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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402053/pseudoreplication-and-the-usage-of-biomarkers-in-ecotoxicological-bioassays
#1
Flávio H Tincani, Grabrieli L Galvan, Antonio E M L Marques, Gustavo S Santos, Letícia S Pereira, Thiago A da Silva, Helena C Silva de Assis, Ronilson V Barbosa, Marta M Cestari
Pseudoreplication is a widely discussed topic in the scientific community. Its principal critique concerns the lack of independence in flawed experimental designs and the use of inferential statistics to test the hypothesis of such experiments. Thirty years after its appearance, it remains misunderstood by many researchers, including ecotoxicologists. In this work, we will try to clarify some of its concepts by filling in what seems to be a gap in the terminology of manipulative experiments. We propose the term experimental medium to refer strictly to the relevant spatial scale of the experiment, in order to preserve the specificity of the experimental and observational units, and to display pseudoreplication as a kind of misinterpretation and/or misanalysis of inferential statistics...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386813/simultaneous-component-analysis-by-means-of-tucker3
#2
Alwin Stegeman
A new model for simultaneous component analysis (SCA) is introduced that contains the existing SCA models with common loading matrix as special cases. The new SCA-T3 model is a multi-set generalization of the Tucker3 model for component analysis of three-way data. For each mode (observational units, variables, sets) a different number of components can be chosen and the obtained solution can be rotated without loss of fit to facilitate interpretation. SCA-T3 can be fitted on centered multi-set data and also on the corresponding covariance matrices...
April 6, 2017: Psychometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370979/cohort-study-on-emergency-general-surgery-patients-and-an-observation-unit
#3
Marilla Dickfos, Hany Ibrahim, Andrew Evans, Robert Franz
BACKGROUND: Medium-sized, non-trauma hospitals experience many of the same difficulties as tertiary centres do when it comes to managing emergency general surgery patients. However, acute surgical units are not a financially viable option in these hospitals. To improve the care of emergency general surgery patients at one such hospital, a Rapid Assessment Medical Surgical (RAMS) unit was developed to decrease the time to review and increase the efficiency in caring for these patients...
March 30, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285117/acute-heart-failure-alternatives-to-hospitalization
#4
REVIEW
Reka Zsilinszka, Robert J Mentz, Adam D DeVore, Zubin J Eapen, Peter S Pang, Adrian F Hernandez
Acute heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem with substantial associated economic costs. Because most patients who present to hospitals are admitted irrespective of their level of risk, novel approaches to manage acute HF are needed, such as the use of same-day access clinics for outpatient diuresis and observation units from the emergency department. Current published data lacks a comprehensive overview of the present state of acute HF management in various clinical settings. This review summarizes the strengths and limitations of acute HF care in the outpatient and emergency department settings...
March 4, 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257538/multidisciplinary-approach-to-complicated-pregnancy
#5
Josip Andelo Borovac, Josko Bozic, Tina Ticinovic Kurir, Nikola Zaja, Kresimir Kolic, Vedran Hrboka
A nulliparous pregnant woman in her mid-20s and in the 32nd week of gestation presented to the emergency department with severe headache and vomiting. She had an uneventful medical history; however, the physical examination upon hospital admission revealed a hypertensive emergency, papilledema, and 2+ dipstick proteinuria. Upon establishing the diagnosis of preeclampsia, aggressive therapy with corticosteroids, antihypertensive medication, and seizure prophylaxis was initiated. Hemodynamic stability was achieved within 24 hours and the patient remained in the observation unit located within the gynecology clinic...
March 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243009/predictors-for-critical-care-admission-among-children-presenting-to-emergency-department-with-recurrent-wheezing
#6
Aman Saini, Jaya Shankar Kaushik, Vandana Arya, Geeta Gathwala
CONTEXT: Children with recurrent wheezing contribute to a significant burden of inpatient hospital admission in developing countries. However, many patients could be managed at home following a short observation period in emergency unit. AIM: This study aimed to determine the predictors of critical care admission in a population of children aged 6 months to 2 years attending pediatric emergency department (ED) for recurrent wheezing. SETTING AND DESIGN: This is a case-control study conducted in pediatric ED of a tertiary care center in North India...
January 2017: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236513/remote-management-of-low-to-intermediate-risk-chest-pain-a-case-series
#7
Alexander Chiu, Kathleen Shumaker, Christopher Del Corral, Blessy George, Michael Kasper, Marie-Carmelle Elie, Preeti Jois, Daniel Dipsia, Adam Ash
We report a case series of three low to intermediate risk chest pain patients who presented to the emergency department and were managed as outpatients via the Cellular Outpatient Twelve-Lead Telemetry with Emergency Response (COTTER™). This technology allows for certain chest pain patients to be managed remotely via telemedicine while receiving care comparable to that which would be available in a hospital or chest pain observation unit.
