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Viral Fever

M V Borca, L G Holinka, E Ramirez-Medina, G R Risatti, E A Vuono, K A Berggren, D P Gladue
Envelope glycoprotein E2 of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) is involved in several critical virus functions. To analyze the role of E2 in virus replication, a series of recombinant CSFVs harboring chimeric forms of E2 CSFV and Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were created and tested for their ability to infect swine or bovine cell lines. Substitution of native CSFV E2 by BVDV E2 abrogates virus replication in both cell lines. Substitution of individual domains in CSFV Brescia E2 by the homologous from BVDV produces chimeras that efficiently replicate in SK6 cells with the exception of a chimera harboring BVDV E2 residues 93-168...
October 16, 2018: Virology
Donald F Smee, Kie-Hoon Jung, Jonna Westover, Brian B Gowen
2'-Fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (2'-FdC) was reported to inhibit various viruses in vitro, including Borna disease, hepatitis C, Lassa fever, influenza and certain herpes viruses, and is inhibitory to influenza viruses in mice. We investigated the antiviral activity of 2'-FdC against several unrelated bunyaviruses in 50% cytopathic effect inhibition (CPE) and, with viruses that cause limited CPE, 90% virus yield reduction (VYR) assays. La Crosse (LACV), Maporal, Punta Toro, Rift Valley fever (RVFV), and San Angelo viruses were inhibited in CPE assays at 2...
October 16, 2018: Antiviral Research
Ke Tang, Shihua He, Xiaoyu Zhang, Jiamei Guo, Qing Chen, Feihu Yan, Logan Banadyga, Wenjun Zhu, Xiangguo Qiu, Ying Guo
The family Arenaviridae consists of numerous enveloped RNA viruses with ambisense coding strategies. Eight arenaviruses, including Lassa virus, are known to cause severe and fatal viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans, yet vaccines and treatments for disease caused by arenaviruses are very limited. In this study, we screened a natural product library consisting of 131 compounds and identified tangeretin, a polymethoxylated flavone widely present in citrus fruit peels, as a Lassa virus entry inhibitor that blocks viral fusion...
October 16, 2018: Antiviral Research
Cassandra Koh, Scott L Allen, Rosemarie I Herbert, Elizabeth A McGraw, Stephen F Chenoweth
Dengue fever is the most prevalent arboviral disease globally. Dengue virus is transmitted primarily by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. One measure of the mosquito's efficiency as a vector is the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), which is the time between the ingestion of viremic blood and the emergence of virions in the saliva. The longer it takes virus to infect the midgut and traverse to the saliva, the fewer opportunities the mosquito will have to transmit the pathogen over its lifetime. We have shown previously that EIP for dengue virus is highly heritable and that it is negatively correlated with vector lifespan...
October 18, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Yukihiko Sugita, Hideyuki Matsunami, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Takeshi Noda, Matthias Wolf
Ebola virus causes haemorrhagic fever with a high fatality rate in humans and non-human primates. It belongs to the family Filoviridae in the order Mononegavirales, which are viruses that contain linear, non-segmented, negative-sense, single-stranded genomic RNA1,2 . The enveloped, filamentous virion contains the nucleocapsid, consisting of the helical nucleoprotein-RNA complex, VP24, VP30, VP35 and viral polymerase1,3 . The nucleoprotein-RNA complex acts as a scaffold for nucleocapsid formation and as a template for RNA replication and transcription by condensing RNA into the virion4,5 ...
October 17, 2018: Nature
Erni J Nelwan
Dengue viral infection remains a major public health problem. As many as 400 million people are infected yearly. Even though the vaccine is available, the use of dengue vaccine is still limited due to some concerns. Among patient infected with dengue viral infection, early recognition of the virus and prompt supportive treatment are important to avoid complication and mortality.The clinical spectrum of dengue viral infection is diverse ranging from undifferentiated fever to dengue shock syndrome characterized by plasma leak and hemoconcentration...
July 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Aleksandra Drelich, Barbara Judy, Xi He, Qing Chang, Shangyi Yu, Xiang Li, Fanglin Lu, Maki Wakamiya, Vsevolod Popov, Jia Zhou, Thomas Ksiazek, Bin Gong
Members of the family Filoviridae, including Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Given their high lethality, a comprehensive understanding of filoviral pathogenesis is urgently needed. In the present studies, we revealed that the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 ( EPAC1 ) gene deletion protects vasculature in ex vivo explants from EBOV infection. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of EPAC1 using EPAC-specific inhibitors (ESIs) mimicked the EPAC1 knockout phenotype in the ex vivo model...
