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Computer AND Tomography

Yuhuan Chen, Donghong Wei, Dou Li, Zhentang Liu, Zhijun Hu, Michelle Li, Yongjun Jia, Yong Yu, Dong Han, Ranzhi Ren, Nan Yu, Taiping He
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate radiation dose and image quality of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA) for patients with high heart rate variability (HRv) using 16-cm wide-detector CT scanner. METHODS: One hundred sixty-six patients with uncontrolled heart rate underwent CCTA on a 16-cm wide-detector CT system and were divided into 2 groups based on their HRv for analysis: group A (n = 95, HRv ≤10 beats/min [bpm]) and group B (n = 71, HRv >10 bpm)...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Weibing Wang, Jinbai Huang, Ai Wang, Yun Li, Jie Peng, Xinjie Hu, Yingjun Liu, Haiyan Zhang, Xiaohu Li
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether spectral computed tomography (CT) plus adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) could improve imaging quality of computed tomography portal venography (CTPV). METHODS: Sixty-four patients underwent CTPV, with CT number of portal vein (PV) less than 150 HU in portal phase, were divided into 2 groups A (n = 31), using standard 120-kVp protocol. group B (n = 33), using spectral CT protocol. Standard 120-kVp images were reconstructed with 40% ASIR, and monochromatic images at 60 keV were reconstructed with the following 4 ASIR percentages: 0%, 20%, 40%, and 60%...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Temphon Kruamak, Rachael Edwards, Stephanie Cheng, Daniel S Hippe, Ganesh Raghu, Sudhakar N J Pipavath
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to assess the ability of chest digital tomosynthesis (DTS) for detection of interstitial lung disease (ILD) compared with conventional chest radiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 78 patients (60 males, 18 females, mean age = 53.05 years, range, 19-83 years) who underwent chest DTS for a 5-year interval (January 1, 2009-December 31, 2014). Of the 78 patients, 33 (42.3%) carried a diagnosis of ILD and 45 (57...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Carsten Schroeder, Jane M Chung, Andrew B Mitchell, Thomas A Dillard, Alessandro G Radaelli, Stephanie Schampaert
We describe the integration of the hybrid operation room cone-beam computed tomography (CT) scan technology into the practice of general thoracic surgery. The combination of the following three techniques: (1) cone-beam CT scan augmented navigational bronchoscopy, (2) cone-beam CT-guided percutaneous biopsy and/or fiducial placement, and (3) fiducial or image-guided video-assisted thoracic surgery resection, into a single-stage, single-provider procedure allows for diagnosis and treatment in one setting. Rapid on-site evaluation of cytological or pathology specimens is key to this "all-in-one" approach...
August 17, 2018: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
Jennifer H Shepherd, Daniel Howard, Amie K Waller, Holly Rebecca Foster, Annett Muller, Thomas Moreau, Amanda L Evans, Meera Arumugam, Guénaëlle Bouët Chalon, Eleonora Vriend, Natalia Davidenko, Cedric Ghevaert, Serena M Best, Ruth E Cameron
Platelet transfusions are a key treatment option for a range of life threatening conditions including cancer, chemotherapy and surgery. Efficient ex vivo systems to generate donor independent platelets in clinically relevant numbers could provide a useful substitute. Large quantities of megakaryocytes (MKs) can be produced from human pluripotent stem cells, but in 2D culture the ratio of platelets harvested from MK cells has been limited and restricts production rate. The development of biomaterial cell supports that replicate vital hematopoietic micro-environment cues are one strategy that may increase in vitro platelet production rates from iPS derived Megakaryocyte cells...
August 8, 2018: Biomaterials
Costanza Scopetani, Alessandra Cincinelli, Tania Martellini, Emilia Lombardini, Alice Ciofini, Alessia Fortunati, Vittorio Pasquali, Samuele Ciattini, Alberto Ugolini
The presence and accumulation of plastic waste into the marine environment are well known environmental issues. Microplastics (MPs) end up in sea waters and, due to their hydrophobicity and high surface/volume ratio, POPs tend to sorb and accumulate to their surface. The supralittoral amphipod Talitrus saltator (T. saltator) was selected to study the role of MPs in the transfer of organic pollutants and to investigate if ingested MPs could either transfer contaminants to biota or clean it adsorbing pollutants taken from the diet...
