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Viral Fever

Cleetus Cherupanakkal, Daisy Mariya Samadanam, Krishna Raja Muthuraman, Surya Ramesh, Amrit Venkatesan, Agiesh Kumar Balakrishna Pillai, Soundravally Rajendiran
Interplay between the apoptosis, DNA damage, and oxidative stress as a host response to dengue viral infections remains unclear. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 60 dengue infected patients, 20 patients with febrile illness other than dengue (OFI) and 10 non-febrile illness (NFI) patients. DNA damage in the PBMCs was assessed using single cell gel electrophoresis and stages of apoptosis underwent by the PBMCs were studied by Annexin-PI staining using flow cytometry. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde levels were estimated using thiobarbituric acid assay...
August 18, 2018: IUBMB Life
Michael Povey, Remon Abu-Elyazeed, Gregory Adams, Anitta Ahonen, Carmen Baccarini, Andrea Berry, Stephane Carryn, Archana Chatterjee, Nan-Chang Chiu, Christophe Dessart, Clemente Diaz-Perez, Byron Haney, Ouzama Henry, Li-Min Huang, Robert Jeanfreau, Nicola Klein, Michael Leonardi, Ming-Chih Lin, Marita Paassilta, Kwabena Sarpong, Peter Silas, Jerry Twiggs, Timo Vesikari, Leonard Weiner, Tsung Zu Wu
The titer of live attenuated viral vaccines, such as MMR vaccines, varies between batches and over the shelf-life of a batch, with the highest titer expected at batch release. As higher titers may theoretically lead to increased reactogenicity, we compared the safety profile of an upper-range release titer MMR-RIT lot with commercial MMR II lots in a phase III, randomized, controlled study (NCT02184572). We vaccinated 1736 children with MMR-RIT (N = 1164) or MMR II (N = 572), both administered as first doses with varicella, hepatitis A, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines at 12-15 months of age...
August 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Keiko Oda, Hidekazu Nishimura, Ohshi Watanabe, Toru Kubo, Shizuo Shindo
A 1-year-old boy was infected with parainfluenza virus type 4a (PIV4a) during an influenza epidemic in January 2016. His body temperature was 38.2 °C on day 1 of the illness followed by an intermittent phase of 36.5 °C on days 2 and 3, and it rose again on day 3 and peaked at 39.6 °C on day 4, of which the fever pattern was reminiscent of an influenza case with biphasic fever. However, results of rapid influenza virus (IFV) antigen tests performed at the first clinical visit and during the second fever phase on day 4 were both negative...
July 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Jayaprasad Narayanapillai, Suresh Madhavan, B Hosgoudru Shankaragouda
Case presentation: A 32-year-old woman with no other medical history presented with 1-month history of fever, weight loss and dyspnoea. On examination she had elevated jugular venous pressure and tachycardia. Her chest X-ray posterioranterior view (figure 1A) showed a rounded mass in the right cardiophrenic angle obscuring the right atrial margin, producing a 'silhouette' sign. Echocardiography showed a large cystic mass with thickened pericardium, lateral to the right atrium, causing right atrial compression (figure 1B)...
2018: Heart Asia
Hobart Lee, Sara Halverson, Ngozi Ezinwa
Mosquito-borne diseases have become more common as previously geographically isolated diseases have spread globally. Chikungunya, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, West Nile, yellow fever, and Zika are a few of the common and emerging viral diseases spread by mosquitoes. A thorough patient history, physical, and knowledge of diagnostic testing based on symptom duration is important to make a quick and accurate diagnosis. Because the treatment for many of these diseases is supportive, the emphasis is on reducing risk and spread of infection...
September 2018: Primary Care
Jennifer Tran, Margie Danchin, Andrew C Steer, Marie Pirotta
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of general practitioners (GPs) in Victoria, Australia in the management of sore throat. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 100 GPs using a questionnaire with the same four case vignettes used in a 1994 Victorian study. RESULTS: Eighty-nine per cent of respondents indicated they would prescribe antibiotics to a child with a short history of sore throat and fever, with examination findings of fever, tonsillar pus and tender cervical lymph nodes...
