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Computer AND Tomography

Stuart Linley, Andrew Holmes, Timothy Leshuk, Wanis Nafo, Neil R Thomson, Adil Al-Mayah, Kevin McVey, Kanwartej Sra, Frank X Gu
Targeted nanoparticle binding has become a core feature of experimental pharmaceutical product design which enables more efficient payload delivery and enhances medical imaging by accumulating nanoparticles in specific tissues. Environmental remediation and geophysical monitoring encounter similar challenges which may be addressed in part by the adoption of targeted nanoparticle binding strategies. This study illustrates that engineered nanoparticles can bind to crude oil-impacted silica sand, a selective adsorption driven by active targeting based on an amphiphilic polymer coating...
October 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Liujun Zhao, Jianqing Chen, Jiayong Liu, Lina Elsamaloty, Xiaochen Liu, Jie Li, Hossein Elgafy, Jihui Zhang, Leining Wang
BACKGROUND: Anterior cervical trans-pedicle screw fixation was introduced to overcome some of the disadvantages associated with anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion. In vitro biomechanical studies on the trans-pedicle screw fixation have shown excellent pull-out strength and favorable stability. Comprehensive biomechanical performance studies on the trans-pedicle screw fixation, however, are lacking. METHODS: The control computed tomography images (C2-T2) were obtained from a 22-year-old male volunteer...
October 11, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
An Tang, Amit G Singal, Donald G Mitchell, Elizabeth M Hecht, Kathryn J Fowler, Laura Kulik, Neehar D Parikh, Yuko Kono, Claude B Sirlin
The Liver Imaging Reporting And Data System (LI-RADS) was created with the support of the American College of Radiology (ACR) to standardize the acquisition, interpretation, reporting and data collection for imaging examinations in patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A comprehensive and rigorous system developed by radiologists, hepatologists, pathologists, and surgeons, LI-RADS addresses a wide range of imaging contexts. Currently, four algorithms are available publicly on the ACR website: ultrasound for HCC surveillance, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for HCC diagnosis and tumor staging, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for HCC diagnosis, and CT/MRI for treatment response assessment...
October 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Do Hyun Kim, Won-Soo Yun, Jin-Hyung Shim, Keun-Ho Park, Dami Choi, Moon Il Park, Se Hwan Hwang, Sung Won Kim
Importance: Studies have shown the controllability and porosity of polycaprolactone as well as the use of 3-dimensional (3-D) printing for nasal reconstruction in animal models. The utility of polycaprolactone with 3-D technology in nasal cartilaginous framework reconstruction in humans remains unknown. Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of 3-D printed, bioresorbable polycaprolactone nasal implants. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter clinical trial comprised 20 patients with caudal septal deviations who underwent septoplasty, which used a 3-D printed polycaprolactone mesh, at 2 centers in South Korea...
September 20, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Kelvin Robertson, Laurence A G Marshman, David Plummer, Elena Downs
Importance: Optimal pharmacologic treatment for chronic sciatica (CS) is currently unclear. While gabapentin (GBP) and pregabalin (PGB) are both used to treat CS, equipoise exists. Nevertheless, pharmaceutical regulation authorities typically subsidize one drug over the other. This hinders interchange wherever the favored drug is either ineffective or ill-tolerated. Objective: To assess GBP vs PGB head to head for the treatment of CS. Design, Setting, and Participants: A preplanned interim analysis of a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy crossover trial of PGB vs GBP for management of CS at half the estimated final sample size was performed in a single-center, tertiary referral public hospital...
October 15, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Sarah Feger, Carsten Kendziorra, Steffen Lukas, Ahmed Shaban, Björn Bokelmann, Elke Zimmermann, Matthias Rief, Marc Dewey
PURPOSE: Myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP) allows the assessment of the functional relevance of coronary artery stenosis. This study investigates to what extent the contour sharpness of sequences acquired by dynamic myocardial CTP is influenced by the following noise reduction methods: temporal averaging and adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D (AIDR 3D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dynamic myocardial CT perfusion was conducted in 29 patients at a dose level of 9...
