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Ketamine anesthesia

Rubina Malik, Dhanya Mullassery, Maren Kleine-Brueggeney, Ayad Atra, Anami Gour, Robin Sunderland, Bruce Okoye
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to report our multidisciplinary diagnostic approach for patients with anterior mediastinal masses (AMM). METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with AMM at a tertiary pediatric surgical oncology centre (January 2011-December 2016) was performed. We analyzed data on clinical presentation, mode of tissue diagnosis, anesthetic techniques, and complications. RESULTS: Of the 44 patients admitted with AMM (median age 11 years, 27 males and 17 females), 22 had respiratory symptoms...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Xin Zhao, Fang Shu, Xiaoqiang Wang, Fang Wang, Li Wu, Lu Li, Haigang Lv
Excessive exposure to commonly used anesthetic agents, such as ketamine, may induce permanent damage to immature human brains. In this work, we used a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neuron model to assess the expression and function of human microRNA 735 (hsa-miR-375) in regulating ketamine-induced neural cell death and neural toxicity in vitro. In the in vitro culture, hESC-derived neurons were incubated with ketamine for 72h. After that, cell viability, reactive oxygen species activity, neural apoptosis, neurite degeneration, and hsa-miR-375 gene expression were assessed, respectively...
November 27, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Mohammad Ali Sahmeddini, Mohammad Bagher Khosravi, Arash Farbood
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Patients with opioid use disorder experience great challenges during acute pain management due to opioid tolerance or withdrawal symptoms. Previous studies have recommended the use of adjuvant drugs in these patients. In this study, we compared the effect of intraoperative lidocaine with ketamine in postoperative pain management of these patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial, 180 patients with opioid use disorder who underwent orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into 3 groups...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Jia-Mei Li, Lin-Lin Liu, Wen-Jun Su, Bo Wang, Ting Zhang, Yi Zhang, Chun-Lei Jiang
Recent studies have indicated that sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine exerts rapid antidepressant effects. Upregulation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors contributes to rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine. A recent study indicated that the increasing expression of AMPARs is related to the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, we postulated that NLRP3 inflammasome might play an important role in ketamine's antidepressant effects. We found that sub-anesthesia dose of ketamine (10ml/kg) ameliorated LPS-induced depressive-like behaviors, including decreased sucrose preference and increased immobility times in the tail suspension test...
November 26, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Kristof Govaerts, Benoit Lechat, Tom Struys, Anna Kremer, Peter Borghgraef, Fred Van Leuven, Uwe Himmelreich, Tom Dresselaers
Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease, and many patients also present with vascular dysfunction. In this study, we aimed to assess cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular response (CVR) as early, pre-symptomatic (3 months of age), imaging markers in a bigenic model of Alzheimer's disease (APP.V717IxTau.P301L, biAT) and in the monogenic parental strains. We further developed our previously published combination of pulsed arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI and hypo-ventilation paradigm, which allows weaning of the mice from the ventilator...
November 29, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Jose Carlos Flores-González, Ana Estalella-Mendoza, Patricia Rodríguez-Campoy, Mónica Saldaña-Valderas, Alfonso M Lechuga-Sancho
BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopies (UGEs) performed under ketamine sedation may increase the risk of respiratory adverse events (RAEs) due to pharyngeal stimulation. Topical lidocaine prevents general anesthesia-induced laryngospasm. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether topical lidocaine may reduce the incidence of RAEs induced by pharyngeal stimulation in UGEs performed on children sedated with ketamine. METHODS: We conducted a single-center prospective study...
November 27, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Guillaume Dewe, Arnaud Steyaert, Marc De Kock, Fernande Lois, Raymond Reding, Patrice Forget
OBJECTIVE: Living donor hepatectomy (LDH) has important consequences in terms of acute and chronic pain. We proposed an anesthetic protocol based on the best currently available evidence. We report the results of this protocol's application. RESULTS: We performed a retrospective descriptive study of 100 consecutive donors undergoing LDH. The protocol included standardized information provided by the anesthetist, pharmacological anxiolysis and preventive analgesia...
