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Ketamine anesthesia

Paula Michelotti, Vanessa A Quadros, Maria E Pereira, Denis B Rosemberg
Ketamine is a non-competitive glutamatergic antagonist that induces analgesia and anesthesia. Although ketamine displays anxiolytic and antidepressant properties, it may induce pro-psychosis and hallucinogen effects, as well as stereotypic behaviors following acute administration at sub-anesthetic doses. Since heightened aggression is maladaptive and may comorbid with various neuropsychiatric disorders, we aimed to investigate whether ketamine modulates aggressive behavior in adult zebrafish. Fish were acutely exposed to 2, 20, and 40 mg/L ketamine for 20 min and their locomotion, exploratory activity, and aggression towards mirror were further assessed...
August 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Derlin Thomas, Revathy Bejoy, Nimeeliya Zabrin, Suhura Beevi
Background: Endotracheal intubation is the prominent cause of airway mucosal injury which results in postoperative sore throat (POST), with an incidence of 21%-65%. Although this complication is minor, if left unresolved, it produces significant agony and annoyance to the patient. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of nebulized ketamine in decreasing POST. Materials and Methods: After written informed consent, 96 patients of the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (PS) 1-2 between 18 and 60 years, of either sex undergoing general anesthesia (GA) with tracheal intubation were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, placebo-control, and double-blind controlled trial...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Elizabeth A Nunamaker, Julia L Goldman, Cynthia R Adams, Jeffrey D Fortman
Managing postoperative pain in rodents is an important part of any animal care and use program, and identifying an optimalanalgesic plan for a surgical procedure is critical to providing for animal welfare. Opioids and NSAID are commonly used in rodents, but few studies have evaluated their efficacy in surgical models. The current study aimed to evaluate thetherapeutic efficacy of clinically relevant doses of buprenorphine (2 formulations) or meloxicam used in combination with ketamine and xylazine anesthesia in a Sprague-Dawley rat ovariohysterectomy surgical model...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Nicholas J Michelson, Takashi Daniel Yoshida Kozai
General anesthesia is ubiquitous in research and medicine, yet although the molecular mechanisms of anesthetics are well characterized, their ultimate influence on cortical electrophysiology remains unclear. Moreover, the influence that different anesthetics have on sensory cortices at neuronal and ensemble scales is mostly unknown, and represents an important gap in knowledge that has widespread relevance for neural sciences. To address this knowledge gap, this work explored the effects of isoflurane and ketamine/xylazine, two widely used anesthetic paradigms, on electrophysiological behavior in mouse primary visual cortex...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jared Langerman, Sotirios G Doukas, Hisashi Hasegawa, James Goodrich, Michael Lerner, Clarence Sasaki
Background: A malfunction or impairment of swallow function can potentiate aspiration events and interfere with both quality of life and survival. Establishing an animal model for swallow research would provide a better understanding of its pathophysiology and would also allow for the development and validation of physiologically based clinical interventions to improve swallow function. Two requirements define the ideal model for longitudinal exploration: 1) identification of species similar to human in form and function; and 2) provision for reliable and reproducible evoked swallow under general anesthesia and one that would also support a longitudinal study design...
June 2018: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
Christopher K Smith, Reza Seddighi, Xiaojuan Zhu, Andrew J Tepe, Edward C Ramsay, Andrew C Cushing
OBJECTIVE To investigate use of the plethysmographic variability index (PVI) and perfusion index (PI) for evaluating changes in arterial blood pressure in anesthetized tigers (Panthera tigris). ANIMALS 8 adult tigers. PROCEDURES Each tiger was anesthetized once with a combination of ketamine, midazolam, medetomidine, and isoflurane. Anesthetic monitoring included assessment of PI, PVI, direct blood pressure measurements, anesthetic gas concentrations, esophageal temperature, and results of capnography and ECG...
August 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Inês Delgado, Ana Fonte Boa, Ana Filipa Carvalho, Bruno Melica, Pedro Braga, Vasco Gama Ribeiro
The percutaneous MitraClip system is a catheter-based device designed to perform edge-to-edge mitral valve (MV) leaflet repair at the site of regurgitation. MitraClip implantation is an alternative procedure in patients at high surgical risk with symptomatic severe mitral regurgitation (MR) who are not candidates for MV repair/replacement due to their degree of comorbidity and associated high mortality risk. The procedure is guided by 3-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and fluoroscopy...
