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Kelly M Kreitzburg, Samuel C Fehling, Charles N Landen, Tracy L Gamblin, Rebecca B Vance, Rebecca C Arend, Ashwini A Katre, Patsy G Oliver, Robert C A M van Waardenburg, Ronald D Alvarez, Karina J Yoon
Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in the United States. Although most patients respond to frontline therapy, virtually all patients relapse with chemoresistant disease. This study addresses the hypothesis that carboplatin or tamoxifen + FTY720, a sphingosine analogue, will minimize or circumvent drug-resistance in ovarian cancer cells and tumor models. In vitro data demonstrate that FTY720 sensitized two drug-resistant (A2780. cp20, HeyA8. MDR) and two high-grade serous ovarian cancer cell lines (COV362, CAOV3) to carboplatin, a standard of care for patients with ovarian cancer, and to the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen...
August 15, 2018: Cancer Letters
Sydney P Rudko, Ronald L Reimink, Kelsey Froelich, Michelle A Gordy, Curtis L Blankespoor, Patrick C Hanington
Swimmer's itch (cercarial dermatitis) is a nuisance encountered by bathers and recreational water users worldwide. The condition is caused by the penetration of larval digenean trematodes (cercariae) of the family Schistosomatidae, into the skin, following their release into freshwater from pulmonate snails that serve as the intermediate hosts for these parasites. This study utilizes qPCR-based cercariometry to monitor and quantify cercariae from water samples collected at 5 lakes in northern Michigan. The resolution provided by qPCR facilitated assessment of the environmental and biological drivers of swimmer's itch-causing cercariae concentrations, allowing us to demonstrate that cercarial abundance is greatest at the top of the water column, in locations with prevailing on- and alongshore winds...
August 17, 2018: EcoHealth
Blake W Stamps, Heather S Nunn, Victoria A Petryshyn, Ronald S Oremland, Laurence G Miller, Michael R Rosen, Kohen W Bauer, Katharine J Thompson, Elise M Tookmanian, Anna R Waldeck, Sean J Loyd, Hope A Johnson, Bradley S Stevenson, William M Berelson, Frank A Corsetti, John R Spear
Algal blooms in lakes are often associated with anthropogenic eutrophication; however, they can occur without the human introduction of nutrients to a lake. A rare bloom of the alga Picocystis strain ML occurred in Spring of 2016 at Mono Lake, a hyperalkaline lake in California, which was also at the apex of a multi-year long drought. These conditions presented a unique sampling opportunity to investigate microbiological dynamics and potential metabolic function during an intense natural algal bloom. We conducted a comprehensive molecular analysis along a depth transect near the center of the lake from surface to 25 m depth in June, 2016...
August 17, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jing Li, Xiaoxu Huo, Yun-Feng Cao, Sai-Nan Li, Zuo Du, Ping Shao, Junhong Leng, Cuiping Zhang, Xiao-Yu Sun, Ronald C W Ma, Zhong-Ze Fang, XilinYang
BACKGROUND: Bile acid metabolism plays an important role in metabolism but it is uncertain whether bile acid metabolites in early pregnancy are associated with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: We organized a 1:1 case-control study nested in a prospective cohort of 22,302 pregnant women recruited from 2010 to 2012 in China: 243 women with GDM were matched with 243 non-GDM controls on age (±1 year). Conditional logistic regression and restricted cubic spline were used to examine full-range associations of bile acid metabolites with GDM...
August 14, 2018: EBioMedicine
Miriam Nickel, Alessandro Simonati, David Jacoby, Susanne Lezius, Dirk Kilian, Benjamin Van de Graaf, Odelya E Pagovich, Barry Kosofsky, Kaleb Yohay, Matthew Downs, Peter Slasor, Temitayo Ajayi, Ronald G Crystal, Alfried Kohlschütter, Dolan Sondhi, Angela Schulz
BACKGROUND: Late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2 (CLN2) disease, characterised by rapid psychomotor decline and epilepsy, is caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase 1. We aimed to analyse the characteristics and rate of progression of CLN2 disease in an international cohort of patients. METHODS: We did an observational cohort study using data from two independent, international datasets of patients with untreated genotypically confirmed CLN2 disease: the DEM-CHILD dataset (n=74) and the Weill Cornell Medical College (WCMC) dataset (n=66)...
