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Oh Tak Kyu, Eunjeong Ji, Soyeon Ahn, Dong Jung Kim, In-Ae Song
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the association between postoperative surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission during a time when there was intensivist coverage and 30-day mortality after ICU admission. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study in a tertiary care academic hospital ICU, with daytime intensivist coverage. We collected the electronic medical records for all patients who were admitted to the postoperative ICU after undergoing a surgery between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2016...
October 17, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Murtaza Diwan, Jeremy Wolverton, Bo Yang, Jonathan Haft, Amy Geltz, Paul Loik, Milo Engoren
BACKGROUND: There is an increased risk of medical errors overnight compared to the day secondary to fatigue, paucity of resources and decreased staffing. Whether this increased risk extends to liberation from mechanical ventilation is controversial. We evaluated the relationship between length of intubation and differences between diurnal and nocturnal extubation. METHODS: We studied patients who had cardiac surgery between Jan 1, 2007 and Mar 31, 2016 who were intubated on arrival to the Cardiovascular ICU immediately after surgery...
October 17, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Noah Rosen, Eric Pearlman, Dustin Ruff, Kathleen Day, Abraham Jim Nagy
OBJECTIVE: To characterize adult patients with episodic migraine who achieved 100% response to galcanezumab treatment. BACKGROUND: Galcanezumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and has demonstrated efficacy in reducing migraine headache days (MHD) in patients with episodic and chronic migraine. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of the proportion of patients with 100% response (100% reduction from baseline in monthly MHD) was calculated for each month from pooled data of 2 double-blind, 6-month galcanezumab studies in patients with episodic migraine (4 to 14 MHD and ≥2 migraine attacks per month at baseline)...
October 20, 2018: Headache
Matthew W R Stevens, Daniel L King, Diana Dorstyn, Paul H Delfabbro
OBJECTIVE: While there is sufficient research and clinical evidence to support the inclusion of gaming disorder in the latest revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), relatively little is known about the effectiveness of first-line psychological treatment for gaming disorder or Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as it is listed in the DSM-5. This systematic review employed meta-analytic techniques to determine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for IGD on four key outcomes: IGD symptoms, anxiety, depression, and time spent gaming...
October 20, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Laurentiu Craciunas, Nikolaos Tsampras, Nick Raine-Fenning, Arri Coomarasamy
BACKGROUND: Most women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment will reach the stage of embryo transfer (ET), but the proportion of embryos that can be successfully implanted after ET has remained small since the mid-1990s. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is synthesised and released by the syncytiotrophoblast and has a fundamental role in embryo implantation and the early stages of pregnancy. Intrauterine administration of hCG via ET catheter during a mock procedure around the time of ET is a novel approach that has been suggested to improve the outcomes of assisted reproduction...
October 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Suresh Chandra Dash, Sanjay Kumar Agarwal, Ansuman Panigrahi, Jayanti Mishra, Debadutta Dash
Objectives: The study was designed to find out frequency of (i) Diabetes mellitus (DM) as a cause Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), (ii) Association between diabetic-CKD (diabetic patients who subsequently developed CKD as complication), hypertension (HT) and obesity. Further assessment was made to (iii) Identify percentage of diabetics attending medical and nephrology OPD had prior testing for proteinuria and or creatinine. Methods: After ethical consideration this prospective observational study was conducted on consecutive 6175 patients who gave consent to participate in two major referral hospitals one in Delhi and other in Bhubaneswar (BBSR)...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jason Moran, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Urs Granacher
BACKGROUND: Jump training (JT) can be used to enhance the ability of skeletal muscle to exert maximal force in as short a time as possible. Despite its usefulness as a method of performance enhancement in athletes, only a small number of studies have investigated its effects on muscle power in older adults. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this meta-analysis were to measure the effect of JT on muscular power in older adults (≥ 50 years), and to establish appropriate programming guidelines for this population...
October 20, 2018: Sports Medicine
Justin D Lee, Eric J Kuo, Lin Du, Michael W Yeh, Masha J Livhits
BACKGROUND: Patients with renal hyperparathyroidism (RHPT) are susceptible to major electrolyte fluctuations following parathyroidectomy, which may predispose them to early readmission. The purpose of this study is to evaluate risk factors for readmission in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for RHPT. METHODS: Patients with renal failure who underwent parathyroidectomy were abstracted from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (1999-2012)...
October 19, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Lavinia Iancu, Emily N Junkins, Georgiana Necula-Petrareanu, Cristina Purcarea
During violent criminal actions in which the perpetrator disposes of the victim's remains by burial, the analysis of insects and bacterial colonization patterns could be necessary for postmortem interval (PMI) estimation. Our research aimed to assess the decomposition process of buried rat carcasses from shallow graves (40 cm), the diversity and dynamics of insects and bacteria throughout the decomposition stages, and the environmental parameters' influence on these variations. The results provide further insight on decomposition in soil and contribute to a broader understanding of the factors involved in decomposition by qualitatively and quantitatively analysing the decomposer community (bacteria and insects)...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohammed Yousufuddin, Nathan Young, Jessica Shultz, Taylor Doyle, Karen M Fuerstenberg, Kelsey Jensen, Kogulavadanan Arumaithurai, Mohammad H Murad
BACKGROUND: We examined predictors of recurrent hospitalizations and the importance of these hospitalizations for subsequent mortality after incident transient ischemic attacks (TIA) that have not yet been investigated. METHODS: Adults hospitalized for TIA from 2000 through 2017 were examined for recurrent hospitalizations, days, and percentage of time spent hospitalized and long-term mortality. RESULTS: Of 266 patients hospitalized for TIA, 122 died, 212 had 826 anycondition hospitalization (59 from TIA-related conditions) corresponding to 3384 inpatient days during 1693 person-years of follow-up...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Mireille C Melles, Sing-Chien Yap, Rohit E Bhagwandien, Rafi Sakhi, Tamas Szili-Torok, Dominic A M J Theuns
The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) is unable to deliver antitachycardia pacing (ATP), bradycardia pacing, and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, little is known about the proportion of patients that develop the need for 1 of these features. We evaluated the potential suitability for a S-ICD at the time of first replacement in a cohort of patients with a transvenous single-chamber device who did not need bradycardia pacing at the time of implantation. The study cohort consisted of patients who received a transvenous single-chamber ICD between 1998 and September 2017...