July 26, 2018: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
Hsuan-Yun Hu, Shyh-Yuh Wei, Chih-Hsin Pan
Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by skeletal muscle injury resulting in the release of intracellular proteins (such as myoglobin) and electrolytes into the blood circulation, which cause acute kidney injury, myoglobinuria and electrolyte imbalances. Clinical diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis is made on the basis of biochemical analysis; however, for forensic autopsies, biochemical data are often not available, and it is necessary to diagnose rhabdomyolysis via histopathological examinations. This study analyzed 52 cases with rhabdomyolysis and applied myoglobin immunohistochemistry to kidney, urine and blood samples...
July 28, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
P Svorc, D Petrášová, P Svorc
The aim of study was to review the status of arterial pH, pO2 and pCO2 under general anesthesias in dependence on the light-dark (LD) cycle in spontaneously breathing rats. The experiments were performed using three- to four-month-old pentobarbital(P)-, ketamine/xylazine(K/X)- and zoletil(Z)-anesthetized female Wistar rats after a four-week adaptation to an LD cycle (12 h light:12 h dark). The animals were divided into three experimental groups according to the anesthetic agent used: P (light n=11; dark n=8); K/X (light n=13; dark n=11]); and Z (light n=18; dark n=26)...
July 25, 2018: Physiological Research
Lynn Uhrig, Jacobo D Sitt, Amaury Jacob, Jordy Tasserie, Pablo Barttfeld, Morgan Dupont, Stanislas Dehaene, Bechir Jarraya
WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: BACKGROUND:: The mechanism by which anesthetics induce a loss of consciousness remains a puzzling problem. We hypothesized that a cortical signature of anesthesia could be found in an increase in similarity between the matrix of resting-state functional correlations and the anatomical connectivity matrix of the brain, resulting in an increased function-structure similarity. METHODS: We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance images in macaque monkeys during wakefulness (n = 3) or anesthesia with propofol (n = 3), ketamine (n = 3), or sevoflurane (n = 3)...
July 20, 2018: Anesthesiology
Michaela Gruenheid, Turi K Aarnes, Mary A McLoughlin, Elaine M Simpson, Dimitria A Mathys, Dixie F Mollenkopf, Thomas E Wittum
OBJECTIVE To determine whether brachycephalic dogs were at greater risk of anesthesia-related complications than nonbrachycephalic dogs and identify other risk factors for such complications. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 223 client-owned brachycephalic dogs undergoing general anesthesia for routine surgery or diagnostic imaging during 2012 and 223 nonbrachycephalic client-owned dogs matched by surgical procedure and other characteristics. PROCEDURES Data were obtained from the medical records regarding dog signalment, clinical signs, anesthetic variables, surgery characteristics, and complications noted during or following anesthesia (prior to discharge from the hospital)...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Françoise Arnaud, Georgina Pappas, Ye Chen, Eric Maudlin-Jeronimo, Richard McCarron
INTRODUCTION: A stressful environment may contribute to poor outcomes after TBI. The current study evaluates the impact of acute stress in a polytrauma rat model. METHODS: Rats were stressed by a 45-minute immobilization period before instrumentation under ketamine (t1). Polytrauma was produced by blast overpressure and controlled hemorrhage (t2). Rats were euthanized immediately after a 3 h simulated Medevac-transport time (t3) or after 72 h post-trauma (t4)...
July 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Nathan J Smischney, Emily M Pollard, Asha U Nookala, Oludare O Olatoye
BACKGROUND Serotonin syndrome is a life-threatening condition that can lead to neurologic complications and is associated with the use of serotonergic medications. As the use of antidepressant medications has increased, the incidence of perioperative serotonin syndrome has transitioned from a rare diagnosis to one that should be considered as a differential diagnosis for any patient displaying signs of neuroexcitation. CASE REPORT A 70-year-old man (ASA 2) with a history of vestibular migraines (treated with venlafaxine), gastroesophageal reflux disease, and benign prostatic hyperplasia presented to our institution for photoselective vaporization of the prostate...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Alexandra Büki, György Kalmár, Gabriella Kekesi, Gyorgy Benedek, László G Nyúl, Gyongyi Horvath
Patients with schizophrenia show impairments in autonomic regulation, including pupillomotor control. The aim of this study was to explore the changes of pupillary light reflex in a new substrain (WISKET) with several schizophrenia-like alterations. Male WISKET rats housed individually (for four weeks) and treated with ketamine (for 3 × 5 days) after weaning and naive group-housed Wistar rats (controls) were involved in the study. The pupillary light reflex was studied in two series after sedation (diazepam) or anesthesia (chloral hydrate)...
