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Turja Nandy, Ronald A Coutu, Cristinel Ababei
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas, and environmental pollutant. Its detection and control in residential and industrial environments are necessary in order to avoid potentially severe health problems in humans. In this review paper, we discuss the importance of furthering research in CO sensing technologies for finding the proper material with low-range detection ability in very optimum condition. We build our discussion through the perspective of a cyber-physical system (CPS) modeling framework, because it provides a comprehensive framework to model and develop automated solutions for detection and control of poisonous chemical compounds, such as the CO...
October 13, 2018: Sensors
Andriy O Glushakov, Olena Y Glushakova, Tetyana Y Korol, Sandra A Acosta, Cesar V Borlongan, Alex B Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with long-term disabilities and devastating chronic neurological complications including problems with cognition, motor function, sensory processing, as well as behavioral deficits and mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, personality change and social unsuitability. Clinical data suggest that disruption of the thalamo-cortical system including anatomical and metabolic changes in the thalamus following TBI might be responsible for some chronic neurological deficits following brain trauma...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dallas P Veitch, Michael W Weiner, Paul S Aisen, Laurel A Beckett, Nigel J Cairns, Robert C Green, Danielle Harvey, Clifford R Jack, William Jagust, John C Morris, Ronald C Petersen, Andrew J Saykin, Leslie M Shaw, Arthur W Toga, John Q Trojanowski
INTRODUCTION: The overall goal of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is to validate biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. ADNI is a multisite, longitudinal, observational study that has collected many biomarkers since 2004. Recent publications highlight the multifactorial nature of late-onset AD. We discuss selected topics that provide insights into AD progression and outline how this knowledge may improve clinical trials. METHODS: We used standard methods to identify nearly 600 publications using ADNI data from 2016 and 2017 (listed in Supplementary material and searchable at http://adni...
October 12, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Caroline Ovadia, Anita Lövgren-Sandblom, Lindsey A Edwards, Jacqueline Langedijk, Victoria Geenes, Jenny Chambers, Floria Cheng, Louise Clarke, Shahina Begum, Muna Noori, Charles Pusey, Radhika Padmagirison, Sangita Agarwal, James Peerless, Kate Cheesman, Michael Heneghan, Ronald Oude Elferink, Vishal C Patel, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Catherine Williamson
INTRODUCTION: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is characterised by pruritus and elevated serum bile acids. The pruritus can be severe, and pharmacological options achieve inconsistent symptomatic improvement. Raised bile acids are linearly associated with adverse fetal outcomes, with existing management of limited benefit. We hypothesised that therapeutic plasma exchange removes pruritogens and lowers total bile acid concentrations, and improves symptoms and biochemical abnormalities in severe cases that have not responded to other treatments...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
Zlatan Cizmic, Emmanuel Edusei, Afshin A Anoushiravani, Joseph Zuckerman, Ronald Ruden, Ran Schwarzkopf
Poor outcomes associated with increased perioperative opioid use have led investigators to seek alternative pain management modalities after total joint arthroplasty. Nonpharmacological approaches, such as electroceuticals, have shown promise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of "havening," a specific form of psychosensory therapy, on postoperative pain scores and narcotic consumption. In this prospective, randomized controlled trial, the authors compared 19 patients who underwent psychosensory therapy with 22 patients who served as the control group...
October 15, 2018: Orthopedics
Gregory L Wallace, Clare Llewellyn, Alison Fildes, Angelica Ronald
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been linked with eating- and feeding-related atypicalities, including food neophobia (FN) (refusal to try unfamiliar foods), since its earliest description. Nevertheless, whether associations between ASD traits and FN extend subclinically into the broader population of children and their potential additive health impacts remains unexplored. Objective: We examined ASD-control group differences in FN and ASD trait-FN trait associations, as well as the ability of FN and autistic traits to predict one index of later health-related outcomes [body mass index (BMI)]...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Satomi Tsuboko-Ishii, Ronald S Burton
Copepods of the genus Tigriopus, which are common zooplankton in rocky tide pools, show precopulatory mate-guarding behavior where a male clasps a potential mate to form a pair. While this phenomenon has attracted interest of researchers, methods for its analysis have not been well described. Here we describe procedures for: 1) individual culturing and staging of Tigriopus juveniles and adults, and 2) video-based analysis of their mate-guarding behavior. The culturing method enables experimental control of paring experience of animals as well as the ability to track their development before behavioral tests...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Joseph Donovan, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Le Tien Dung, Darma Imran, Erlina Burhan, Lam Hong Bao Ngoc, Nguyen Duc Bang, Do Chau Giang, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Jeremy Day, Le Thi Phuong Thao, Nguyen Tt Thuong, Nguyen Nang Vien, Ronald B Geskus, Marcel Wolbers, Raph L Hamers, Reinout van Crevel, Mugi Nursaya, Kartika Maharani, Tran Tinh Hien, Kevin Baird, Nguyen Huu Lan, Evelyne Kestelyn, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Guy E Thwaites
Background:  Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Co-infection with HIV increases the risk of developing TBM, complicates treatment, and substantially worsens outcome. Whether corticosteroids confer a survival benefit in HIV-infected patients with TBM remains uncertain. Hepatitis is the most common drug-induced serious adverse event associated with anti-tuberculosis treatment, occurring in 20% of HIV-infected patients. The suggested concentration thresholds for stopping anti-tuberculosis drugs are not evidence-based...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Victor Ssempijja, Larry W Chang, Gertrude Nakigozi, Anthony Ndyanabo, Thomas C Quinn, Frank Cobelens, Maria Wawer, Ronald Gray, David Serwadda, Steven J Reynolds
Background: Viral load (VL) monitoring is standard of care in HIV-infected persons initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We evaluated the predictive value of VL measurements at 6 and 12 months after initiation of firstline ART to estimate the future risk of virologic failure (VF). Methods: HIV-infected persons with VL measurements at 6 and 12 months post-ART initiation and at least 2 additional VL measurements thereafter were assessed for risk of future VF, defined per World Health Organization guidelines...