July 23, 2018: Environmental Research
Kai Joachim Borm, Julia Voppichler, Mathias Düsberg, Markus Oechsner, Tibor Vag, Wolfgang Weber, Stephanie Elisabeth Combs, Marciana Nona Duma
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to localize loco-regional lymph node metastases using positron emission tomography with fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) datasets in a large cohort of patients and to evaluate the existing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical target volume (CTV) and the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) CTV contouring guidelines. METHODS: 235 patients with 580 FDG/PET-CT positive loco-regional lymph node metastases were included in our analysis...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Brian J Christensen, Earl Peter Park, Steven Nelson, Brett J King
PURPOSE: Pain and swelling from a necrotic tooth is a common complaint in emergency departments. These patients impose substantial burdens on hospital budgets and provider time. The initial triage of odontogenic infections can be difficult without advanced knowledge and training in head and neck anatomy and odontogenic disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency with which emergency medicine physicians correctly determine the need for computed tomography (CT) and specialist consultation in patients with odontogenic infections...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Yongrong Ji, Changxin Lai, Lixu Gu, Xianqun Fan
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This study was to establish a three-dimensional (3D) coordinate system and to study the normal dimensions of intra-orbital structures in Chinese adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty-five adult Chinese were selected from patients who had undergone cranio-facial computed tomography scans with diagnosis other than orbital or ocular abnormality. An orbital 3D coordinate system was built on the basis of the scans. Morphological variables of intra-orbital structures were measured in this coordinate system...
August 17, 2018: Current Eye Research
Simone Mastrogiacomo, Alicja E Kownacka, Weiqiang Dou, Benjamin P Burke, Rafael T M de Rosales, Arend Heerschap, John A Jansen, Stephen J Archibald, X Frank Walboomers
Direct in vivo monitoring of bioconstructs using noninvasive imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) is not possible for many materials. Calcium phosphate-based composites (CPCs) that are applicable to bone regeneration are an example where the materials have poor MRI and CT contrast; hence, they are challenging to detect in vivo. In this study, a CPC construct is designed with gadolinium-oxide nanoparticles incorporated to act as an MRI/CT multimodal contrast agent...
August 17, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Chang-Hee Lee, Ji-Hoon Jung, Seung Hyun Son, Chae Moon Hong, Ju Hye Jeong, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
OBJECTIVE: Post I-131 ablation single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT can show radioactive iodine (RAI)-avid cervical metastatic lymph nodes (mLN) in differentiated thyroid cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of RAI-avid mLN on post I-131 ablation SPECT/CT and the risk factors related to metastasis among patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in the low- or intermediate-risk groups. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Among 339 patients with PTC who underwent total thyroidectomy followed by I-131 ablation, 292 (228 women, 64 men) belonging to the low- or intermediate-risk groups before I-131 ablation, and with sufficient clinical follow-up data were enrolled...
2018: PloS One
Vanessa R Kay, Matthew T Ratsep, Lindsay S Cahill, Andrew F Hickman, Bruno Zavan, Margaret E Newport, Jacob Ellegood, Christine L Laliberte, James N Reynolds, Peter Carmeliet, Chandrakant Tayade, John G Sled, B Anne Croy
Preeclampsia, a hypertensive syndrome occurring in 3-5% of human pregnancies, has lifelong health consequences for the fetus. Cognitive ability throughout life is altered and adult stroke risk is increased in these offspring. One potential etiological factor for altered brain development is low concentrations of pro-angiogenic placental growth factor (PGF). Impaired PGF production may promote an anti-angiogenic fetal environment during neural and cerebrovascular development. We previously reported delayed vascularization of the hindbrain, altered retinal vascular organization and less connectivity in the circle of Willis in Pgf-/- mice...
August 17, 2018: Physiological Genomics
M J Riblett, G E Christensen, E Weiss, G D Hugo
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of using a purely data-driven, a posteriori respiratory motion modeling and reconstruction compensation method to improve 4D-CBCT image quality under clinically relevant image acquisition conditions. METHODS: Evaluated workflows that utilized a combination of groupwise deformable image registration and motion-compensated image reconstruction algorithms. Groupwise registration is an approach that simultaneously registers all temporal frames of a 4D image to a common reference instead of one at a time so as to minimize the influence of any individual time point on the global smoothness or accuracy of the resulting deformation model...