July 2018: Australian journal of general practice
Sri Masyeni, Benediktus Yohan, M Biomed, I Ketut Agus Somia, Khin S A Myint, R Tedjo Sasmono
Background: Dengue, an acute febrile illness caused by infection with dengue virus (DENV), is endemic in Bali, Indonesia. As one of the world's most popular tourist destinations, Bali is regularly visited by domestic and international travellers, who are prone to infection by endemic pathogens, including DENV. Currently, limited data are available on the characteristics of dengue in travellers visiting Bali. Information on the epidemiology and virological aspects of dengue in these tourists is important to gain a better understanding of the dengue disease in international travellers...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Sudheer Gupta, Ankita Agarwal, Debasis Biswas
Dengue is a pandemic-prone viral disease which is endemic in more than 100 countries and which puts half of the world's population at risk. While the disease presents as subclinical infection or mild fever in the majority of cases, approximately a quarter of the infected individuals experience severe forms of disease like dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome that cause significant rates of mortality and morbidity. The pathogenesis of this differential outcome of infection is determined by a complex interplay of factors associated with the virus, vector, and host; much of which is not completely understood...
August 16, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
Chao Shan, Xuping Xie, Jing Zou, Roland Züst, Bo Zhang, Rebecca Ambrose, Jason Mackenzie, Katja Fink, Pei-Yong Shi
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent mosquito-transmitted viral pathogen in humans. The recently licensed dengue vaccine has major weaknesses. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop improved dengue vaccines. Here we report a virion assembly-defective DENV as a novel vaccine platform. DENV containing an amino acid deletion (K188) in nonstructural protein 2A (NS2A) is fully competent in viral RNA replication, but is completely defective in virion assembly. When trans complemented with wild-type NS2A protein, the virion assembly defect could be rescued, generating pseudoinfectious virus (PIVNS2A ) that can initiate single-round infection...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
Michael E Lindquist, Xiankun Zeng, Louis A Altamura, Sharon P Daye, Korey L Delp, Candace Blancett, Kayla M Coffin, Jeffrey W Koehler, Susan Coyne, Charles J Shoemaker, Aura R Garrison, Joseph W Golden
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) can cause severe hepatic injury in humans. However, the mechanism(s) causing this damage are poorly characterized. CCHFV produces an acute disease, including liver damage, in mice lacking type I interferon signaling (IFN-I) either due to STAT-1 gene deletion or disruption of the IFN-I receptor 1 gene. Here, we explored CCHFV-induced liver pathogenesis in mice using an antibody to disrupt IFN-I signaling. When IFN-I blockade was induced within 24 h post-exposure to CCHFV, mice developed severe disease with greater than 95% mortality by six days post-exposure...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
Młgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P. Czarkowski
OBJECTIVE OF THE ARTICLE: This is for the year 2016 subsequent annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland as part of the Epidemiological Chronicle of the Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to summarize the collective incidence of infectious diseases and to indicate potential threats to the health of populations from communicable diseases occurring in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The basic source of epidemiological information for this summary is a summary of data from reports of the State Sanitary Inspection, contained in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2016” and “Protective Vaccination in Poland in 2016” (1, 2)...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Kylie Zirbel, Bradley Eastmond, Barry W Alto
The environmental conditions experienced by parents can influence offspring phenotype along with the conditions experienced by offspring. These parental effects are clear in organisms that display parental care and are less clear in other organisms. Here, we consider effects of parental and offspring larval nutrition on offspring development time, survivorship and infection with dengue virus in Aedes aegypti , the mosquito vector of dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika. Parents were raised on either high or low larval detritus inputs with subsequent offspring being divided into two groups, one receiving high nutrients and the other low...
July 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Francesco Chiappelli, Nicole Balenton, Allen Khakshooy
Novel developments in bioinformation, bioinformatics and biostatistics, including artificial intelligence (AI), play a timely and critical role in translational care. Case in point, the extent to which viral immune surveillance is regulated by immune cells and soluble factors, and by non-immune factors informs the administration of health care. The events by which health is regained following viral infection is an allostatic process, which can be modeled using Hilbert's and Volterra's mathematical biology criteria, and biostatistical methodologies such as linear multiple regression...
2018: Bioinformation
Alfredo Iardino, Zain Amar, Yasir Ahmed
Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening condition, which is usually triggered by autoimmune disorders, viral infections and malignancy, like lymphomas. We present a 60-year-old Hispanic woman with a medical history of hypertension and systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with fever, generalised weakness and shortness of breath for 3 weeks. She was hypotensive on presentation, and a CT scan of abdomen/chest showed multiple irregular hepatic and splenic hypodense lesions. A liver biopsy revealed Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) with positive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) staining that was later confirmed with high serum EBV DNA levels...