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212168/implementation-of-interdisciplinary-rapid-rounds-in-observation-units
#8
Lindsey Ryan, Stephanie Scott, Willa Fields
Lack of collaboration and communication can lead to medical errors, increased length of stay, and diminished patient satisfaction. The purpose of this project was to improve nurse efficiency, interdisciplinary communication and collaboration, and patient satisfaction with the discharge process through Rapid Rounds. The results demonstrated that interdisciplinary communication and collaboration improved coordination of care, as evidenced by improved Press Ganey percentile rankings for readiness for discharge and speed of the discharge process, increased pharmaceutical interventions, and fewer phone calls to physicians...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211087/semiparametric-pseudoscore-for-regression-with-multidimensional-but-incompletely-observed-regressor
#9
Zonghui Hu, Jing Qin, Dean Follmann
We study the regression fβ (Y|X,Z), where Y is the response, Z∈Rd is a vector of fully observed regressors and X is the regressor with incomplete observation. To handle missing data, maximum likelihood estimation via expectation-maximisation (EM) is the most efficient but is sensitive to the specification of the distribution of X. Under a missing at random assumption, we propose an EM-type estimation via a semiparametric pseudoscore. Like in EM, we derive the conditional expectation of the score function given Y and Z, or the mean score, over the incompletely observed units under a postulated distribution of X...
February 16, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210350/use-of-physician-in-triage-model-in-the-management-of-abdominal-pain-in-an-emergency-department-observation-unit
#10
John R Marshall, Robert Katzer, Shahram Lotfipour, Bharath Chakravarthy, Siri Shastry, Jessica Andrusaitis, Craig L Anderson, Erik D Barton
INTRODUCTION: Given the nationwide increase in emergency department (ED) visits it is of paramount importance for hospitals to find efficient ways to manage patient flow. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a significant difference in success rates, length of stay (LOS), and other demographic factors in two cohorts of patients admitted directly to an ED observation unit (EDOU) under an abdominal pain protocol by a physician in triage (bypassing the main ED) versus those admitted via the traditional pathway (evaluated and treated in the main ED prior to EDOU admission)...
February 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195938/low-adverse-event-rates-but-high-emergency-department-utilization-in-chest-pain-patients-treated-in-an-emergency-department-observation-unit
#11
Anthony M Napoli, Janette Baird, Steven Tran, Jing Wang
OBJECTIVES: Nearly 40% of all previously admitted chest pain patients re-present to the emergency department (ED) within 1 year regardless of stress testing, and nearly 5% of patients return with a major adverse cardiac event (MACE). The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of return visits to the ED among patients previously admitted to an ED chest pain observation unit (CPU). We also identified the patient characteristics and health risk factors associated with these return ED visits...
March 2017: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935745/does-abnormal-laboratory-results-notification-with-the-short-message-service-shorten-length-of-stay-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department-observation-unit
#12
Ibrahim Hakan Bucak, Habip Almis
BACKGROUND: A new age in communications began with the entry into use of cell phones and their applications. Cell phones and their various applications must be actively used in patient monitoring in the healthcare system. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the length of stay in the pediatric emergency department observation unit (PEDOU) based upon the notification of abnormal laboratory results (ALRs) via the short message service (SMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with ALRs notified through the SMS (April-May-June 2015: study period) were evaluated retrospectively, and those admitted to hospital after such notification were enrolled as the study group (SG)...
December 9, 2016: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919865/shared-decision-making-in-patients-with-low-risk-chest-pain-prospective-randomized-pragmatic-trial
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Erik P Hess, Judd E Hollander, Jason T Schaffer, Jeffrey A Kline, Carlos A Torres, Deborah B Diercks, Russell Jones, Kelly P Owen, Zachary F Meisel, Michel Demers, Annie Leblanc, Nilay D Shah, Jonathan Inselman, Jeph Herrin, Ana Castaneda-Guarderas, Victor M Montori
OBJECTIVE:  To compare the effectiveness of shared decision making with usual care in choice of admission for observation and further cardiac testing or for referral for outpatient evaluation in patients with possible acute coronary syndrome. DESIGN:  Multicenter pragmatic parallel randomized controlled trial. SETTING:  Six emergency departments in the United States. PARTICIPANTS:  898 adults (aged >17 years) with a primary complaint of chest pain who were being considered for admission to an observation unit for cardiac testing (451 were allocated to the decision aid and 447 to usual care), and 361 emergency clinicians (emergency physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) caring for patients with chest pain...