2018: PloS One
Enrico Ferrari, Giulia Piazza, Martin Scoglio, Denis Berdajs, Piergiorgio Tozzi, Francesco Maisano, Ludwig Karl Von Segesser
Transcatheter aortic root repair (TARR) is still not available because of the complex anatomy. In order to develop future TARR technologies, a human-derived bench test model is required before performing animal tests. For this purpose, we aimed to validate computed tomography (CT)-derived 3D-printed root models for TARR technologies. Four human CT-derived roots were printed using different resins: Visijet M3 Crystal, Photopolymer gel SUP705, Formlabs flexible resin, and Materialise HeartPrint Flex. A stress test was performed using a 26-mm balloon-expandable Sapien valve deployed in aortic position...
October 10, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Bital Savir-Baruch, Kevin P Banks, Jonathan E McConathy, Olga P Molchanova-Cook, Ephraim E Parent, Amol Takalkar, Mark Tulchinsky, Jian Q Yu, Rathan M Subramaniam, David M Schuster
The American College of Radiology (ACR) and American College of Nuclear Medicine (ACNM) collaborated to develop a clinical practice document for the performance of fluciclovine positron-emission tomography (PET) / computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of patients with suspected prostate cancer recurrence based on the elevation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (biochemical recurrence) after prior therapy. Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Up to 50% of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer will develop biochemical failure after initial therapy...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Daiwei Han, Marjolein A Heuvelmans, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Mieneke Rook, Monique D Dorrius, Matthijs Oudkerk
While lung cancer screening has been implemented in the United States, it is still under consideration in Europe. So far, lung cancer screening trials in Europe were not able to replicate the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, but they do show a stage shift in the lung cancers that were detected. While eagerly awaiting the final result of the only lung cancer screening trial with sufficient statistical power, the NELSON trial, a number of European countries and medical societies have published recommendations for lung cancer screening using computed tomography...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Parag Sonawane, Arvind Ganpule, Abhishek Singh, Ravindra Sabnis, Mahesh R Desai
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the standard of care and popular among most of the transplant centres across the globe. Objective of this video is to report different vascular injuries, their management during LDNs and propose risk reduction strategies. PATIENT AND METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of all the LDNs performed between January 2011 and March 2016. All donor nephrectomies were performed laparoscopically by transperitoneal route, under ideal operative conditions by expert laparoscopic surgeons and by novice surgeons...
August 5, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Luciano A Favorito
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Dhananjay Radhakrishnan Subramaniam, J Paul Willging, Ephraim J Gutmark, Liran Oren
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform computational simulations of airflow within an anatomically accurate model of an adult trachea in different tracheostomy tube designs. We hypothesized that tracheal airflow in patients is significantly influenced by the geometry and size of these devices. METHODS: The three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the trachea was reconstructed using computed tomography scans for an adult with no history of lung disease. 3D models of four cuffed tube designs, namely Tracoe, Portex, and Shiley Proximal and Distal tracheostomy tubes were generated using geometric modeling software...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Fabio Barbone, Fabiano Barbiero, Ornella Belvedere, Valentina Rosolen, Manuela Giangreco, Tina Zanin, Federica E Pisa, Stefano Meduri, Alessandro Follador, Francesco Grossi, Gianpiero Fasola
Background: We previously showed that low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening in asbestos-exposed workers is effective in detecting lung cancer (LC) at an early stage. Here, we evaluate whether LDCT screening could reduce mortality from LC in such a high-risk population. Methods: Within a cohort of 2433 asbestos-exposed men enrolled in an Occupational Health surveillance programme, we compared mortality between the participants in the ATOM002 study (LDCT-P, N  =  926) and contemporary non-participants (LDCT-NP, N  =  1507)...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Martina C de Knegt, Jesper J Linde, Andreas Fuchs, Michael H C Pham, Andreas K Jensen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Henning Kelbæk, Lars V Køber, Merete Heitmann, Gitte Fornitz, Jens D Hove, Klaus F Kofoed
Aims: Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) allows assessment of morphological features of coronary atherosclerosis. We aimed to test the hypothesis that clinical patient presentation is associated with distinct morphological features of coronary atherosclerosis. Methods and results: A total of 1652 participants, representing a spectrum of clinical risk profiles [787 asymptomatic individuals from the general population, 468 patients with acute chest pain without acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and 397 patients with acute chest pain and ACS], underwent multidetector computed tomography...
