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Albino Martins, Rui L Reis, Nuno M Neves
To develop an osteochondral tissue regeneration strategy it is extremely important to take into account the multiscale organization of the natural extracellular matrix. The structure and gradients of organic and inorganic components present in the cartilage and bone tissues must be considered together. Another critical aspect is an efficient interface between both tissues. So far, most of the approaches were focused on the development of multilayer or stratified scaffolds which resemble the structural composition of bone and cartilage, not considering in detail a transitional interface layer...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jason McClelland, David Koslicki
Both the weighted and unweighted UniFrac distances have been very successfully employed to assess if two communities differ, but do not give any information about how two communities differ. We take advantage of recent observations that the UniFrac metric is equivalent to the so-called earth mover's distance (also known as the Kantorovich-Rubinstein metric) to develop an algorithm that not only computes the UniFrac distance in linear time and space, but also simultaneously finds which operational taxonomic units are responsible for the observed differences between samples...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
A Arjona-Sanchez, S Rufian-Peña, J M Sanchez-Hidalgo, A Casado-Adam, A Cosano-Alvarez, J Briceño-Delgado
BACKGROUND: The cytoreductive surgery (CRS) associated with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has become the standard treatment in patients with carcinomatosis peritoneal from different origins. The use of a minimally invasive approach for this high complex procedure might be an alternative that provides them less morbidity and faster recovery with similar oncologic outcomes. METHODS: We describe the initial experience of CRS and HIPEC done via the laparoscopic route in patients with minimal peritoneal metastases in our Unit from March 2016 to January 2018...
April 24, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Huan-Huan Zhang, Ya-Jing Wang, Chao Zheng, Meng-Ya Wang, Da-Nian Zhu
Apelin is a novel endogenous active peptide. The aim of this study is to investigate whether apelin in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) can improve the cardiac function in rats subjected to thoracic surgery trauma, and whether it is involved in the protective effect of electro-acupuncture (EA). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into non-stressed group (control), thoracic surgical trauma stressed group (trauma) and bilateral Neiguan EA applied on thoracic surgical trauma stressed group (trauma + EA-PC 6)...
April 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Lisbeth Fagerström, Marina Kinnunen, Jan Saarela
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the daily workload per nurse (Oulu Patient Classification (OPCq)/nurse) as measured by the RAFAELA system correlates with different types of patient safety incidents and with patient mortality, and to compare the results with regressions based on the standard patients/nurse measure. SETTING: We obtained data from 36 units from four Finnish hospitals. One was a tertiary acute care hospital, and the three others were secondary acute care hospitals...
April 24, 2018: BMJ Open
Steven J Fitzgerald, Terrence C Palmer, Matthew J Kraay
BACKGROUND: We developed an orthopedic hospitalist fellowship program for our total joint replacement program at a large urban academic medical center. The goal of the program was to improve patient outcomes, quality, and healthcare value through collaborative perioperative care and improved care coordination. This study evaluates the implementation and impact of our modified Hospitalist-Orthopaedic Team Co-management model on quality and performance metrics. METHODS: We reviewed our Quality Institute data using 3 databases for the 16 months before (PreOH) and 18 months after (PostOH) implementation...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
T C Yang, P Sahota, K E Pickett, M Bryant
BACKGROUND: Food insecurity has been associated with dietary intake and weight status in UK adults and children although results have been mixed and ethnicity has not been explored. We aimed to compare prevalence and trajectories of weight and dietary intakes among food secure and insecure White British and Pakistani-origin families. METHODS: At 12 months postpartum, mothers in the Born in Bradford cohort completed a questionnaire on food security status and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessing their child's intake in the previous month; at 18 months postpartum, mothers completed a short-form FFQ assessing dietary intake in the previous 12 months...
