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Viral Fever

H O Akhiwu, E S Yiltok, A O Ebonyi, S Gomerep, N Y Shehu, E P Amaechi, A E Onukak, P Iduh, A A Oyagbemi, G Omame, P M Ashir, D Z Egah, S Oguche
Background: Lassa fever (LF) is a viral haemorrhagic fever endemic to West Africa. The clinical presentation and course is variable, making diagnosis difficult. Aim: To report the outbreak and identify the common clinical presentations of LF in paediatric patients in Jos, Plateau State, North Central, Nigeria. Methods: This was a retrospective review of patients managed for LF during the June-August 2017 outbreak. LF was suspected in cases with: fever of less than 3 weeks' duration that had not responded to antimalarials or antibiotics, myalgia, abdominal pain, prostration and history of contact with any person diagnosed with LF...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
Getachew Ferede, Moges Tiruneh, Ebba Abate, Yitayih Wondimeneh, Endalamaw Gadisa, Rawleigh Howe, Abraham Aseffa, Belay Tessema
BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the most common arboviral diseases with increased outbreaks annually in tropical and subtropical areas. In Ethiopia, there are no data regarding clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters which are very important in the clinical management of dengue patients. Hence this study was carried out to provide the first baseline data of clinical, hematological and biochemical profiles of patients infected with dengue virus. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among febrile patients in northwest Ethiopia from March 2016 to May 2017...
December 4, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Rahel Ackermann-Gäumann, Denise Siegrist, Roland Züst, Johanna Signer, Nicole Lenz, Olivier Engler
Working in accordance with biosafety level four practices is highly complex and time-consuming. Therefore, the respective laboratory protocols should be as uniform as possible, simple to perform and straightforward in readout. Here we describe the successful application of a standardized 24-well plate focus assay protocol for the titration of Zaire ebolavirus (two isolates), Marburg virus (three isolates), Lassa virus (two isolates), Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (one isolate), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (two isolates)...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Iliana Bersani, Cinzia Auriti, Fiammetta Piersigilli, Andrea Dotta, Francesca Diomedi-Camassei, Alessandra Di Pede, Gabriele Buttinelli, Olivier Danhaive
BACKGROUND: Neonatal acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe condition with a mortality rate up to 70%. Human enterovirus (HEV) infections are associated with serious diseases in newborns, including myocarditis, meningoencephalitis and, more rarely, ALF with a fulminant course. METHODS: Cases of neonatal-onset ALF were identified using the institutional clinical database. The history and clinical data of infants with HEV infection were collected by medical record revision...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Jingjun Xing, Ke Wang, Hua Wei, Dengming Wei
RATIONALE: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is identified as the primary cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and mainly infects the young infants. Though some fatal cases have been reported, the underlying mechanisms of EV71 infection remain elusive and more further pathologic and molecular studies of EV71 infection are needed. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 26-month-old girl with a history of fever and lethargy for 3 days and intermittent seizures for 2 hours associated with rash on 4 limbs was brought to a hospital...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Asnet Mary John, Akanitt Jittmittraphap, Siriporn Chattanadee, A Alwin Prem Anand, R Shenbagarathai, Pornsawan Leaungwutiwong
Dengue fever is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease, and no specific therapeutic or promising antiviral drug is available for its treatment. Peptide inhibitors are less toxic than synthetic compounds and have found proven effective against viral infections. Here, three peptides that mimic part of the E protein of the dengue virus (DENV) were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against four serotypes of DENV in African green monkey kidney (Vero) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) monkey kidney (LLC-MK2) cell lines...
November 30, 2018: Virus Research
Suresh S Pillai, Moidu Shameer, Asif Hassan, Abdurehiman K Parambil, Sivasankar Reddy, Bala Vishnu R, Shameem G Mohammad
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case series. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the immunosuppression and secondary bacterial infection after dengue viral infection and the predilection of these infections in the spine. This can trigger further research in to this fact. The possibility of change in the serotype of dengue virus, which are neurotropic, may be looked into. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: This is the largest case series of epidural abscess with or without spondylodiscitis within 6 weeks following dengue virus infection...
