortical regions...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194095/altered-hippocampo-cerebello-cortical-circuit-in-schizophrenia-by-a-spatiotemporal-consistency-and-causal-connectivity-analysis
#17
Xi Chen, Yuchao Jiang, Lin Chen, Hui He, Li Dong, Changyue Hou, Mingjun Duan, Mi Yang, Dezhong Yao, Cheng Luo
In the current study, FOur-dimensional Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA) analysis was used to investigate the local consistency by integrating the temporal and spatial information of the local region. In the current study, resting-state fMRI data of 69 schizophrenia patients and 70 healthy controls were collected. FOCA was utilized to investigate the local consistency. Moreover, Granger causal analysis was used to investigate causal functional connectivity among these areas, which exhibited significantly different local consistency between groups...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193688/compulsive-social-behavior-emerges-after-selective-ablation-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneurons
#18
Yanina V Martos, Barbara Y Braz, Juan P Beccaria, M Gustavo Murer, Juan E Belforte
The mechanisms underlying social dysfunction in neuropsychiatric conditions like obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) remain uncertain. Dysfunctions in basal ganglia, including reduced number of striatal cholinergic interneurons (SCIN), have been involved in their pathophysiology. To explore the role of SCIN in relation to perseverative behaviors we characterized a new transgenic mouse model in which inducible ablation of SCIN is achieved with high efficiency in a cell-type and region specific manner...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193543/reduction-of-manganese-intake-improves-neuropsychological-manifestations-in-rats-with-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#19
Ying Li, Lihong Mei, Jinwei Qiang, Changxue Ji, Shuai Ju
Brain manganese deposition is led by liver dysfunction and/or portal-systemic shunting in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Manganese is toxic and can cause cognitive disorders and extrapyramidal symptoms. Thus, reduction of manganese intake might be considered as a potential treatment strategy for MHE. In this study we aimed to investigate whether low- or no-manganese feed can improve the neuropsychological manifestations in MHE rats. Rats with MHE were established by partially ligating the portal vein and fed a manganese diet (MHE-M, 10mg per kg feed; n=24), a no-manganese diet (MHE-N; n=24) and a half-manganese diet (MHE-H; n=24) for 2, 4, 6 and 8weeks, with six rats in each subgroup...
February 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192762/neural-mass-models-describing-possible-origin-of-the-excessive-beta-oscillations-correlated-with-parkinsonian-state
#20
Chen Liu, Yulin Zhu, Fei Liu, Jiang Wang, Huiyan Li, Bin Deng, Chris Fietkiewicz, Kenneth A Loparo
In Parkinson's disease, the enhanced beta rhythm is closely associated with akinesia/bradykinesia and rigidity. An increase in beta oscillations (12-35 Hz) within the basal ganglia (BG) nuclei does not proliferate throughout the cortico-basal ganglia loop in uniform fashion; rather it can be subdivided into two distinct frequency bands, i.e. the lower beta (12-20 Hz) and upper beta (21-35 Hz). A computational model of the excitatory and inhibitory neural network that focuses on the population properties is proposed to explore the mechanism underlying the pathological beta oscillations...
January 30, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
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