April 24, 2018: Nutrition Journal
X J Jin, Y L Gong, L Yang, B H Mo, Y Z Peng, P He, J N Zhao, X L Li
Objective: To establish an optimized method of recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) to rapidly detect Pseudomonas aeruginosa in clinic. Methods: (1) The DNA templates of one standard Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was extracted and detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and RPA. Time of sample loading, time of amplification, and time of detection of the three methods were recorded. (2) One standard Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was diluted in 7 concentrations of 1×10(7,) 1×10(6,) 1×10(5,) 1×10(4,) 1×10(3,) 1×10(2,) and 1×10(1) colony forming unit (CFU)/mL after recovery and cultivation...
April 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
J Jin, H Zhou, Z C Cui, L Wang, P F Luo, S Z Ji, X Y Hu, B Ma, G Y Wang, S H Zhu, Z F Xia
Objective: To study the antiseptic effect of compound lysostaphin disinfectant and its preventive effect on infection of artificial dermis after graft on full-thickness skin defect wound in rats. Methods: (1) Each one standard strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus were selected. Each 20 clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus were collected from those isolated from wound exudates of burn patients hospitalized in our wards from January 2014 to December 2016 according to the random number table...
April 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
R B Li, Q Chen, H Y Zhang, H A Deng, G H Guo, Y G Mao, Z H Fu
Objective: To observe the safety and effects of application of analgesic and sedative drugs in severely burned patients during shock stage. Methods: One hundred and eighty patients with severe burns, conforming to the study criteria, were admitted to our unit from August 2014 to August 2016. Patients were divided into analgesia and sedation group and control group according to whether receiving analgesic and sedative treatment or not, with 90 cases in each group. Patients in control group received conventional treatment, while those in analgesia and sedation group received analgesic and sedative treatment for 24 hours besides conventional treatment...
April 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
J Chen, L H Wang, B Ouyang, M Y Chen, J F Wu, Y J Liu, Z M Liu, X D Guan
Objective: To observe the effect of sepsis single-disease manage system on the improvement of sepsis treatment and the value in predicting mortality in patients with sepsis. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted. Patients with sepsis admitted to the Department of Surgical Intensive Care Unit of Sun Yat-Sen University First Affiliated Hospital from September 22, 2013 to May 5, 2015 were enrolled in this study. Sepsis single-disease manage system (Rui Xin clinical data manage system, China data, China) was used to monitor 25 clinical quality parameters, consisting of timeliness, normalization and outcome parameters...
April 3, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Paul L Delamater, Timothy F Leslie, Y Tony Yang
BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy continues to be an issue throughout the United States, as numerous vaccine hesitant parents are choosing to exempt their children from school-entry vaccination requirements for nonmedical reasons, despite the safety and effectiveness of vaccines. We conduct an analysis of how vaccine refusal, measured by the use of nonmedical exemptions (based on personal or religious beliefs) from vaccination (NMEs), evolved across space and over time in California. METHODS: Using school-entry data from the California Department of Public Health, we examined NMEs for students entering kindergarten in California from 2000 to 2013...
April 24, 2018: BMC Public Health
Santanu Pramanik, Arpita Ghosh, Rituu B Nanda, Marlou de Rouw, Philip Forth, Sandra Albert
BACKGROUND: To improve immunization coverage, most interventions that are part of the national immunization program in India address supply-side challenges. But, there is growing evidence that addressing demand-side factors can potentially contribute to improvement in childhood vaccination coverage in low- and middle-income countries. Participatory engagement of communities can address demand-side barriers while also mobilizing the community to advocate for better service delivery. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a novel community engagement approach in improving immunization coverage...