December 15, 2018: Spine
David C Fajgenbaum
Castleman disease (CD) describes a heterogeneous group of hematologic disorders that share characteristic lymph node histopathology. Patients of all ages present with either a solitary enlarged lymph node (unicentric CD) or multicentric lymphadenopathy (MCD) with systemic inflammation, cytopenias, and life-threatening multiple organ dysfunction resulting from a cytokine storm often driven by interleukin 6 (IL-6). Uncontrolled human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection causes approximately 50% of MCD cases, whereas the etiology is unknown in the remaining HHV-8-negative/idiopathic MCD cases (iMCD)...
November 30, 2018: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Olamide K Oloniniyi, Uche S Unigwe, Sayaka Okada, Mayuko Kimura, Shota Koyano, Yukiko Miyazaki, Michael O Iroezindu, Nnenna A Ajayi, Chinedu M Chukwubike, Nneka M Chika-Igwenyi, Anne C Ndu, Damian U Nwidi, Haruka Abe, Shuzo Urata, Yohei Kurosaki, Jiro Yasuda
Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic in parts of West Africa where it causes Lassa fever (LF), a viral hemorrhagic fever with frequent fatal outcomes. The diverse LASV strains are grouped into six major lineages based on the geographical location of the isolated strains. In this study, we have focused on the lineage II strains from southern Nigeria. We determined the viral sequences from positive cases of LF reported at tertiary hospitals in Ebonyi and Enugu between 2012 and 2016. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that 29 out of 123 suspected cases were positive for the virus among which 11 viral gene sequences were determined...
November 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Per Sundbom, Anne-Marie Suutari, Karim Abdulhadi, Wojciech Broda, Melinda Csegedi
Myocarditis is mostly caused by viral infections and rarely caused by bacterial pathogens, especially in immunocompetent individuals. Bacterial myocarditis due to Salmonella is rare, especially in countries with improved sanitation that minimize contamination of Salmonella typhi serotypes. We here present a case of a previous healthy 22-year-old male that came to the emergency room with chest pain. His symptoms occurred after a period of profuse diarrhea, fever and hematochezia. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of myocarditis...
December 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
S R Safayi, F Shahi, M Ghalamkari, M Mirzania, M Khatuni, F Hirmandi Niasar
Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially cure for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients who undergone HSCT are at increased risk of infection due to impaired immunity. Objective: To evaluate the rate of bacterial, viral and fungal infection and its relationship with 2-year overall survival of AML patients who had undergone HSCT. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of 49 patients who underwent allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from full-matched donors at BMT Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran, Iran, from 2006 to 2013...
2018: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
David C Fajgenbaum
Castleman disease (CD) describes a heterogeneous group of hematologic disorders that share characteristic lymph node histopathology. Patients of all ages present with either a solitary enlarged lymph node (unicentric CD) or multicentric lymphadenopathy (MCD) with systemic inflammation, cytopenias, and life-threatening multiple organ dysfunction resulting from a cytokine storm often driven by interleukin 6 (IL-6). Uncontrolled human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection causes approximately 50% of MCD cases, whereas the etiology is unknown in the remaining HHV-8-negative/idiopathic MCD cases (iMCD)...
November 29, 2018: Blood
Giorgia Tascini, Lucia Lanciotti, Lisa Sebastiani, Alessandra Paglino, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an anthropozoonosis caused by an intracellular parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania . In the Mediterranean region, L. donovani and L. infantum are responsible for VL and dogs are the main reservoir. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) represents a complication of VL and consists of unrestrained activation and proliferation of lymphocytes and macrophages, leading to uncontrolled immune activation. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis may also develop during viral infection, and Epstein⁻Barr virus (EBV) infection is one of the main HLH causes...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Shaoxiong Yu, Caixia Yin, Kun Song, Su Li, Guang-Lai Zheng, Lian-Feng Li, Jinghan Wang, Yongfeng Li, Yuzi Luo, Yuan Sun, Hua-Ji Qiu
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), the etiological agent of classical swine fever in pigs, is a member of the Pestivirus genus within the Flaviviridae family. It has been proposed that CSFV infection is significantly inhibited by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) treatment. However, the exact engagement of cellular cholesterol in the life cycle of CSFV remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that pretreatment of PK-15 cells with MβCD significantly decreased the cellular cholesterol level and resulted in the inhibition of CSFV infection, while replenishment of exogenous cholesterol in MβCD-treated cells recovered the cellular cholesterol level and restored the viral infection...