October 16, 2018: Viruses
Katherine J Siddle, Philomena Eromon, Kayla G Barnes, Samar Mehta, Judith U Oguzie, Ikponmwosa Odia, Stephen F Schaffner, Sarah M Winnicki, Rickey R Shah, James Qu, Shirlee Wohl, Patrick Brehio, Christopher Iruolagbe, John Aiyepada, Eghosa Uyigue, Patience Akhilomen, Grace Okonofua, Simon Ye, Tolulope Kayode, Fehintola Ajogbasile, Jessica Uwanibe, Amy Gaye, Mambu Momoh, Bridget Chak, Dylan Kotliar, Amber Carter, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Catherine A Freije, Omigie Omoregie, Blessing Osiemi, Ekene B Muoebonam, Michael Airende, Rachael Enigbe, Benevolence Ebo, Iguosadolo Nosamiefan, Paul Oluniyi, Mahan Nekoui, Ephraim Ogbaini-Emovon, Robert F Garry, Kristian G Andersen, Daniel J Park, Nathan L Yozwiak, George Akpede, Chikwe Ihekweazu, Oyewale Tomori, Sylvanus Okogbenin, Onikepe A Folarin, Peter O Okokhere, Bronwyn L MacInnis, Pardis C Sabeti, Christian T Happi
During 2018, an unusual increase in Lassa fever cases occurred in Nigeria, raising concern among national and international public health agencies. We analyzed 220 Lassa virus genomes from infected patients, including 129 from the 2017-2018 transmission season, to understand the viral populations underpinning the increase. A total of 14 initial genomes from 2018 samples were generated at Redeemer's University in Nigeria, and the findings were shared with the Nigerian Center for Disease Control in real time...
October 17, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Audrey Dionne, Cathie-Kim Le, Steffany Poupart, Julie Autmizguine, Léamarie Meloche-Dumas, Jean Turgeon, Anne Fournier, Nagib Dahdah
INTRODUCTION: Kawasaki disease (KD) can be associated with concomitant viral or bacterial infections. Children with persistent or recurrent fever 36 hours after the end of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) are considered to be resistant to treatment and are at increased risk for coronary complications. Although concomitant infection does not affect coronary outcome, it is unknown how it influences the response to IVIG treatment. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective cohort study between 2008 and 2016 in a tertiary pediatric university hospital, including 154 children, of which 59 (38%) had concomitant infection...
2018: PloS One
Jae Hyoung Im, JiHyeon Baek, Areum Durey, Hea Yoon Kwon, Moon-Hyun Chung, Jin-Soo Lee
BACKGROUND: Bites with tick-borne pathogens can cause various bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases in humans. Tick-transmitted diseases are known as contributing factors to the increasing incidence and burden of diseases. The present article investigated the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases in South Korea. METHODS: The incidence and distribution of common tick-borne diseases in Korea (Lyme disease, Q fever, and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome [SFTS]) were investigated and analyzed, using data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) infectious disease reporting system...
October 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Max Renner, Aleksandra Flanagan, Wanwisa Dejnirattisai, Chunya Puttikhunt, Watchara Kasinrerk, Piyada Supasa, Wiyada Wongwiwat, Kriangkrai Chawansuntati, Thaneeya Duangchinda, Alison Cowper, Claire M Midgley, Prida Malasit, Juha T Huiskonen, Juthathip Mongkolsapaya, Gavin R Screaton, Jonathan M Grimes
Dengue virus is a major pathogen, and severe infections can lead to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue virus exists as four serotypes, and dengue hemorrhagic fever is often associated with secondary heterologous infections. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) may drive higher viral loads in these secondary infections and is purported to result from antibodies that recognize dengue virus but fail to fully neutralize it. Here we characterize two antibodies, 2C8 and 3H5, that bind to the envelope protein...
October 15, 2018: Nature Immunology
Baseer Sultan Ahmad, Adeel Ahmad, Sajjad Jamil, Saiyed Abdullah Abubakar Mohsin Ehsanullah, Abeera Munir
Hepatitis E virus is the etiological agent for Hepatitis E infection, which is congruent to Hepatitis A infection. The clinical spectrum of the disease range from asymptomatic self-limiting disease which requires no treatment to life threatening fulminant liver disease in pregnancy, G6PD deficient and post-liver transplant patients, which necessitate urgent treatment. Similarly we are reporting a case of a 28 year old male with no previous known comorbids, who presented in emergency department with low grade fever, yellow discolouration of eyes and upper abdominal pain for last 5-6 days...
September 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Chelsea Pinkham, Aslaa Ahmed, Nicole Bracci, Aarthi Narayanan, Kylene Kehn-Hall
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an enveloped, segmented, negative sense RNA virus that replicates within the host's cytoplasm. To facilitate its replication, RVFV must utilize host cell processes and as such, these processes may serve as potential therapeutic targets. This review summarizes key host cell processes impacted by RVFV infection. Specifically the influence of RVFV on host transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional regulation, protein half-life and availability, host signal transduction, trafficking and secretory pathways, cytoskeletal modulation, and mitochondrial processes and oxidative stress are discussed...