September 23, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Michelle M Porter, Andrew W Cull
OBJECTIVE: Cataract surgery can have many benefits for older adults, including enabling continued ability to drive. However, it is not known how objectively measured driving patterns change after cataract surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine how participants drove before and after cataract surgery. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals from the Winnipeg site of Candrive (a longitudinal study of older drivers in Canada)...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Ying Liu, Ben-Chung Cheng, Jien-Wei Liu, Chiao-Jung Chen, Li-Chueh Kuo, Wen Xiu Chang, Jin-Bor Chen
BACKGROUND: The clinical course of Viridans streptococci (VS) peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) is rarely reported. This study examined the association of clinical factors with VS peritonitis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical data from patients with VS peritonitis from March 1990 to February 2016 in a PD center in Taiwan and evaluated clinical profiles and treatment outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 109 episodes of VS peritonitis in 71 patients identified...
October 19, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Kirsty Brittain, Landon Myer, Nicole Phillips, Lucie D Cluver, Heather J Zar, Dan J Stein, Jacqueline Hoare
Behavioural health risks, including substance use, early sexual debut, bullying and suicidality, are common during adolescence, but may be complicated among perinatally HIV-infected adolescents. However, there are few data exploring these behaviours in sub-Saharan Africa. We compared behavioural health risks (any self-report of substance use, sexual activity, bullying others or suicidality, or a positive urine toxicology screen) among perinatally-infected adolescents ages 9-14 years to that of an HIV-uninfected comparator group; and explored the effect of behavioural health risks on adolescent and caregiver report of adolescent suboptimal adherence (missed antiretroviral therapy dose(s) on ≥1 day during the preceding 30 days) and elevated HIV viral load (≥50 and ≥1000 copies/mL in sensitivity analyses) in multivariable logistic regression models...
October 19, 2018: AIDS Care
Tomor Harnod, Weishan Chen, Jen-Hung Wang, Shinn-Zong Lin, Dah-Ching Ding
Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, we investigated whether undergoing a hysterectomy increases the risk of depression. A total of 7872 patients aged 30⁻49 years who underwent a hysterectomy from 2000 to 2013 were enrolled as the hysterectomy group. The comparison group was randomly selected from women who had never undergone a hysterectomy and was four times the size of the hysterectomy group. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for depression [The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 296...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Jian Cheng, Zhiwei Xu, Hilary Bambrick, Hong Su, Shilu Tong, Wenbiao Hu
OBJECTIVES: Evidence is limited on the relative contribution of different temperature exposures (i.e., heat, cold and significant temperature variability) to mortality. This study aims to examine mortality risk and associated mortality burden from heat, cold, and temperature variability in Australia. METHODS: We collected daily time-series data on all-cause deaths and weather variables for the five most populous Australian cities (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, and Perth), from 2000 to 2009...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ying Luo, Yihe Lü, Bojie Fu, Qiuju Zhang, Ting Li, Weiyin Hu, Alexis Comber
The concept of Ecosystem Service (ES) has provided an underpinning framework for ecological restoration research and applications. Ecological restoration is a corrective intervention that aims to reverse land degradation and to contribute to the 2030 Global Sustainable Development goal of Land Degradation Neutrality. It is critical to investigate the long-term effects of ecological restoration and land use change on ESs and ES interactions (synergies or trade-offs) to better understand the mechanisms supporting this goal...
October 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nikki Bozinoff, Kora DeBeck, M-J Milloy, Ekaterina Nosova, Nadia Fairbairn, Evan Wood, Kanna Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Inability to access opioid agonist therapy (OAT) in correctional settings has previously been reported in Vancouver, Canada, and is associated with harms among people with opioid use disorder (OUD), including overdose death. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of OAT utilization within correctional settings among incarcerated persons with OUD in Vancouver. METHODS: Data were derived from three prospective cohorts of people who use drugs in Vancouver between 2005 and 2016...
October 6, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Uma S Nair, Benjamin R Brady, Patrick A O'Connor, Melanie L Bell
INTRODUCTION: Quitlines are an integral part of tobacco treatment programs and reach groups of smokers who have a wide range of barriers to cessation. Although tobacco dependence is chronic and relapsing, little research exists on factors that predict the likelihood of clients re-engaging and reconnecting with quitlines for treatment. The objective of this study was to describe factors that predict the re-enrollment of clients in Arizona's state quitline. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of data collected from clients (N = 49,284) enrolled in the Arizona Smokers' Helpline from January 2011 through June 2016...
October 18, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Shahida Tasneem, Muhammad Tahir Sarwar, Muhammad Rizwan Bashir, Hamid Hussain, Jawad Ahmed, Shahid Pervez
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the aggressive malignancies and mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis remain unclear. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme system plays a crucial role in many gastrointestinal malignancies and is an important regulator of cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and transformation. More precise outcome of COX-2 in ESCC is less investigated. In this study we investigated the risk factors of ESCC and expression of COX-2 in Carcinoma in situ (CIS) and ESCC compared to normal esophageal mucosa...
2018: PloS One
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