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Ketamine anesthesia

Biljana Jakovljevic, Tamara Nikolic Turnic, Nevena Jeremic, Jovana Jeremic, Jovana Bradic, Marko Ravic, Vladimir Lj Jakovljevic, Djordje Jelic, Dragan Radovanovic, Olga Pechanova, Vladimir Zivkovic
This study was aimed to assess the impact of aerobic and anaerobic type of exercise on blood pressure and redox status in normotensive and hypertensive rats. After 1 week of preconditioning feeding and 1 week of preconditioning running regimen, Wistar albino rats (n = 72; bw: 270 ± 50 g) were randomly assigned to three groups according to running protocol (high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity training (MIT)): sedentary control, MIT, HIIT; spontaneous hypertensive sedentary control (SHR), SHR + MIT and SHR + HIIT...
October 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Jun Dan Jiang, Xiao Chun Zheng, Feng Yi Huang, Fei Gao, Mei Zhen You, Ting Zheng
Ketamine, though widely used in pediatric anesthesia, may induce cortical neurotoxicity in young patients. This study focused on an in vitro model of rat brain embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived neurons to investigate the effects of microRNA-107 (miR-107) on ketamine-induced neural injury. Rat brain ESCs were proliferated in vitro and differentiated toward neuronal fate. Ketamine induced neural injury in ESC-derived neurons was inspected by TUNEL and neurite growth assays. Ketamine-induce aberrant miR-107 expression was examined by qRT-PCR...
October 11, 2018: IUBMB Life
Debra L Hickman
Current recommendations for assessing animal wellbeing during euthanasia suggest that measuring neuroendocrine hormones-such as ACTH, noradrenaline, and adrenaline-is preferable to measuring corticosterone and blood glucose because of the sensitivity of neuroendocrine hormones to the acute stress associated with rapid methods of euthanasia. However, theseneuroendocrine hormones can be stimulated in ways that confound interpretation of welfare assessment in euthanasia studies.Although this property does not negate the usefulness of neuroendocrine hormones as tools of assessment, it is importantto differentiate the stress associated with the induction of anesthesia before the loss of consciousness (an animal wellbeingconcern) with the physiologic responses that occur after the loss of consciousness (not an animal wellbeing concern)...
October 10, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Palanisamy Nagalakshmi, Sundararajan Leo, S Uthirapathi
Background: Management of airway is of great importance in the practice of anesthesia. Supraglottic airway devices, such as laryngeal mask airway (LMA), have greatly revolutionized the management of airway both in terms of ease and degree of invasiveness. Propofol, by its inherent property of decreasing airway reflexes, is used to aid in LMA insertion. In this study, we have evaluated the LMA insertion conditions and hemodynamic stability, comparing butorphanol, fentanyl, and ketamine as co-induction agents with propofol...
July 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Shivpal Dan Charan, Mohd Yunus Khilji, Rashmi Jain, Vishal Devra, Madhu Saxena
Context: Postoperative sore throat (POST) occurs in 21%-65% of patients. Nebulization of ketamine reduces POST. Aims: The aim of this study is to see the effectiveness of nebulized ketamine in different doses to reduce POST and observe adverse effects, if any. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, randomized, and double-blind controlled trial. One hundred and fifty patients of the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Classes I and II, in the age group of 18-60 years, of either sex, undergoing surgery under general anesthesia were randomized into three groups...
July 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
H Hajizadeh, A Asghari, G Abedi, S Hesaraki
The present study was conducted with the aim of comparing the effects of premedication with ketoprofen and midazolam in birds. A total of 24 male pigeons with an approximate weight of 300 g were divided into four equal groups. The control group (Group I) was injected with ketamine alone. Groups II-IV were injected with ketoprofen alone, ketoprofen+ketamine, and midazolam+ketamine, respectively. The biochemical changes in the four groups were evaluated after intramuscular drug injections at different anesthetic levels...
