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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445782/the-immunohistochemical-distribution-of-the-gabaa-receptor-%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-3-%C3%AE-2-3-and-%C3%AE-2-subunits-in-the-human-thalamus
#1
H J Waldvogel, M Munkle, W van Roon-Mom, H Mohler, R L M Faull
The GABAA receptor is the most abundant inhibitory receptor in the human brain and is assembled from a variety of different subunit subtypes which determines their pharmacology and physiology. To determine which GABAA receptor subunit proteins are found in the human thalamus we investigated the distribution of five major GABAA receptor subunits α1, α2, α3, β2,3 and γ2 using immunohistochemical techniques. The α1-, β2,3- and γ2- subunits which combine to form a benzodiazepine sensitive GABAA receptor showed the most intense levels of staining and were the most common subunits found throughout the human thalamus especially in the ventral and posterior nuclear groups...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445538/gene-expression-patterns-associated-with-neurological-disease-in-human-hiv-infection
#2
Pietro Paolo Sanna, Vez Repunte-Canonigo, Eliezer Masliah, Celine Lefebvre
The pathogenesis and nosology of HIV-associated neurological disease (HAND) remain incompletely understood. Here, to provide new insight into the molecular events leading to neurocognitive impairments (NCI) in HIV infection, we analyzed pathway dysregulations in gene expression profiles of HIV-infected patients with or without NCI and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and control subjects. The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) algorithm was used for pathway analyses in conjunction with the Molecular Signatures Database collection of canonical pathways (MSigDb)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445282/a-case-report-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome-manifesting-bilateral-basal-ganglia-lesions
#3
Bing Niu, Zhenzhen Zou, Yuqin Shen, Bingzhen Cao
RATIONALE: Peripheral neurological complications in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) seem the most common, however the involvement of central nervous system (CNS) remains unclear. While abnormalities in pSS revealed by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are usually small discrete hyperintense areas in the white matter on T2-FLAIR weighted MRI, massive brain lesions have been rarely reported, particularly in bilateral basal ganglia. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 51-year-old woman exhibited dizziness, slurred speech and hemiplegia as a manifestation of pSS...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445276/correlation-between-prefrontal-striatal-pathway-impairment-and-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-leukoaraiosis
#4
Shuangkun Wang, Junliang Yuan, Xiaojuan Guo, Leilei Teng, Hua Jiang, Hua Gu, Wenli Hu, Tao Jiang
Our study aimed to investigate the changes of white matter microstructure of cortico-subcortical pathways using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and to explore the relationship between abnormal parameters of DTI and cognitive function underlying in patients with leukoaraiosis (LA).A total of 42 patients with LA and 42 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited from Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University between January 2012 and December 2012. All the subjects underwent scans of conventional magnetic resonance imaging and DTI, and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery was utilized...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445108/manganese-provision-in-parenteral-nutrition-an-update
#5
Callum Livingstone
Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient required for the activity of metalloenzymes. It is an essential component of parenteral nutrition (PN), but requirements are low. Mn status is difficult to assess, with the commonest method being measurement of its concentration in whole blood. This method has limitations, including artifactually high concentrations resulting from contamination of specimen tubes. Mn toxicity is a well-recognized complication of PN, the risk of which increases if there is cholestasis or if the patient has received high doses...