October 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Rui Zheng, Lei Liu, Shulin Zhang, Chun Zheng, Filiz Bunyak, Ronald Xu, Bin Li, Mingzhai Sun
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. However, 90% of DR caused blindness can be prevented if diagnosed and intervened early. Retinal exudates can be observed at the early stage of DR and can be used as signs for early DR diagnosis. Deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) have been applied for exudate detection with promising results. However, there exist two main challenges when applying the DCNN based methods for exudate detection. One is the very limited number of labeled data available from medical experts, and another is the severely imbalanced distribution of data of different classes...
October 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Juan Chen, Apparao Draksharapu, Davide Angelone, Duenpen Unjaroen, Sandeep K Padamati, Ronald Hage, Marcel Swart, Carole Duboc, Wesley R Browne
The oxidation of the C-H and C=C bonds of hydrocarbons with H2 O2 catalyzed by non-heme iron complexes with pentadentate ligands is widely accepted as involving a reactive FeIV =O species such as [(N4Py)FeIV =O]2+ formed by homolytic cleavage of the O-O bond of an FeIII -OOH intermediate (where N4Py is 1,1-bis(pyridin-2-yl)- N , N -bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)methanamine). We show here that at low H2 O2 concentrations the FeIV =O species formed is detectable in methanol. Furthermore, we show that the decomposition of H2 O2 to water and O2 is an important competing pathway that limits efficiency in the terminal oxidant and indeed dominates reactivity except where only sub-/near-stoichiometric amounts of H2 O2 are present...
October 5, 2018: ACS Catalysis
Adora M W Yau, John McLaughlin, Ronald J Maughan, William Gilmore, Jason J Ashworth, Gethin H Evans
Gastric emptying rate in humans is subject to large individual variability, but previous research on the influence of genetics is scarce. Variation in the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) gene is a plausible candidate gene to partially explain the high variance. This study aimed to investigate the influence of genetic variation in the GLP1R gene on gastric emptying rate of a glucose solution in humans. Forty eight healthy Caucasian males took part in this investigation. Gastric emptying rate of a 6% glucose solution was assessed using the 13C breath test method and a venous blood sample was obtained from each participant...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ana Filipa M Cláudio, Alice Cognigni, Emanuelle L P de Faria, Armando J D Silvestre, Ronald Zirbs, Mara G Freire, Katharina Bica
The global olive oil industry annually generates approximately 750,000-1,500,000 tons of Olea europaea leaves as waste that are typically burned for energy production. Yet, this agricultural by-product is a rich source of oleanolic acid, a high value triterpenic acid with outstanding pharmaceutical and nutraceutical activities. The present study focuses on the extraction of oleanolic acid from dried O. europaea leaves using aqueous solutions of surface-active ionic liquids as alternative solvents. A number of imidazolium-based ionic liquids with variable chain length, different anions and optional side-chain functionalization was synthesized and employed in the extraction of oleanolic acid...