November 26, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Caitlin R Woolcott, Stephanie Torrey, Patricia V Turner, Heather Chalmers, Lena J Levison, Karen Schwean-Lardner, Tina M Widowski
Our objective was to determine the efficacy of manual cervical dislocation vs. a mechanical cervical dislocation device for on-farm killing of poults and young turkeys. Forty-two 1- and 3-week old turkeys were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: awake manual cervical dislocation (CD), anesthetized manual cervical dislocation (aCD), or anesthetized mechanical cervical dislocation (MCD). Anesthetized birds received an intramuscular dose of 0.3 mg/kg medetomidine and 30 mg/kg of ketamine to achieve a light plane of anesthesia...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Behzad Nazemroaya, Mohammad Azad Majedi, Hamidreza Shetabi, Sanaz Salmani
Background: Breast lumpectomy is an integral part of the treatment of mammary masses in women. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare two-drug combinations of propofol-ketamine (PK) (ketofol) and propofol-fentanyl (PF) (fenofol) on quality of sedation and analgesia in lumpectomy. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial performed on 64 patients aged 15-70 years with breast cancer lumpectomy referred to Isfahan's Seyed Al-Shohada Hospital...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Xiaoling Zhao, Yue Sun, Yongbo Ding, Jun Zhang, Kezhong Li
PURPOSE: Research has shown that sevoflurane-induced toxicity causes neurodegeneration in the developing brain. miR-34a has been found to negatively regulate ketamine-induced hippocampal apoptosis and memory impairment. However, the role of miR-34a in sevoflurane-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration remains largely unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57/BL6 mice (7-day-old) inhaled 2.3% sevoflurane for 2 h/day over 3 consecutive days. miR-34a expression was reduced through intracerebroventricular injection with miR-34a interference lentivirus vector (LV-anti-miR-34a) into mouse hippocampus after anesthesia on the first day of exposure...
December 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
Yaofei Jiang, Ruoxi Chen, Suming Xu, Jiaxi Li, Fanqi Yu, Lingdong Kong, Yuhan Sun, Yuan Ye, Yimin Li, Mengqi Yu, Jiaming Wu
Background/Aims: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of prophylactic dexamethasone for tracheal intubation of general anesthesia on postoperative sore throat (POST). Methods: Comprehensive literature search of databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library, which evaluate the effect of prophylactic dexamethasone on POST was conducted. RevMan 5.0 and STATA 12.0 software were used to perform meta-analyses...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Olivier Chapet, Corina Udrescu, Samy Horn, Alain Ruffion, Fabrice Lorchel, Sonya Gaudioz, Cécile Clamens, Vincent Piriou, Edwige Rigal
PURPOSE: Hypnosedation (HS) for brachytherapy has been proposed in patients with prostate cancer and has been evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 79 patients were treated with brachytherapy under HS. The Visual Analog Scale questionnaire was used to assess comfort and anxiety and the lowest, mean, and highest level of pain. Data for 79 patients who underwent general anesthesia (GA) and 37 patients who underwent spinal anesthesia (SA) treated at the same period were compared with HS group in terms of medication and treatment duration...
November 10, 2018: Brachytherapy
Glòria Salort, María Álvaro-Bartolomé, Jesús A García-Sevilla
Midazolam and ketamine-induced anesthesia were recently shown to induce a disruption of MEK/ERK sequential phosphorylation with parallel upregulation of p-FADD in the mouse brain. The present study was designed to assess whether other structurally diverse anesthetic agents (pentobarbital, ethanol, chloral hydrate, isoflurane) also impair brain p-MEK to p-ERK signal and increase p-FADD during the particular time course of 'sleep' in mice. Pentobarbital (50 mg/kg)-, ethanol (4000 mg/kg)-, chloral hydrate (400 mg/kg)-, and isoflurane (2% in O2 )-induced anesthesia (range: 24-60 min) were associated with unaltered or increased p-MEK1/2 (up to +155%) and decreased p-ERK1/2 (up to -60%) contents, revealing disruption of MEK to ERK activation in mouse brain cortex...