October 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
Giulia Franzoni, Silvia Dei Giudici, Annalisa Oggiano
African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating viral disease of domestic pigs and wild boar for which there is no vaccine available. The aetiological agent ASF virus (ASFV) has a predilection for cells of the myeloid lineage. Macrophages provide a first line defence against pathogens and are the main target of ASFV, thus several studies analysed their response to infection in terms of cytokine/chemokine expression and modulation of functionality. These studies have typically used macrophages differentiated in vitro from blood or bone marrow progenitors and few studies have focused on responses of polarized macrophages (M1, M2) or functional macrophage subsets isolated from different tissues...
October 11, 2018: Virus Research
Zhenjie Zhang, Zhaopeng Dong, Qian Wang, Michael J Carr, Juan Li, Tao Liu, Dong Li, Weifeng Shi
Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) and CVA10 are two of the major pathogens associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. The majority of CVA6 and CVA10 infections result in mild, self-limiting episodes (fever and herpangina) in pediatric populations; however, in some cases, can proceed to severe neurological disease and death. Efforts to mitigate viral transmission to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with infection would be greatly strengthened by the availability of an efficacious CVA6 and CVA10 bivalent vaccine...
October 10, 2018: Vaccine
Tiago Abreu-Mota, Katie R Hagen, Kurt Cooper, Peter B Jahrling, Gene Tan, Christoph Wirblich, Reed F Johnson, Matthias J Schnell
Lassa fever (LF), caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is a viral hemorrhagic fever for which no approved vaccine or potent antiviral treatment is available. LF is a WHO priority disease and, together with rabies, a major health burden in West Africa. Here we present the development and characterization of an inactivated recombinant LASV and rabies vaccine candidate (LASSARAB) that expresses a codon-optimized LASV glycoprotein (coGPC) and is adjuvanted by a TLR-4 agonist (GLA-SE). LASSARAB elicits lasting humoral response against LASV and RABV in both mouse and guinea pig models, and it protects both guinea pigs and mice against LF...
October 11, 2018: Nature Communications
Harbir Singh Arora
Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) mostly occurs as a complication of acute viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI), which is a common condition encountered in an outpatient setting. ABS manifests with three different presentations, most commonly as persistent symptoms of viral URI (nasal drainage and or cough) for more than 10 days. ABS is also diagnosed when the patient presents with severe symptoms of a URI accompanied by fever >102.2°F and purulent nasal drainage for at least 3 days. Lastly, ABS can complicate viral URI around day 6 or 7 of illness after initial improvement in the symptoms of URI...
October 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Samson Limbaso Konongoi, Albert Nyunja, Victor Ofula, Samuel Owaka, Hellen Koka, Edith Koskei, Fredrick Eyase, Daniel Langat, James Mancuso, Joel Lutomiah, Rosemary Sang
Chikungunya is a reemerging vector borne pathogen associated with severe morbidity in affected populations. Lamu, along the Kenyan coast was affected by a major chikungunya outbreak in 2004. Twelve years later, we report on entomologic investigations and laboratory confirmed chikungunya cases in northeastern Kenya. Patient blood samples were received at the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) viral hemorrhagic fever laboratory and the immunoglobulin M enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IgM ELISA) was used to test for the presence of IgM antibodies against chikungunya and dengue...
2018: PloS One
Elisavet Stavropoulou, Nicolas Troillet
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is transmitted by Hyalomma spp ticks or exposure to blood of infected persons or animals. It is present in European regions that are frequently visited by people living in Switzerland. It is suspected in case of fever with hemorrhagic signs and confirmed by PCR or serology. Because of its severity and potential for nosocomial transmission, it should be included of the differential diagnosis of fever in returning travelers in order to rapidly implement the adequate measures : hospitalisation with isolation precautions and treatment with ribavirin...
October 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Rozanne E Tijssen, Gisela M Steenvoorden, Marjolein E de Gruijter, Florence van Hunsel, Martijn Stevens, Jeroen Heidt
Millions of people are vaccinated each year to prevent morbidity and mortality by numerous bacterial and viral infections. Safety of vaccines is an important topic of discussion, especially because of the prophylactic nature of vaccination. Luckily, serious adverse events are rare. However, low incidence results in low awareness, and thus can make identification of these post-vaccination diseases difficult for healthcare workers. In the Netherlands, serious adverse events caused by travel vaccinations are especially rare, because of the low immunisation coverage compared to endemic countries...
September 19, 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
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