November 28, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Cristiano Salata, Vanessa Monteil, Helen Karlberg, Michele Celestino, Stephanie Devignot, Mikael Leijon, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Éric Bergeron, Friedemann Weber, Ali Mirazimi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Diana K Nguyen, Scott Friedlander, Ross J Fleischman, Kenneth M Zangwill
OBJECTIVES: It is not known how changes in the epidemiology of serious bacterial infection (SBI) and greater availability of rapid viral diagnostic tests have impacted the hospital length of stay (LOS) and associated complications among young infants with suspected SBI. METHODS: We used national administrative data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database and other state-specific data to identify febrile infants <90 days of age hospitalized in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012...
November 27, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
Young-Sun Jo, Jun-Gu Kang, Jeong-Byoung Chae, Yoon-Kyoung Cho, Jeong-Hwa Shin, Weon-Hwa Jheong, Joon-Seok Chae
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging viral disease in East Asian countries, including China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea (ROK). The causative agent of SFTS is the SFTS virus (SFTSV), which is transmitted by ticks. To investigate the prevalence of SFTSV in the ROK, a total of 9744 ticks were collected from vegetation in five national parks between July and November 2015. Of the collected adult and nymph ticks, Haemaphysalis longicornis (68.44%) was the most abundant, followed by Haemaphysalis flava (29...
November 27, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Kristen B Stolka, Bonaventure Fuamba Ngoyi, Kathyrn E L Grimes, Jennifer J Hemingway-Foday, Leopold Lubula, Alain Nzanzu Magazani, Joseph Bikuku, Mathias Mossoko, Leonie Manya Kitoto, Sylvie Mpangi Bashilebo, Dieudonné Lufwa Maya, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, Sarah Rhea, Pia D M MacDonald
High-functioning communicable disease surveillance systems are critical for public health preparedness. Countries that cannot quickly detect and contain diseases are a risk to the global community. The ability of all countries to comply with the International Health Regulations is paramount for global health security. Zoonotic diseases can be particularly dangerous for humans. We conducted a surveillance system assessment of institutional and individual capacity in Kinshasa and Haut Katanga provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo for nationally identified priority zoonotic diseases (eg, viral hemorrhagic fever [VHF], yellow fever, rabies, monkeypox, and influenza monitored through acute respiratory infections)...
2018: Health Security
Carlos Valenzuela, Paulette Legarraga, Arturo Peña, Alex Arenas, Loni Berkowitz, Gigliola Ramírez, Aniela Wozniak, Patricia García, Manuel Álvarez-Lobos
Infectious diarrhea can be caused by a large number of microorganisms including bacteria virus and parasites. The clinical syndromic approach has been traditionally used to guide therapy. The aim of this study was to characterize the etiology of acute diarrhea by the FilmArray GI panel and to correlate it with its clinical presentation in an adult population presenting to the emergency room in a developing country. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult patients attending the ER due to acute diarrhea were selected...
2018: PloS One
Genevieve F Oliver, Jillian M Carr, Justine R Smith
Recently recognised forms of uveitis include intraocular inflammations that occur during or following one of several emerging infectious diseases: chikungunya fever, dengue, Zika virus disease and Ebola virus disease. Anterior, intermediate, posterior and pan- uveitis have been described in individuals infected with chikungunya virus. Persons who contract dengue or Zika viruses also may develop different types of uveitis in the course of the infection: maculopathy is a common manifestation of dengue eye disease, and Zika eye disease may cause hypertensive anterior uveitis or mimic a white dot syndrome...
November 25, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
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