August 17, 2018: Medical Physics
Tao Yu, Can Ruan, Hecong Liu, Weiwei Cai, Xingcai Lu
Computed tomography of a chemiluminescence (CTC) system was implemented to provide time-resolved 3D measurements of an unconfined turbulent swirl flame. This system was designed in a cost-effective manner and employed three customized view registration assemblies to simultaneously capture eight projections of the target flame at a repetition rate of 4 kHz. Both time-resolved and time-averaged tomographic reconstructions were performed based on data acquired for a duration of 250 ms. Both qualitative and quantitative validations suggested the correctness of our implementation...
July 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Hai Zhang, Stefano Sfarra, Ahmad Osman, Fabrizio Sarasini, Udo Netzelmann, Stefano Perilli, Clemente Ibarra-Castanedo, Xavier P V Maldague
In this paper, eddy current pulsed thermography was used to evaluate ballistic impact damages in basalt-carbon hybrid fiber-reinforced polymer composite laminates for the first time, to our knowledge. In particular, different hybrid structures including intercalated stacking and sandwich-like sequences were used. Pulsed phase thermography, wavelet transform, principle component thermography, and partial least-squares thermography were used to process the thermographic data. Ultrasound C-scan testing and X-ray computed tomography were also performed for comparative purposes...
June 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Savio G Barreto, Benjamin Loveday, John A Windsor, Sanjay Pandanaboyana
BACKGROUND: This systematic review aimed to determine the accuracy of imaging modalities to predict resectability and R0 resection for borderline resectable (BRPC) or locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) after neoadjuvant therapy (NAT). METHODS: A systematic search of major databases was performed in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RESULTS: Fifteen studies identified 995 patients of which 683 had BRPC and 312 LAPC...
August 17, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Tianyi Feng, Brian Paterson, Olga Panagiotopoulou, Kathryn Green, Karine Mardon, Stephen Johnston
Although artificial insemination has been used for decades in Penaeus monodon aquaculture, the interaction of male and female external genitalia during spermatophore transfer has not been fully documented. As a result, studying the functional anatomy of this process may help to better refine the insemination technique. The sexual act in penaeoid prawns is virtually impossible to observe directly; as a result, this study aimed to describe the functional anatomy and interaction of external genitalia, such as the petasma, appendices masculinae and genital papillae of the male, with that of the thelycum and genital lobes of the female, using a combination of micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Morphology
José-Fernando Val-Bernal, María Martino, Elena Yllera, Félix Romay, María Sánchez-Ares, Ihab Abdulkader Nallib
OBJECTIVE: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive technique for investigating hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. This study reports eleven cases in which EBUS-TBNA was used to assess mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes for the presence of metastatic melanoma. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective study was performed of all patients who had a history of melanoma and underwent EBUS-TBNA to assess hilar or mediastinal lymphadenopathy for the presence of metastatic melanoma...
August 17, 2018: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
J Parrish, K S Lim, K Baer, G J Hooper, T B F Woodfield
Traditional 2D monolayer cell cultures and submillimeter 3D tissue construct cultures used widely in tissue engineering are limited in their ability to extrapolate experimental data to predict in vivo responses due to their simplistic organization and lack of stimuli. The rise of biofabrication and bioreactor technologies has sought to address this through the development of techniques to spatially organize components of a tissue construct, and devices to supply these tissue constructs with an increasingly in vivo-like environment...
August 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Brigitte Katharina Ziegelmüller, Bernadett Szabados, Annabel Spek, Jozefina Casuscelli, Christian Stief, Michael Staehler
INTRODUCTION: Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare necrotizing infection of the kidney with a poor prognosis. If it occurs in patients with a reduced general condition, this infection is life threatening. Early diagnosis is made by computed tomography. Treatment options are drainage and intensive care or immediate nephrectomy in severe cases. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 73-year-old woman in a poor general condition presented with a fulminant urosepsis. Computed tomography revealed an impressive abscess formation of the right kidney with free air retro and intraperitoneal...
August 2018: Urologia
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