September 2018: Archives of Razi Institute
Işın Güneş, Nuran Süngü, Aydan Kılıçarslan, Volkan Şıvgın, Metin Alkan, Ayşegül Küçük, Hakan Boyunağa, Yusuf Ünal, Mustafa Arslan
Objective: This study was conducted since the effects of colloid solutions on the renal system remain controversial and need to be adequately studied in animals. We aimed to evaluate the effects of hydroxyethyl starch (Voluven) on the kidney tissue of rats with late renal failure due to ureteral obstruction. Materials and methods: Rats were divided into four groups: Group C, control; Group HES, hydroxyethyl starch solution (HES) 130/0.4 (Voluven® ); Group UUO, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO); and Group UUO-HES, UUO-HES 130/0...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Adrianna M Sage, Stephanie Cj Keating, Kara M Lascola, David J Schaeffer, Stuart C Clark-Price
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cardiopulmonary and recovery characteristics of horses administered total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with xylazine and ketamine combined with midazolam or propofol. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized crossover study. ANIMALS: A group of eight adult horses, aged 7-22 years, weighing 493-740 kg. METHODS: Horses were administered xylazine (1 mg kg-1 ) intravenously (IV), and anesthesia was induced with ketamine (2...
August 11, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Greta Vladinov, Lilibeth Fermin, Renee Longini, Yanett Ramos, Edward Maratea
This study provides a review of the contemporary literature for the effects of most commonly used anesthetic drugs for sedation and anesthesia during adult electrophysiologic (EP) studies where supraventricular tachycardias (SVT) need to be induced for diagnostic purposes and/or catheter ablation. Some medications may affect cardiac electrophysiology and conduction, altering the ability to induce the arrhythmia, and may have negative impact on mapping and ablation treatment. The objective of the study is to determine the best sedative choice during SVT ablations...
September 24, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Yoshimasa Oyama, Colleen Marie Bartman, Jennifer Gile, Daniel Sehrt, Tobias Eckle
BACKGROUND: Recently, we identified the circadian rhythm protein Period 2 (PER2) in robust cardioprotection from myocardial ischemia (MI). Based on findings that perioperative MI is the most common major cardiovascular complication and that anesthetics can alter the expression of PER2, we hypothesized that an anesthesia mediated downregulation of PER2 could be detrimental if myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (IR) would occur. METHODS AND RESULTS: We exposed mice to pentobarbital, fentanyl, ketamine, propofol, midazolam or isoflurane and determined cardiac Per2 mRNA levels...
September 23, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ellen T Reibling, Steven M Green, Tammy Phan, Elena Lopez-Gusman, Lizveth Fierro, Andrew Davis, Thomas Sugarman, Marc Futernick
OBJECTIVES: We wished to estimate the frequency and describe the nature of emergency department (ED) procedural sedation restrictions in the State of California. METHODS: We surveyed medical directors for all licensed EDs statewide regarding limitations on procedural sedation practice. Our primary outcome was the frequency of restrictions on procedural sedation, defined as an inability to administer moderate sedation, deep sedation, and typical ED sedative agents in accordance with American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) guidelines...
September 21, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Wonhye Lee, Phillip Croce, Ryan W Margolin, Amanda Cammalleri, Kyungho Yoon, Seung-Schik Yoo
BACKGROUND: Low-intensity transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) has emerged as a new non-invasive modality of brain stimulation with the potential for high spatial selectivity and penetration depth. Anesthesia is typically applied in animal-based tFUS brain stimulation models; however, the type and depth of anesthesia are known to introduce variability in responsiveness to the stimulation. Therefore, the ability to conduct sonication experiments on awake small animals, such as rats, is warranted to avoid confounding effects of anesthesia...
September 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Katharina Hohlbaum, Bettina Bert, Silke Dietze, Rupert Palme, Heidrun Fink, Christa Thöne-Reineke
Within the scope of the 3Rs of Russel and Burch, the number of laboratory animals can be reduced by repeated use of an animal. This strategy only becomes relevant, if the total amount of pain, distress or harm the individual animal experiences does not exceed the severity of a single manipulation. For example, when using imaging techniques, an animal can be examined several times during a study, but it has to be anesthetized each time imaging is performed. The severity of anesthesia is thought to be mild according to the Directive 2010/63/EU...