August 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Anne M Dubin, Neal W Jorgensen, Andrew E Radbill, David J Bradley, Jennifer N Silva, Sabrina Tsao, Ronald J Kanter, Ronn E Tanel, Bhavya Trivedi, Ming-Lon Young, Andreas Pflaumer, Jorge McCormack, Stephen P Seslar
BACKGROUND: Since the onset of pediatric catheter ablation, the pediatric electrophysiology community has reported outcomes via various registries (PAPCA and the Pediatric Catheter Ablation registry (PCAR)). Most recently, a modern era pediatric and congenital ablation registry (MAP-IT) was developed for eventual incorporation into the NCDR IMPACT registry. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe initial findings from the MAP-IT pilot registry, and compare these findings to earlier registries...
August 14, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
David Schneider, Manuel Sancho-Puchades, Goran I Benic, Christoph Hf Hämmerle, Ronald E Jung
The objectives of this study were to compare conventional and computer-assisted implant planning and placement (CAIPP) protocols regarding surgical planning predictability, intraoperative complications, and patient-centered outcomes. Partially edentulous patients (N = 73) were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups: control (C, n = 26), with preoperative planning based on conventional radiography and freehand implant placement; and test 1 (T1, n = 24) and test 2 (T2, n = 23), with two different CAIPP protocols...
2018: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
Rhys Salter, Douglas C Beshore, Steven L Colletti, Liam Evans, Yong Gong, Roy Helmy, Yong Liu, Cheri M Maciolek, Gary Martin, Natasa Pajkovic, Richard Phipps, James Small, Jonathan Steele, Ronald de Vries, Headley Williams, Iain J Martin
1. Metabolite identification is an integral part of both preclinical and clinical drug discovery and development. Synthesis of drug metabolites is often required to support definitive identification, preclinical safety studies and clinical trials. 2. Here we describe the use of microbial biotransformation as a tool to produce drug metabolites, complementing traditional chemical synthesis and other biosynthetic methods such as hepatocytes, liver microsomes, and recombinant human drug metabolizing enzymes. 3...
August 17, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Joseph A Fantuzzo, Ronald P Hart, Jeffrey D Zahn, Zhiping P Pang
Neuropsychiatric disorders have traditionally been difficult to study due to the complexity of the human brain and limited availability of human tissue. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells provide a promising avenue to further our understanding of human disease mechanisms, but traditional 2D cell cultures can only provide a limited view of the neural circuits. To better model complex brain neurocircuitry, compartmentalized culturing systems and 3D organoids have been developed. Early compartmentalized devices demonstrated how neuronal cell bodies can be isolated both physically and chemically from neurites...
August 17, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Ronald L Koretz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Janine Regneri, Barbara Klotz, Brigitta Wilde, Verena A Kottler, Michael Hausmann, Susanne Kneitz, Martina Regensburger, Katja Maurus, Ralph Götz, Yuan Lu, Ronald Walter, Amaury Herpin, Manfred Schartl
In humans the CDKN2A locus encodes two transcripts, INK4A and ARF. Inactivation of either one by mutations or epigenetic changes is a frequent signature of malignant melanoma and one of the most relevant entry points for melanomagenesis. To analyze whether cdkn2ab, the fish ortholog of CDKN2A, has a similar function as its human counterpart, we studied its action in fish models for human melanoma. Overexpression of cdkn2ab in a Xiphophorus melanoma cell line led to decreased proliferation and induction of a senescence-like phenotype, indicating a melanoma-suppressive function analogous to mammals...
August 16, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Maria Elvira Brocca, Luciana Pietranera, Edo Ronald de Kloet, Alejandro Federico De Nicola
Worldwide, raised blood pressure is estimated to affect 35-40% of the adult population and is a main conditioning factor for cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Animal models of hypertension have provided great advances concerning the pathophysiology of human hypertension, as already shown for the deoxycorticosterone-salt treated rat, the Dahl-salt sensitive rat, the Zucker obese rat and the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). SHR has been widely used to study abnormalities of the brain in chronic hypertension...
