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Basal ganglia

Jianhua Tang, Yuqing Zhen, Ling Yu, Cui Lv, Juan Zheng, Hui Liang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neuropsychological characteristics and changes in CRP, S100B, MBP, HSP-7, and NSE in serum. METHOD: Sixty-six (66) patients treated in our hospital as CCCI group were chosen for our study, and 90 patients with depression were selected as the depression group. The patients in both groups were examined with CT perfusion, depression, anxiety and cognition evaluation. Their serum CRP, S100B, MBP, HSP-70 and NSE levels were detected. Neuropsychological and serum markers characteristics were compared...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Hunter G Moss, Truman R Brown, Donald B Wiest, Dorothea D Jenkins
Persistent oxidative stress depletes reduced glutathione (GSH), an intracellular antioxidant and an important determinant of CNS injury after hypoxia ischemia. We used standard, short echo time Stimulated Echo Acquisition Mode (STEAM) to detect GSH by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in 24 term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), on day of life 5-6, after rewarming from therapeutic hypothermia. MRS demonstrated reliable, consistent GSH of 1·64 ± 0·20 mM in the basal ganglia immediately before intravenous infusion of N-acetylcysteine...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Deok Su Sin, Myoung Hyoun Kim, Soon-Ah Park, Min Cheol Joo, Min Su Kim
Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate predictors of crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD), and the effects of CCD on functional outcomes including motor function, activities of daily living, cognitive function, and ambulation 6 months after onset in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: A total of 74 patients experiencing their first ICH were recruited. If the asymmetric index was more than 10% using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), a diagnosis of CCD was confirmed...
February 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Hang Joon Jo, Kevin W McCairn, William S Gibson, Paola Testini, Cong Zhi Zhao, Krzysztof R Gorny, Joel P Felmlee, Kirk M Welker, Charles D Blaha, Bryan T Klassen, Hoon-Ki Min, Kendall H Lee
Background and objectives: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is a promising therapeutic alternative for treating medically refractory Tourette syndrome (TS). However, few human studies have examined its mechanism of action. Therefore, the networks that mediate the therapeutic effects of thalamic DBS remain poorly understood. Methods: Five participants diagnosed with severe medically refractory TS underwent bilateral thalamic DBS stereotactic surgery. Intraoperative fMRI characterized the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response evoked by thalamic DBS and determined whether the therapeutic effectiveness of thalamic DBS, as assessed using the Modified Rush Video Rating Scale test, would correlate with evoked BOLD responses in motor and limbic cortical and subcortical regions...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Ljiljana Progovac, Natalia Rakhlin, William Angell, Ryan Liddane, Lingfei Tang, Noa Ofen
We address the puzzle of "unity in diversity" in human languages by advocating the (minimal) common denominator for the diverse expressions of transitivity across human languages, consistent with the view that early in language evolution there was a modest beginning for syntax and that this beginning provided the foundation for the further elaboration of syntactic complexity. This study reports the results of a functional MRI experiment investigating differential patterns of brain activation during processing of sentences with minimal versus fuller syntactic structures...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Hana Malikova, Miroslava Burghardtova, Eva Koubska, Vaclav Mandys, Tomas Kozak, Jiri Weichet
Background: Secondary central nervous system lymphoma (SCNSL) is a rare and aggressive disease, which is defined as secondary central nervous system (CNS) involvement in patients with systemic lymphoma. According to previous reports, SCNSL presents mostly with leptomeningeal spread; however, our experience differs. In the present study, we demonstrate the diversity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns in SCNSL. Patients and methods: Initial morphological MRI findings in 21 patients (10 women and 11 men with mean age 62...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Joanna H Cox, Stefano Seri, Andrea E Cavanna
Motor and vocal tics have long been recognised as the core features of Tourette syndrome (TS). However, patients' first-person accounts have consistently reported that these involuntary motor manifestations have specific sensory correlates. These sensory symptoms are often described as feelings of mounting inner tension ("premonitory urges") and are transiently relieved by tic expression. Multimodal hypersensitivity to external stimuli, perceived as triggers and/or exacerbating factors for specific tic symptoms, is also commonly reported by patients with TS...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Tora Bonnevie, Kareem A Zaghloul
How do we decide what we do? This is the essence of action control, the process of selecting the most appropriate response among multiple possible choices. Suboptimal action control can involve a failure to initiate or adapt actions, or conversely it can involve making actions impulsively. There has been an increasing focus on the specific role of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in action control. This has been fueled by the clinical relevance of this basal ganglia nucleus as a target for deep brain stimulation (DBS), primarily in Parkinson's disease but also in obsessive-compulsive disorder...