April 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
Merve Dogangun, Paul E Ohno, Dongyue Liang, Alicia C McGeachy, Ariana Gray Bé, Naomi Dalchand, Tianzhe Li, Qiang Cui, Franz M Geiger
We report vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra in which the C-H stretches of lipid alkyl tails in fully hydrogenated single- and dual-component supported lipid bilayers are detected along with the O-H stretching continuum above the bilayer. As the salt concentration is increased from ~10 µM to 0.1 M, the SFG intensities in the O-H stretching region decrease by a factor of 2, consistent with significant absorptive-dispersive mixing between χ(2) and χ(3) contributions to the SFG signal generation process from charged interfaces...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Eike Mucha, Maike Lettow, Mateusz Marianski, Daniel A Thomas, Weston B Struwe, David J Harvey, Gerard Meijer, Peter H Seeberger, Gert von Helden, Kevin Pagel
Fucose is an essential deoxysugar that is found in a wide range of biologically relevant glycans and glycoconjugates. A recurring problem in mass spectrometric analyses of fucosylated glycans is the intramolecular migration of fucose units, which can lead to erroneous sequence assignments. This migration reaction is typically assigned to the activation during collision-induced dissociation (CID) in tandem mass spectrometry (MS). In this work, we utilize cold-ion spectroscopy and show for the first time that fucose migration is not limited to fragments obtained in tandem MS and can also be observed in intact glycan ions...
April 24, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Daniel Lipus, Dhritikshama Roy, Eakalak Khan, Daniel Ross, Amit Vikram, Djuna Gulliver, Richard Hammack, Kyle Bibby
The Bakken Shale has become one of the United States' most important oil and gas producing regions. This study examined the microbiology and geochemical characteristics of Bakken region produced water from 17 well sites sampled from the three-phase separator and produced water holding tank over a six-month time frame. Produced water samples had high total dissolved solids (TDS) (220,000 mg/L - 350,000 mg/L) and low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (41 mg/L - 132 mg/L). Microbial abundances varied between 101-104 16S rRNA gene copies/mL, approximately four orders of magnitude below those observed for produced waters from other hydraulic fracturing regions...
April 23, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Y She, J C Sparks, H H Stein
An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of increasing concentrations of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) phytase to a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet results in improved digestibility of DM, GE, CP, NDF, ADF, macro minerals, micro minerals, and AA. Twenty four growing barrows (initial BW: 37.0 ± 1.4 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and placed individually in metabolism crates, and allotted to a 2-period switch-back design with 6 diets and 4 replicate pigs per diet in each period...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Giyeon Kim, Minjung Kim, Soohyun Park, Daniel E Jimenez, David A Chiriboga
Background and Objectives: This study examined the effect of limited English proficiency (LEP) on trajectories of depressive symptoms among Mexican American older adults in the United States. Research Design and Methods: The sample was drawn from Waves 1 to 6 (1993-2007) of the Hispanic Established Population for Epidemiological Studies of the Elderly (H-EPESE). A total of 2,945 Mexican American older adults were included in the analyses. A latent growth curve modeling was conducted...
April 23, 2018: Gerontologist
Matthew J Budoff, Rebekah Young, Gregory Burke, J Jeffrey Carr, Robert C Detrano, Aaron R Folsom, Richard Kronmal, Joao A C Lima, Kiang J Liu, Robyn L McClelland, Erin Michos, Wendy S Post, Steven Shea, Karol E Watson, Nathan D Wong
Aims: While coronary artery calcium (CAC) has been extensively validated for predicting clinical events, most outcome studies of CAC have evaluated coronary heart disease (CHD) rather than atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events (including stroke). Also, virtually all CAC studies are of short- or intermediate-term follow-up, so studies across multi-ethnic cohorts with long-term follow-up are warranted prior to widespread clinical use. We sought to evaluate the contribution of CAC using the population-based MESA cohort with over 10 years of follow-up for ASCVD events, and whether the association of CAC with events varied by sex, race/ethnicity, or age category...
April 23, 2018: European Heart Journal
Kalvin Yu, Elizabeth Moisan, Sara Tartof, Hien M Nguyen, Gunter Rieg, Charulata Ramaprasad, Jason Jones
Background: Increasing antibiotic resistance has made benchmarking appropriate inpatient antibiotic use a worldwide priority supported by expert societies and regulatory bodies, however standard risk-adjustment for fair inter-facility comparison has been elusive. We describe a risk-adjusted antibiotic exposure ratio that may help facilitate assessment of antimicrobial use. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 2.7 million admissions evaluating a wide array of potential explanatory variables for correlation with expected antibiotic consumption in a two-step approach using recursive partitioning and Poisson regression...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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