August 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Gal Mishne, Ronen Talmon, Israel Cohen, Ronald R Coifman, Yuval Kluger
We consider the analysis of high dimensional data given in the form of a matrix with columns consisting of observations and rows consisting of features. Often the data is such that the observations do not reside on a regular grid, and the given order of the features is arbitrary and does not convey a notion of locality. Therefore, traditional transforms and metrics cannot be used for data organization and analysis. In this paper, our goal is to organize the data by defining an appropriate representation and metric such that they respect the smoothness and structure underlying the data...
September 2018: IEEE transactions on signal and information processing over networks
Jaap Akkerdaas, Muriel Totis, Brian Barnett, Erin Bell, Tom Davis, Thomas Edrington, Kevin Glenn, Gerson Graser, Rod Herman, Andre Knulst, Gregory Ladics, Scott McClain, Lars K Poulsen, Rakesh Ranjan, Jean-Baptiste Rascle, Hector Serrano, Dave Speijer, Rong Wang, Lucilia Pereira Mouriès, Annabelle Capt, Ronald van Ree
Background: Susceptibility to pepsin digestion of candidate transgene products is regarded an important parameter in the weight-of-evidence approach for allergenicity risk assessment of genetically modified crops. It has been argued that protocols used for this assessment should better reflect physiological conditions encountered in representative food consumption scenarios. Aim: To evaluate whether inclusion of more physiological conditions, such as sub-optimal and lower pepsin concentrations, in combination with pancreatin digestion, improved the performance of digestibility protocols used in characterization of protein stability...
2018: Clinical and Translational Allergy
Brandon R Rigby, Ronald W Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jill R Crittenden, Efthimios M C Skoulakis, Elliott S Goldstein, Ronald L Davis
MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) transcription factors are found in the brain and muscle of insects and vertebrates and are essential for the differentiation of multiple cell types. We show that in the fruitfly Drosophila , MEF2 is essential for the formation of mushroom bodies in the embryonic brain and for the normal development of wings in the adult. In embryos mutant for mef2 , there is a striking reduction in the number of mushroom body neurons and their axon bundles are not detectable. The onset of MEF2 expression in neurons of the mushroom bodies coincides with their formation in the embryo and, in larvae, expression is restricted to post-mitotic neurons...
August 16, 2018: Biology Open
Neeta L Vora, Ronald J Wapner
Given the rapid advances in genomics, translating new genomic tests effectively into prenatal clinical practice remains challenging. We discuss emerging genetic tests, considerations for their use, how tests should ideally be validated prior to use in clinical practice, and the role of the Federal Drug Administration, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) laboratories, commercial laboratories, insurers, and professional societies such as the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) in the introduction of new prenatal genetic tests...
July 26, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Douglas Y Mah, Lynn A Sleeper, Jane E Crosson, Richard J Czosek, Barry A Love, Brian W McCrindle, Laura Muiño-Mosquera, Aaron K Olson, Thomas A Pilcher, Elif Seda Selamet Tierney, Maully J Shah, Stephanie B Wechsler, Luciana T Young, Ronald V Lacro
Patients with the Marfan syndrome (MFS) are at risk for sudden death. The contribution of arrhythmias is unclear. This study examines the prevalence of arrhythmias in children with the MFS and their relation to clinical and/or echocardiographic factors. Data from the Pediatric Heart Network randomized trial of atenolol versus losartan in MFS were analyzed (6 months to 25 years old, aortic root diameter z-score > 3.0, no previous aortic surgery and/or dissection). Baseline 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring was performed...
July 17, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
David G Godfrey, Ronald L Fellman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Kirsten C Morley, Henry R Kranzler, Natasha Luquin, Andrew Baillie, Marian Shanahan, Ronald Trent, Maree Teesson, Paul S Haber
BACKGROUND: Current treatments for alcohol use disorders have limited efficacy and there is a high degree of variability in treatment response. In a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial, there was a large effect size for topiramate in people homozygous for the GRIK1 rs2832407*C allele. The primary aim of the TOP study is to examine prospectively the therapeutic and cost-effectiveness of topiramate versus an active control (naltrexone) in improving treatment outcomes for alcohol dependence...
August 16, 2018: Trials
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