March 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Karen Müller Smith
GABAergic interneuron loss, maturational delay or imbalance of glutamatergic to GABAergic signaling has been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders including Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In schizophrenia, decreases in parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (Sst) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) RNA have been observed and seem to indicate a failure in maturation in PV and Sst neurons. In Tourette syndrome, which has a high level of comorbid ADHD, reduced numbers of parvalbumin expressing neurons have been observed in the basal ganglia of affected patients...
March 19, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Sae Min Kwon, Kyu-Sun Choi, Hyeong-Joong Yi, Yong Ko, Young-Soo Kim, Koang-Hum Bak, Hyoung-Joon Chun, Young-Jun Lee, Ji Young Lee
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of brain atrophy on the functional outcome of patients with moderate-volume basal ganglia hemorrhage. Of 1003 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, 124 with moderate-volume basal ganglia hemorrhage (hematoma volume of 20-50 mL) were enrolled. The intercaudate distance (ICD) and sylvian fissure ratio (SFR) were used as linear brain atrophy parameters. The patients were divided into groups with favorable and unfavorable outcomes, according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale score, 90 days after symptom onset...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Francisco Magalhães, Kaline Rocha, Victor Marinho, Jéssica Ribeiro, Thomaz Oliveira, Carla Ayres, Thalys Bento, Francisca Leite, Daya Gupta, Victor Hugo Bastos, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Marco Orsini, Silmar Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is described as resulting from dopaminergic cells progressive degeneration, specifically in the substantia nigra pars compacta that influence the voluntary movements control, decision making and time perception. AIM: This review had a goal to update the relation between time perception and Parkinson's Disease. METHODOLOGY: We used the PRISMA methodology for this investigation built guided for subjects dopaminergic dysfunction in the time judgment, pharmacological models with levodopa and new studies on the time perception in Parkinson's Disease...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Sarah Schnitzler, Christian Johannes Hartmann, Stefan Jun Groiss, Lars Wojtecki, Alfons Schnitzler, Jan Vesper, Jan Hirschmann
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether high frequency oscillations (HFOs, >150 Hz), known to occur in basal ganglia nuclei, can be observed in the thalamus. METHODS: We recorded intraoperative local field potentials from the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus in patients with Essential Tremor (N = 16), Parkinsonian Tremor (3), Holmes Tremor (2) and Dystonic Tremor (1) during implantation of electrodes for deep brain stimulation. Recordings were performed with up to five micro/macro-electrodes that were simultaneously advanced to the stereotactic target...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Hanna Cho, Sang Won Seo, Jae Yong Choi, Hye Sun Lee, Young Hoon Ryu, Myung Sik Lee, Duk L Na, Hee Jin Kim, Chul Hyoung Lyoo
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is the most common form of frontotemporal dementia, and tau pathology can be found in 40%-50% of bvFTD patients. In this study, we sought to investigate18 F-flortaucipir-binding patterns and their correlates in clinically diagnosed bvFTD patients by comparing with results for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We enrolled 20 bvFTD, 20 AD, and 20 age-matched healthy subjects who underwent neuropsychological tests, magnetic resonance imaging, and tau positron emission tomography scans with18 F-flortaucipir...