October 15, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Francesco F Faletra, Laura A Leo, Vera L Paiocchi, Susanne A Schlossbauer, Maria G Borruso, Giovanni Pedrazzini, Tiziano Moccetti, Siew Y Ho
Interest on tricuspid valve (TV) (and hence in TV anatomy) has increased in the last two decades with the awareness that functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) is an insidious disease progressively leading to untreatable right heart failure and eventually to death. Medical therapy may alleviate symptoms, while surgical therapy may improve outcome but it is associated with high mortality and recurrence of significant regurgitation. Nowadays, an increasing number of left valve diseases are successfully treated through a percutaneous transcatheter approach...
October 15, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Hyun Jung Koo, Joon-Won Kang, Sang Young Oh, Dae-Hee Kim, Jong-Min Song, Duk-Hyun Kang, Jae-Kwan Song, Joon Bum Kim, Sung-Ho Jung, Suk Jung Choo, Cheol Hyun Chung, Jae Won Lee, Dong Hyun Yang
Aims: We compared the diagnostic accuracy of cardiac computed tomography (CT) with that of echocardiography for the detection of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) on a scallop-by-scallop basis, using surgical inspection as a reference standard. Methods and results: This retrospective study included 145 patients (mean age 53 years; 94 men) who underwent surgical MVP repair or replacement and preoperative cardiac CT between May 2011 and October 2013. The prolapsed scallop was localized using cardiac CT and echocardiography according to the Carpentier method (anterior leaflet: from lateral to medial A1, A2, A3; posterior leaflet: P1, P2, P3)...
October 15, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Shaimaa Bakr, Olivier Gevaert, Sebastian Echegaray, Kelsey Ayers, Mu Zhou, Majid Shafiq, Hong Zheng, Jalen Anthony Benson, Weiruo Zhang, Ann N C Leung, Michael Kadoch, Chuong D Hoang, Joseph Shrager, Andrew Quon, Daniel L Rubin, Sylvia K Plevritis, Sandy Napel
Medical image biomarkers of cancer promise improvements in patient care through advances in precision medicine. Compared to genomic biomarkers, image biomarkers provide the advantages of being non-invasive, and characterizing a heterogeneous tumor in its entirety, as opposed to limited tissue available via biopsy. We developed a unique radiogenomic dataset from a Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) cohort of 211 subjects. The dataset comprises Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/CT images, semantic annotations of the tumors as observed on the medical images using a controlled vocabulary, and segmentation maps of tumors in the CT scans...
October 16, 2018: Scientific Data
Dejan Knez, Janez Mohar, Robert J Cirman, Boštjan Likar, Franjo Pernuš, Tomaž Vrtovec
STUDY DESIGN: A comparison among preoperative pedicle screw placement plans, obtained from computed tomography (CT) images manually by two spine surgeons and automatically by a computer-assisted method. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the manual and computer-assisted approach to pedicle screw placement planning in terms of the inter- and intraobserver variability. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Several methods for computer-assisted pedicle screw placement planning have been proposed; however, a systematic variability analysis against manual planning has not been performed yet...
November 1, 2018: Spine
İrfan Çelebi, Gülpembe Bozkurt, Abdullah Soydan Mahmutoğlu, Umman Guliyev
OBJECTIVES: To describe and quantify computed tomography (CT) findings of auto-evacuated (spontaneously drained) secondary acquired cholesteatoma (SAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study included 69 patients with intermittent ear discharge diagnosed with SAC by autoscopy or automicroscopy who were surgically treated. Three independent radiologists measured the medial and lateral attic distance on coronal and axial planes using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in 75 ear CTs from 69 patients with intraoperatively verified diagnoses of pars flaccida cholesteatoma (n=36), pars tensa cholesteatoma (n=24), and auto-atticotomy or automastoidectomy (n=15) and compared them with contralateral healthy ears...
October 13, 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Alan M Garber, Tej D Azad, Anjali Dixit, Monica Farid, Edward Sung, Daniel Vail, Jay Bhattacharya
OBJECTIVES: Low back pain (LBP) is a common and expensive clinical problem, resulting in tens of billions of dollars of direct medical expenditures in the United States each year. Although expensive imaging tests are commonly used, they do not improve outcomes when used in the initial management of idiopathic LBP. We estimated 1-year medical costs associated with early imaging of Medicare beneficiaries with idiopathic LBP. STUDY DESIGN: We used a 5% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service enrollees between 2006 and 2010 to determine 12-month costs following a diagnosis of idiopathic LBP...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
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