November 10, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Anna Maria Bombardieri, James Beckman, Michael Urban, George Go, A Raffaele De Gaudio, Federico P Girardi, Yan Ma, Stavros G Memtsoudis
BACKGROUND: Prone positioning (PP) is necessary for surgical access during posterior spine procedure. However, physiological changes occur in the PP. Typical findings are a decrease in arterial blood pressure and in cardiac output that could potentially lead to an alteration in cerebral perfusion. Therefore, we decided to study cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography to evaluate the effect of the PP on cerebral hemodynamics. METHODS: Twenty-two patients undergoing spine surgery in the PP were studied...
November 9, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
G Kip, D Atabek, M Bani
Aim and Background: Sedation is gaining popularity among dental procedures in children. Ketamine and propofol mixture, known as ketofol, is one of the promising choices in sedation protocols; however, there is no consensus on the exact ratio of ketamine plus propofol especially in dental practice. The aim of present study was to compare perioperative side effect profiles, recovery profiles, and satisfaction rates of both parents' and dentists' following three different ratio of ketofol mixtures in children undergoing dental treatment...
November 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Tyler J Murphy, Kevin S Murnane
Anesthesia-Induced Hypothermia (AIH) has been reported to be the cause of many postoperative adverse effects, including increased mortality, decreased immune responses, cardiac events, and a greater prevalence of postoperative surgical wound infections. AIH can in some cases be minimized with pre-warming fluids and gases and forced-air heating systems, but such techniques are not always effective and can result in patient burns or other adverse effects. Stimulation of 5-HT2 receptors has been reported to increase body temperature through a variety of mechanisms, and as such, may be a viable target for pharmacologically minimizing AIH...
November 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Silvana Prando, Camila de Godoi Carneiro, Denise Aya Otsuki, Marcelo Tatit Sapienza
The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in glucose metabolism in male Wistar rats induced by the anesthetics isoflurane and ketamine combined with xylazine via 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. We analyzed the differential effects of the anesthetics on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and pharmacokinetics in 33 rats using quantification methods: 1) the standardized uptake value, 2) voxel-based analyses, and 3) kinetic analysis. Both anesthetics reduced glucose uptake in the entire brain...
November 6, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Geoffrey R Browning, David Eshar, Hugues Beaufrere
Few studies evaluate anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Isoflurane inhalant anesthesia is usedin this species most commonly, but injectable protocols are poorly described. Here we compared the physiologic effects, including anesthetic depth, vital signs, and hematologic changes, of anesthetic protocols using isoflurane or a combination ofdexmedetomidine, ketamine, and midazolam in black-tailed prairie dogs. In a randomized, complete crossover study design, intact male black-tailed prairie dogs (n = 9; age, 6 mo) were anesthetized by using a combination of dexmedetomidine (0...
November 5, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Hirotaka Tokushige, Atsushi Okano, Daisuke Arima, Hideki Ito, Yoshinori Kambayashi, Yohei Minamijima, Minoru Ohta
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinical efficacy of constant rate infusions (CRIs) of medetomidine-propofol combined with sevoflurane anesthesia in Thoroughbred racehorses undergoing arthroscopic surgery. Thirty horses were sedated intravenously (IV) with medetomidine (6.0 μg/kg) and midazolam (0.02 mg/kg) and induced IV with ketamine (1.0 mg/kg) and propofol (1.0 mg/kg). These horses were randomly allocated to three groups and maintained with sevoflurane and CRI of either medetomidine (3...
November 5, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Nihar Ameta, Mathews Jacob, Shahbaz Hasnain, Gaurishankar Ramesh
Background and Aims: Shivering after spinal anesthesia is a common complication and can occur in as many as 40%-70% of patients after regional anesthesia. This shivering, apart from its physiological and hemodynamic effects, has been described as even worse than surgical pain. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of prophylactic use of intravenous (IV) ketamine, dexmedetomidine, and tramadol for prevention of shivering after spinal anesthesia. Material and Methods: Two hundred American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II patients subjected to spinal anesthesia were included in the study...
July 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
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