February 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Isaac H Solomon, Kristyn M Spera, Sophia L Ryan, Jeffrey Helgager, Juliana Andrici, Sherif R Zaki, Henrikas Vaitkevicius, Kristoffer E Leon, Michael R Wilson, Joseph L DeRisi, Sophia Koo, Stelios M Smirnakis, Umberto De Girolami
Importance: Powassan virus is a rare but increasingly recognized cause of severe neurological disease. Objective: To highlight the diagnostic challenges and neuropathological findings in a fatal case of Powassan encephalitis caused by deer tick virus (lineage II) in a patient with follicular lymphoma receiving rituximab, with nonspecific anti-GAD65 antibodies, who was initially seen with fever and orchiepididymitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: Comparison of clinical, radiological, histological, and laboratory findings, including immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, antibody detection, and unbiased sequencing assays, in a single case report (first seen in December 2016) at an academic medical center...
March 19, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Vera Spatenkova, Pavlina Krejzarova, Jaroslav Jedlicka
Introduction: Dysphagia is a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia and acute respiratory failure in acute stroke patients. Dysphagia lusoria is caused by compression on the esophagus from artery lusoria, when the aberrant right subclavian artery arises from the descending aortic arch. We present a rare case report of pre-stroke undiagnosed dysphagia lusoria as a cause of aspiration pneumonia with acute respiratory failure in a 67-year-old female patient admitted with a minor left intracerebral hemorrhage in the left basal ganglia...
2018: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
Lei Xiao, Gaurav Chattree, Francisco Garcia Oscos, Mou Cao, Matthew J Wanat, Todd F Roberts
Learning vocal behaviors, like speech and birdsong, is thought to rely on continued performance evaluation. Whether candidate performance evaluation circuits in the brain are sufficient to guide vocal learning is not known. Here, we test the sufficiency of VTA projections to the vocal basal ganglia in singing zebra finches, a songbird species that learns to produce a complex and stereotyped multi-syllabic courtship song during development. We optogenetically manipulate VTA axon terminals in singing birds contingent on how the pitch of an individual song syllable is naturally performed...
March 14, 2018: Neuron
Omid Abbasi, Jan Hirschmann, Lena Storzer, Tolga Esat Özkurt, Saskia Elben, Jan Vesper, Lars Wojtecki, Georg Schmitz, Alfons Schnitzler, Markus Butz
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy to treat motor symptoms in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The mechanisms leading to the high therapeutic effectiveness of DBS are poorly understood so far, but modulation of oscillatory activity is likely to play an important role. Thus, investigating the effect of DBS on cortical oscillatory activity can help clarifying the neurophysiological mechanisms of DBS. Here, we aimed at scrutinizing changes of cortical oscillatory activity by DBS at different frequencies using magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
March 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Wenqian Zhang, Ying Cui, Junling Gao, Ran Li, Xiaohua Jiang, Yanxia Tian, Kaijie Wang, Jianzhong Cui
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of recombinant osteopontin (r-OPN) on apoptotic changes via modulating phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β) signaling in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). MATERIAL AND METHODS We subjected 10-12-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats (n=120) to injection of autologous blood into the right basal ganglia to induce ICH or sham surgery. ICH animals received vehicle administration, r-OPN (4 μL/pup), or r-OPN combined with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin (86 ng/pup) at 30 min after injury...
March 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Philippe Vignaud, Clément Donde, Thouraya Sadki, Emmanuel Poulet, Jérôme Brunelin
Growing evidence has suggested that mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) could have beneficial effects on the acute phase of depression and on the prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence. Despite growing clinical interest, the effects of MBIs on brain functioning in patients with MDD remain unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the changes in brain functioning associated with MBIs in patients with MDD. A systematic search was conducted, and of the 56 articles found, 8 were eligible...
March 13, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Lara M Wierenga, Marieke G N Bos, Elisabeth Schreuders, Ferdi Vd Kamp, Jiska S Peper, Christian K Tamnes, Eveline A Crone
The onset of adolescence in humans is marked by hormonal changes that give rise to secondary sexual characteristics, noted as puberty. It has, however, proven challenging to unravel to what extent pubertal changes may have organizing effects on the brain beyond chronological age, as reported in animal studies. The present longitudinal study aimed to characterize the unique effects of age and puberty on subcortical brain volumes and included three waves of data collection at two-year intervals and 680 T1-weighted MRI scans of 271 participants (54% females) aged between 8 and 29 years old...
March 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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