October 2, 2018: Separation and Purification Technology
Florence A Aeschlimann, Shu-Ling Chong, Todd W Lyons, Beate C Beinvogl, Lina Maria Góez-Mogollón, Sally Tan, Ronald M Laxer
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether treatment with biologic response modifying agents during clinical trial study periods increases the risk of serious infections in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature review using Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, and the clinical trial registry was performed up to July 2017. Random effects meta-analyses were used to compare rates of serious infections in children with JIA given biologic agents compared with controls, and the pooled relative risk calculated...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Jarmila Heissigerová, David Callanan, Marc D de Smet, Sunil K Srivastava, Michala Karkanova, Olga Garcia-Garcia, Sibel Kadayifcilar, Yilmaz Ozyazgan, Robert Vitti, Kristine Erickson, Aditya Athanikar, Karen Chu, Namrata Saroj, Preethi A Sundaram, Rafael Varona, Valerie Corp-Dit-Genti, Ronald Buggage, Yenchieh Cheng, Yuhwen Soo, Quan Dong Nguyen
PURPOSE: To assess efficacy and safety of sarilumab, a human anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, for the treatment of noninfectious uveitis (NIU) of posterior segment. DESIGN: Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-eight patients (eyes) with noninfectious intermediate, posterior, or pan-uveitis. METHODS: Eyes were randomized 2:1 to treatment q2 weeks for 16 weeks with subcutaneous sarilumab 200 mg or placebo...
October 11, 2018: Ophthalmology
Lia van der Hoek, Ernst Verschoor, Martin Beer, Dirk Höper, Kerstin Wernike, Marc Van Ranst, Jelle Matthijnssens, Piet Maes, Patricia Sastre, Paloma Rueda, Jan Felix Drexler, John Barr, Thomas Edwards, Paul Millner, Paul Vermeij, Ad de Groof, Volker Thiel, Ronald Dijkman, Franziska Suter-Riniker, Stephen Leib, Roger Koller, Alban Ramette, Olivier Engler, Christian Beuret
The increase of the human population is accompanied by growing numbers of livestock to feed this population, as well as by an increase of human invasion into natural habitats of wild animals. As a result, both animals and humans are becoming progressively vulnerable to infections with known (zoonotic) pathogens, but are also increasingly exposed to novel viruses. Global trade as well as climate changes can contribute to pathogen transmission, e.g. through import of infected vectors or expansion of habitats for arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes and midges...
September 15, 2018: Virus Research
Lyndell L Lim, Diego G Silva, Tiffany C Lo, Ronald S Pimentel, Helmut Butzkueven, Anthony J Hall
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and prevalence of uveitis and its effect on multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity and outcomes in patients with MS who participated in the fingolimod clinical trial program. DESIGN: Analysis of pooled data (N = 27 528) from patients enrolled in fingolimod clinical studies and their extensions. Patients were stratified into four cohorts based on the history of uveitis at baseline and uveitis events during the observation period: no history and no uveitis events ('no uveitis'); history and no uveitis events ('history'); no history and uveitis events ('first event'); history and uveitis events ('recurrent event')...
October 10, 2018: Ophthalmology
Elizabeth R Francis, Fengming Chen, Michal Kidacki, Ronald Miller, Mo'tasem Alkhasoneh, Giampaolo Talamo, Monica Straub, Kristin Klinefelter, Namratha Kodali, Yusheng Zhu
BACKGROUND: Pseudohyperphosphatemia is a rare laboratory finding in MM, especially in patients with smoldering myeloma (SMM) progressing to symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). Laboratorians and clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon and take necessary actions to avoid misdiagnosis. METHODS: Specimens from a monoclonal IgG kappa SMM patient with extremely high serum phosphorus concentrations measured by the Roche phosphomolybdate assay were re-evaluated using serial dilutions and the ORTHO VITROS assay free from monoclonal gammaglobulin interference...
October 10, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Nick F J Hilgersom, Tim Horeman-Franse, Ronald L A W Bleys, Denise Eygendaal, Michel P J van den Bekerom, Gabriëlle J M Tuijthof
BACKGROUND: Elbow arthroscopy is a difficult surgical technique. Objective metrics can be used to improve safe and effective training in elbow arthroscopy. Force exerted on the elbow tissue during arthroscopy can be a measure of safe tissue manipulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the force magnitude and force direction used by experts during arthroscopic elbow navigation in cadaveric specimens and assess their applicability in elbow arthroscopy training. METHODS: Two cadaveric elbows were mounted on a Force Measurement Table (FMT) that allowed 3-dimensional measurements (x-, y-, and z-plane) of the forces exerted on the elbow...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Krista Kinneer, Matt Flynn, Suneetha B Thomas, John Meekin, Reena Varkey, Xiaodong Xiao, Haihong Zhong, Shannon Breen, Paul G Hynes, Ryan Fleming, Binyam Bezabeh, Cui Tracy Chen, Leslie Wetzel, Ruoyan Chen, Nazzareno Dimasi, Yu-Tzu Tai, Kenneth C Anderson, Ronald Herbst, Philip W Howard, Elaine M Hurt, David A Tice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
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