December 5, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918377/utility-of-emergency-department-observation-units-for-neurologically-intact-children-with-head-ct-abnormalities-secondary-to-acute-closed-head-injury
#14
Roxanna Lefort, Jill V Hunter, Andrea T Cruz, A Chantal Caviness, Thomas G Luerssen, Aderonke Adekunle-Ojo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the utility of the emergency department observation unit (EDOU) for neurologically intact children with closed head injuries (CHIs) and computed tomography (CT) abnormalities. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of children aged 0 to 18 years with acute CHI, abnormal head CT, and a Glasgow Coma Scales score of 14 or higher admitted to the EDOU of a tertiary care children's hospital from 2007 to 2010. Children with multisystem trauma, nonaccidental trauma, and previous neurosurgical or coagulopathic conditions were excluded...
March 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902667/managing-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-the-emergency-department-observation-unit
#15
Shabana Yusuf, Joseph L Hagan, Aderonke O Adekunle-Ojo
BACKGROUND: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common reason for presentation to the emergency department (ED) and account for 3% of ED visits. Patients with a diagnosis of cellulitis requiring intravenous (IV) antibiotics have traditionally been admitted to the hospital. In our institution, these patients are placed in the ED Observation Unit (EDOU) for IV antibiotics. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to determine if 3 doses of IV antibiotics are adequate to document clinical improvement in children with uncomplicated SSTI...
December 2, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876328/best-clinical-practice-controversies-in-transient-ischemic-attack-evaluation-and-disposition-in-the-emergency-department
#16
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Transient ischemic attack (TIA) affects over 200,000 patients annually in the United States, and it precedes approximately 14% to 23% of strokes. Patients are typically admitted for evaluation and management. OBJECTIVE: This review investigates the controversies of emergency department (ED) evaluation of TIA, including imaging, clinical risk scores, rapid diagnostic protocols, and disposition. DISCUSSION: TIA is a common condition, with over 200,000 patients affected annually, and is associated with risk of stroke...
March 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849505/a-prospective-observation-study-of-medical-toxicology-consultation-in-a-u-s-combat-theater
#17
Joseph K Maddry, Patrick C Ng, Daniel Sessions, Vikhyat S Bebarta
OBJECTIVES: Since 2001, U.S. military personnel and active duty, uniformed physicians providing medical support have been deployed to Afghanistan. Medical toxicologists are among the physicians deployed. There is a paucity of information present in the literature that has documented cases treated by toxicologists in theater. This prospective observational study describes 15 male patients treated in theater by a military medical toxicologist. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study in which a medical toxicologist consulted and reported on deployed toxicology cases occurring during a 5-month deployment to Bagram, Afghanistan...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846006/chest-pain-risk-scores-can-reduce-emergent-cardiac-imaging-test-needs-with-low-major-adverse-cardiac-events-occurrence-in-an-emergency-department-observation-unit
#18
Hao Wang, Katherine Watson, Richard D Robinson, Kristina H Domanski, Johnbosco Umejiego, Layton Hamblin, Sterling E Overstreet, Amanda M Akin, Steven Hoang, Meena Shrivastav, Michael Collyer, Ryan N Krech, Chet D Schrader, Nestor R Zenarosa
OBJECTIVE: To compare and evaluate the performance of the HEART, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE), and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) scores to predict major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rates after index placement in an emergency department observation unit (EDOU) and to determine the need for observation unit initiation of emergent cardiac imaging tests, that is, noninvasive cardiac stress tests and invasive coronary angiography. METHODS: A prospective observational single center study was conducted from January 2014 through June 2015...
December 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830996/permanent-emergency-inequality-in-access-to-hospitalisation-among-urban-elderly-chinese
#19
Tim F Liao, Cuntong Wang
The phenomenon of elderly patients staying in hospital emergency department observation units for extended time in urban China poses a challenge to China's healthcare system and presents a social problem of inequality. In this paper, we analyse statistics collected from 16 major public hospitals in Beijing to assess the extent and intensity of the problem and examine interviews of medical professionals to understand the mechanisms linking the issue to the Chinese healthcare system. We study the issue with the literature on market transition theory and on China's recent healthcare reforms and view this age-based inequality as an outcome of the economic and social transformations in China...
November 10, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797873/skin-and-soft-tissue-infection-management-failure-in-the-emergency-department-observation-unit-a-systematic-review
#20
Jeremy W Abetz, Nicholas G Adams, Biswadev Mitra
INTRODUCTION: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are commonly treated in ED observation units (EDOUs). The management failure rate in this setting is high, as evidenced by a large proportion of patients requiring inpatient admission. This systematic review sought to quantify the management failure rate and identify risk factors associated with management failure. METHODS: Searches of six databases and grey literature were conducted with no limits on publication year or language...
October 25, 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
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