April 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443270/brain-lesions-among-orally-fed-and-gastrostomy-fed-dysphagic-preterm-infants-can-routine-qualitative-or-volumetric-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-predict-feeding-outcomes
#6
Nasser H Kashou, Irfaan A Dar, Mohamed A El-Mahdy, Charles Pluto, Mark Smith, Ish K Gulati, Warren Lo, Sudarshan R Jadcherla
INTRODUCTION: The usefulness of qualitative or quantitative volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early detection of brain structural changes and prediction of adverse outcomes in neonatal illnesses warrants further investigation. Our aim was to correlate certain brain injuries and the brain volume of feeding-related cortical and subcortical regions with feeding method at discharge among preterm dysphagic infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a retrospective observational study design, we examined MRI data among 43 (22 male; born at 31...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443064/loss-of-vagal-sensitivity-to-cholecystokinin-in-rats-born-with-intrauterine-growth-retardation-and-consequence-on-food-intake
#7
Marième Ndjim, Camille Poinsignon, Patricia Parnet, Gwenola Le Dréan
Perinatal malnutrition is associated with low birth weight and an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Modification of food intake (FI) regulation was observed in adult rats born with intrauterine growth retardation induced by maternal dietary protein restriction during gestation and maintained restricted until weaning. Gastrointestinal peptides and particularly cholecystokinin (CCK) play a major role in short-term regulation of FI by relaying digestive signals to the hindbrain via the vagal afferent nerve (VAN)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443061/a-linear-temporal-increase-in-thrombin-activity-and-loss-of-its-receptor-in-mouse-brain-following-ischemic-stroke
#8
Doron Bushi, Efrat Shavit Stein, Valery Golderman, Ekaterina Feingold, Orna Gera, Joab Chapman, David Tanne
BACKGROUND: Brain thrombin activity is increased following acute ischemic stroke and may play a pathogenic role through the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1). In order to better assess these factors, we obtained a novel detailed temporal and spatial profile of thrombin activity in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAo). METHODS: Thrombin activity was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy on coronal slices taken from the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres 2, 5, and 24 h following pMCAo (n = 5, 6, 5 mice, respectively)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443002/to-wait-or-not-to-wait-separate-mechanisms-in-the-oculomotor-circuit-of-basal-ganglia
#9
Masaharu Yasuda, Okihide Hikosaka
We reach a goal immediately after detecting the target, or later by withholding the immediate action. Each time, we choose one of these actions by suppressing the other. How does the brain control these antagonistic actions? We hypothesized that the output of basal ganglia (BG), substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), suppresses antagonistic oculomotor signals by sending strong inhibitory output to superior colliculus (SC). To test this hypothesis, we trained monkeys to perform two kinds of saccade task: Immediate (visually guided) and delayed (visually-withheld but memory-guided) saccade tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442296/an-information-theory-framework-for-dynamic-functional-domain-connectivity
#10
Victor M Vergara, Robyn Miller, Vince Calhoun
BACKGROUND: Dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) analyzes time evolution of coherent activity in the brain. In this technique dynamic changes are considered for the whole brain. This paper proposes an information theory framework to measure information flowing among subsets of functional networks call functional domains. NEW METHOD: Our method aims at estimating bits of information contained and shared among domains. The succession of dynamic functional states is estimated at the domain level...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442211/leigh-like-neuroimaging-features-associated-with-new-biallelic-mutations-in-opa1
#11
Anna Rubegni, Tiziana Pisano, Giacomo Bacci, Alessandra Tessa, Roberta Battini, Elena Procopio, Sabrina Giglio, Rosa Pasquariello, Filippo Maria Santorelli, Renzo Guerrini, Claudia Nesti
Behr syndrome is characterized by the association of early onset optic atrophy, cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal signs, peripheral neuropathy and mental retardation. Recently, some cases were reported to be caused by biallelic mutations in OPA1. We describe an 11-year-old girl (Pt1) and a 7-year-old boy (Pt2) with cognitive delay, ataxic gait and clinical signs suggestive of a peripheral neuropathy, with onset in early infancy. In Pt1 ocular fundus examination revealed optic disk pallor whereas Pt2 exhibited severe optic atrophy...
April 15, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441824/-clinical-and-neuroimaging-features-of-acute-encephalopathy-after-status-epilepticus-in-dravet-syndrome
#12
X J Tian, Y H Zhang, A J Liu, X L Yang, Q Zeng, Z X Yang, J T Ye, X Y Liu, Y W Jiang, X R Wu
Objective: To investigate the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of acute encephalopathy (AE) after status epilepticus (SE) of patients with Dravet syndrome (DS). Method: The clinical data of DS patients who had AE (coma ≥24 h) after SE were retrospectively collected from February 2005 to August 2016 in Peking University First Hospital and SCN1A gene tests were performed.The clinical and neuroimaging features were summarized. Result: Twenty-two patients (9 males and 13 females) with AE were collected among 412 DS patients during follow-up...
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438183/semaphorin-plexin-signaling-influences-early-ventral-telencephalic-development-and-thalamocortical-axon-guidance
#13
Manuela D Mitsogiannis, Graham E Little, Kevin J Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Sensory processing relies on projections from the thalamus to the neocortex being established during development. Information from different sensory modalities reaching the thalamus is segregated into specialized nuclei, whose neurons then send inputs to cognate cortical areas through topographically defined axonal connections. Developing thalamocortical axons (TCAs) normally approach the cortex by extending through the subpallium; here, axonal navigation is aided by distributed guidance cues and discrete cell populations, such as the corridor neurons and the internal capsule (IC) guidepost cells...