2018: PloS One
Maggie Williams, Nigel Caulkett, Peter Neuhaus, Kathreen Ruckstuhl, Soren Boysen, Åsa Fahlman
Chemical immobilization is a key aspect of wildlife management. To minimize dose-dependent adverse effects, immobilization protocols often include two or more synergistic agents, which allows for reductions in individual drug dosages. Free-ranging bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis) in Canada ( n = 74) were remotely injected with a combination of medetomidine (0.16 ± 0.04 mg/kg) and ketamine (4.0 ± 1.4 mg/kg) (MK), or combination of medetomidine (0.14 ± 0.06 mg/kg), azaperone (0.21 ± 0.11 mg/kg), and alfaxalone (0...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Sirirat Niyom, Khursheed R Mama, Melissa King, Erin Contino, Dora Ferris, Alex Valdes-Martinez, David D Frisbie, Wayne McIlwraith, James Zumbrunnen
This study investigated the influence of changing recumbency and mode of ventilation over repeated anesthesias on the alveolar to arterial oxygen tension gradient (PA-a O2 ) and laboratory analytes in eight horses during a year-long imaging study. Anesthesia was induced with xylazine, diazepam or guaifenesin, and ketamine and maintained with isoflurane. Horses were positioned in right or left lateral recumbency for computed tomography. Ventilation was controlled during 47% of the anesthetics. Blood was sampled from an arterial catheter prior to (30 ± 5 min from connection to anesthetic circuit), within 5 min of changing lateral recumbency, and prior to circuit disconnection (24 ± 6 min after second sample) for measurement of pH, partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2 ) and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, blood glucose and electrolytes...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Juan F García-Henares, Jose A Moral-Munoz, Alejandro Salazar, Esperanza Del Pozo
Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, has been postulated as an adjuvant analgesic for preventing remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia after surgery. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the effectiveness of ketamine [racemic mixture and S -(+)-ketamine] in reducing morphine consumption and pain intensity scores after remifentanil-based general anesthesia. We performed a literature search of the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases in June 2017 and selected randomized controlled trials using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Nitin Hayaran, Rohit Malhotra, Swati Tyagi, Aruna Jain
Acute fatty liver of pregnancy is one of the most common causes of fulminant hepatic failure. A 28-year-old G3P1L1A1 presented at 37 weeks with diagnosis of acute fatty liver of pregnancy with grade 3 hepatic encephalopathy. Laboratory findings were suggestive of coagulopathy, metabolic acidosis, and liver and renal dysfunction. Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block with ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block is widely used for postoperative analgesia. We applied these blocks, supplemented with intravenous ketamine for breakthrough visceral pain, to conduct cesarean delivery with a favorable outcome...
August 29, 2018: A&A practice
Dongyong Guo, Jianhui Gan, Tao Tan, Xin Tian, Guolin Wang, Kevin Tak-Pan Ng
Ketamine is one of general anesthetics and has been commonly used in obstetric and pediatric anesthesia. However, effects of exposure to ketamine on neonatal brain are largely unknown. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of neonatal exposure of ketamine on spatial memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus of adult rats. One-week-old neonatal rats were separated into ketamine group and control group. Neonatal rats in ketamine group were received intraperitoneal injection of 25 mg/kg (low-dose group, N = 8) or 50 mg/kg ketamine (high-dose group, N = 8)...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Hooshang Akbari, Ebrahim Nasiri, Attieh Nikkhah, Seyed Hossein Ardehali
Background: Propofol is one of the most frequently used medications for inducing and maintaining anesthesia. However, propofol injection causes pain and discomfort in more than 70% of patients. This study was performed to determine the comparative effects of ketamine, sodium-thiopental, and magnesium sulfate on reducing pain at the onset of anesthesia induced by propofol injection. Materials and Methods: This single-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on a population of patients, requiring nonemergency surgeries...
January 2018: Tanaffos
Nicholas Denomme
University of Michigan Pharmacology Professor Ed Domino is an expert in the field of neuropsychopharmacology. For over six decades, Dr. Domino has made many contributions to our understanding of psychoactive drugs, but is most well-known for his role in the development of ketamine anesthesia. This article covers the story behind this discovery, along with many other fascinating personal and professional anecdotes, all of which provide insight into the career of a remarkable scientist.
August 15, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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