September 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Kenta Furutani, Mari Matsuhashi, Hiroyuki Deguchi, Yusuke Mitsuma, Nobuko Ohashi, Hiroshi Baba
BACKGROUND: It is believed that ketamine does not affect motor-evoked potential amplitude, whereas various anesthetic drugs attenuate the amplitude of transcranial motor-evoked potential. However, we encountered a patient with marked attenuation of motor-evoked potential amplitude after intravenous bolus administration of ketamine. CASE PRESENTATION: A 15-year-old Japanese girl with a diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was admitted to our hospital to undergo posterior spinal fusion at T4-L3...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Martin Soehle, Janina Bochem
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a well established and effective therapy in treatment-resistant depression. It is performed under general anesthesia, but no consensus exists regarding the optimal anesthetic drugs. A growing interest in optimizing adjunctive medication regimes in ECT anesthesia has emerged in recent years. Moreover different methods of seizure induction have been evaluated. RECENT FINDINGS: Pretreatment with dexmedetomidine eased the propofol injection pain and reduced the hyperdynamic response to ECT, but prolonged recovery...
July 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
S Rigamonti, R Bettschart-Wolfensberger, A Schwarz, I Nussbaumer
The aim of this study was to find an intramuscularly (IM) injectable anaesthetic combination for 8 to 14-days old piglets, that guarantees a calm induction and sufficient quality of anaesthesia without excitations with a maximum of two hours long lasting recovery. In preliminary dose finding trials, different combinations of -ketamine, azaperone and romifidine were compared. A constant dose of 0.2 mg/kg of butorphanol was added to each combination and all piglets received 0.4 mg/kg meloxicam. Subsequently a dosage algorithm for the main trial was developed...
July 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Bo Ram Choi, Hye Kyung Kim, Kiran Kumar Soni, Keshab Kumar Karna, Sung Won Lee, Insuk So, Jong Kwan Park
Objective: We investigated the benefits of the BKCa agonist 4-chloro-7-trifluoromethyl-10H-benzo[4,5]furo[3,2-b]indole-1-carboxylic acid (LDD175) combined with tamsulosin and finasteride, in a benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) rat model. Materials and methods: Castration was performed by bilateral orchiectomy under ketamine anesthesia. A rat model of BPH was established by daily intramuscular administration of testosterone propionate plus 17β-estradiol for 8 weeks...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Tuane Bazanella Sampaio, Laíse Figueiredo de Oliveira, Leandra Celso Constantino, Ana Paula Costa, Gabriela Godoy Poluceno, Wagner Carbolin Martins, Tharine Dal-Cim, Karen Andrinéia de Oliveira, Fabiana Kalyne Ludka, Rui Daniel Prediger, Carla Inês Tasca, Frederico C Pereira
The neonatal exposure to general anesthetics has been associated with neuronal apoptosis and dendritic spines morphologic changes in the developing brain. Ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is widely used in pediatric patients to induce general anesthesia, analgesia, and perioperative sedation. In the present study, we investigated short- and long-term effects of a single ketamine (20 mg/kg, s.c.) neonatal exposure at postnatal day 7 in rats on the hippocampal and frontal cortical cellular viability...
July 2, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Mehmet Erdem Akçay, Ebru Tarıkçı Kılıç, Mehmet Salim Akdemir
Background: In this prospective, randomized study, we evaluated the intranasal administration of Midazolam ketamine combination, midazolam, and ketamine in premedication for children. Material and Methods: We studied 60 American Society of Anesthesiology physical status Classes I and II children aged between 1 and 10 years undergoing ear nose throat operations. All cases were premedicated 15 min before operation with intranasal administration of 0.2 mg/kg midazolam in Group M, 5 mg/kg Ketamine in Group K, and 0...
April 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
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