April 24, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433974/hypoactive-hypoalert-behaviour-and-thalamic-hypometabolism-due-to-intracranial-hypotension
#14
Seamus Kearney, Peter Flynn, Simon Hughes, Wendy Spence, Mark Owen McCarron
A 47-year-old man presented with a 9-year history of a hypoalert hypoactive behaviour syndrome, caused by the deep brain swelling variant of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Along with apathy with retained cognition, he had stable ataxia, impaired upgaze and episodes of central apnoea. MRI brain showed a sagging brainstem, pointed ventricles and reduced angle between the vein of Galen and the straight sinus, but no meningeal enhancement or subdural collections. A dopamine transporter scan showed preganglionic dopamine receptor deficiency; a fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography scan showed bilateral hypothalamic hypometabolism...
April 22, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433109/pathogenesis-of-wilson-disease
#15
Ivo Florin Scheiber, Radan Brůha, Petr Dušek
Wilson disease is an autosomal-recessive disorder originating from a genetic defect in the copper-transporting ATPase ATP7B that is required for biliary copper secretion and loading of ceruloplasmin with copper. Impaired ATP7B function in Wilson disease results in excessive accumulation of copper in liver, brain, and other tissues. Toxic copper deposits may induce oxidative stress, modify expression of genes, directly inhibit proteins, and impair mitochondrial function, leading to hepatic, neuropsychiatric, renal, musculoskeletal, and other symptoms...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431304/-diabetic-striatopathy-and-ketoacidosis-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-literature
#16
Liza Das, Rimesh Pal, Pinaki Dutta, Anil Bhansali
"Diabetic striatopathy" is characterized by dyskinesias with basal ganglia hyperintensities on neuroimaging. It is usually reported in elderly females with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state and rare in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Here, we report two young males with diabetic ketoacidosis presenting as striatopathy, along with review of literature.
April 9, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427841/localized-shape-abnormalities-in-the-thalamus-and-pallidum-are-associated-with-secondarily-generalized-seizures-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Linglin Yang, Hong Li, Lujia Zhu, Xinfeng Yu, Bo Jin, Cong Chen, Shan Wang, Meiping Ding, Minming Zhang, Zhong Chen, Shuang Wang
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a common type of drug-resistant epilepsy and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (sGTCS) have devastating consequences for patients' safety and quality of life. To probe the mechanism underlying the genesis of sGTCS, we investigated the structural differences between patients with and without sGTCS in a cohort of mTLE with radiologically defined unilateral hippocampal sclerosis. We performed voxel-based morphometric analysis of cortex and vertex-wise shape analysis of subcortical structures (the basal ganglia and thalamus) on MRI of 39 patients (21 with and 18 without sGTCS)...
April 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427358/cortical-laminar-necrosis-in-dengue-encephalitis-a-case-report
#18
Ravindra Kumar Garg, Imran Rizvi, Rajan Ingole, Amita Jain, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar, Dhruv Batra
BACKGROUND: Dengue encephalitis is a rare neurological manifestation of dengue fever. Its clinical presentation is similar to other viral encephalitides and encephalopathy. No single specific finding on magnetic resonance imaging of dengue encephalitis has yet been documented. They are highly variable and atypical. CASE PRESENTATION: A 15-year boy presented with fever, the headache and altered sensorium of 12-day duration. On neurological examination, his Glasgow Coma Scale score was 10 (E3M4V3)...
April 20, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425061/gray-matter-and-white-matter-changes-in-non-demented-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-with-or-without-cognitive-impairment-a-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-tract-based-spatial-statistics-whole-brain-analysis
#19
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Franz Riederer, Ioannis Zalonis, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Georgios Velonakis, Sophia Xirou, Michalis Rentzos, Georgios Argiropoulos, Vasiliki Zouvelou, Thomas Zambelis, Athanasios Athanasakos, Panagiotis Toulas, Konstantinos Vadikolias, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Spyros Kollias, Nikolaos Karandreas, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis
The phenotypic heterogeneity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) implies that patients show structural changes within but also beyond the motor cortex and corticospinal tract and furthermore outside the frontal lobes, even if frank dementia is not detected. The aim of the present study was to investigate both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in non-demented amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with or without cognitive impairment (ALS-motor and ALS-plus, respectively). Nineteen ALS-motor, 31 ALS-plus and 25 healthy controls (HC) underwent 3D-T1-weighted and 30-directional diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3 T MRI scanner...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425060/positron-emission-tomography-assessment-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-rates-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#20
Serge A Mitelman, Marie-Cecile Bralet, M Mehmet Haznedar, Eric Hollander, Lina Shihabuddin, Erin A Hazlett, Monte S Buchsbaum
Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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