August 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Mesfin Mengesha Tsegaye, Berhane Beyene, Workenesh Ayele, Almaz Abebe, Israel Tareke, Amadou Sall, Sergio Yactayo, Messeret E Shibeshi, Erin Staples, Desalegn Belay, Abrham Lilay, Abebe Alemu, Emana Alemu, Adugna Kume, Alemnesh H/Mariam, Olivier Ronveaux, Mesfin Tefera, Woubayehu Kassa, Abyot Bekele Weyessa, Daddi Jima, Amha Kebede, Adamu Tayachew
BACKGROUND: Yellow fever (YF) is a viral hemorrhagic fever, endemic in the tropical forests of Africa and Central and South America. The disease is transmitted by mosquitoes infected with the yellow fever virus (YFV). Ethiopia was affected by the largest YF outbreak since the vaccination era during 1960-1962. The recent YF outbreak occurred in 2013 in Southern part of the country. The current survey of was carried out to determine the YF seroprevalence so as to make recommendations from YF prevention and control in Ethiopia...
August 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Oliver Lung, Mathew Fisher, Anthony Erickson, Charles Nfon, Aruna Ambagala
Differential diagnosis of diseases that share common clinical signs typically requires the performance of multiple independent diagnostic tests to confirm diagnosis. Diagnostic tests that can detect and discriminate between multiple differential pathogens in a single reaction may expedite, reduce costs and streamline the diagnostic testing workflow. Livestock hemorrhagic diseases like classical swine fever (CSF), African swine fever (ASF), and vesicular diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), vesicular stomatitis (VS) and swine vesicular disease (SVD) can have an enormous impact on the livestock industry and economy of countries that were previously free of the diseases...
August 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Masayuki Saijo
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel phlebovirus, was reported to be endemic to central and northeastern PR China and was also to be endemic to South Korea and western Japan. SFTS is an emerging viral infection, which should be categorized as a viral hemorrhagic fever disease as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is caused by CCHF virus. SFTS is a tick-borne viral infection. SFTSV is maintained between several species of ticks and wild and domestic animals in nature...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Robert Stass, Serban L Ilca, Juha T Huiskonen
Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is widely used to determine high-resolution structures of symmetric virus capsids. The method holds promise for extending studies beyond purified capsids and their symmetric protein shells. The non-symmetric genome component has been addressed in dsRNA cypoviruses and ssRNA bacteriophages Qβ and MS2. The structure of human herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids has been determined within intact virions to resolve capsid-tegument interactions. Electron tomography under cryogenic conditions (cryo-ET), has allowed resolving an early membrane fusion intermediate of Rift Valley fever virus...
August 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Erica Ollmann Saphire, Sharon L Schendel, Marnie L Fusco, Karthik Gangavarapu, Bronwyn M Gunn, Anna Z Wec, Peter J Halfmann, Jennifer M Brannan, Andrew S Herbert, Xiangguo Qiu, Kshitij Wagh, Shihua He, Elena E Giorgi, James Theiler, Kathleen B J Pommert, Tyler B Krause, Hannah L Turner, Charles D Murin, Jesper Pallesen, Edgar Davidson, Rafi Ahmed, M Javad Aman, Alexander Bukreyev, Dennis R Burton, James E Crowe, Carl W Davis, George Georgiou, Florian Krammer, Christos A Kyratsous, Jonathan R Lai, Cory Nykiforuk, Michael H Pauly, Pramila Rijal, Ayato Takada, Alain R Townsend, Viktor Volchkov, Laura M Walker, Cheng-I Wang, Larry Zeitlin, Benjamin J Doranz, Andrew B Ward, Bette Korber, Gary P Kobinger, Kristian G Andersen, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Galit Alter, Kartik Chandran, John M Dye
Antibodies are promising post-exposure therapies against emerging viruses, but which antibody features and in vitro assays best forecast protection are unclear. Our international consortium systematically evaluated antibodies against Ebola virus (EBOV) using multidisciplinary assays. For each antibody, we evaluated epitopes recognized on the viral surface glycoprotein (GP) and secreted glycoprotein (sGP), readouts of multiple neutralization assays, fraction of virions left un-neutralized, glycan structures, phagocytic and natural killer cell functions elicited, and in vivo protection in a mouse challenge model...
August 9, 2018: Cell
Koju Kamoi, Manabu Mochizuki, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
RATIONALE: Dengue fever is a notable emerging infectious disease that is now seen worldwide, with an estimated incidence of approximately 390 million cases per year. Although ocular complications are uncommon among dengue fever-infected patients, caution is needed to prevent vision loss. Here we report a potentially serious sight-threatening complication of dengue fever, dengue fever-associated necrotizing scleritis. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: After being bitten by mosquitoes, a 60-year-old Japanese female exhibited positive serologic tests of immunoglobulin M and G enzyme immunoassays for dengue viral infection along with a decrease of leukocytes and platelets...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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