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Premature infant care

Prudence P C Chow, Wilson W K Yip, Mary Ho, Julie Y C Lok, Henry H W Lau, Alvin L Young
AIM: To describe and evaluate the trends in the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity over a 10-year period in a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on all preterm infants screened and/or treated for retinopathy of prematurity from January 2006 to December 2015 at Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong. Preterm infants with incomplete records or transferred-in from other hospitals/region solely for treatment of ROP were excluded...
June 16, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Xing-Wang Zhu, Yuan Shi, Li-Ping Shi, Ling Liu, Jiang Xue, Rangasamy Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is associated with the development of adverse pulmonary and non-pulmonary outcomes in very premature infants. Various modes of non-invasive respiratory support are increasingly being used to decrease the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The aim of this trial is to compare the effect of non-invasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (NHFOV) and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) as a primary non-invasive ventilation support mode...
June 14, 2018: Trials
B Castelijn, Kwp Hollander, J F Hensbergen, R G IJzerman, A W Valkenburg-van den Berg, Jwr Twisk, Cjm De Groot, Mgaj Wouters
BACKGROUND: Major concerns of pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus are an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcome. The objective of this study was to analyse the rate of fetal distress during labor in women with type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes compared to control women. METHODS: A retrospective case-cohort study was conducted at the VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam; a tertiary care hospital. 117 women with type 1 diabetes, 59 women with type 2 diabetes, 303 women with gestational diabetes and 15,260 control women were included, who delivered between March 2004 and February 2014...
June 14, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
(no author information available yet)
In a multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT), we are assessing whether giving very preterm (i.e., born at < 32 weeks' gestation) infants prophylactic enteral bovine lactoferrin supplementation (150 mg/kg/day) from shortly after birth until 34 weeks' post-menstrual age reduces the incidence of late-onset invasive infection (primary outcome), all-cause mortality, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotising enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, and the duration of antibiotic exposure, intensive care, and hospital admission...
June 11, 2018: Neonatology
Srirupa Hari Gopal, Kathryn M Edwards, Buddy Creech, Joern-Hendrik Weitkamp
INTRODUCTION:  The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend the same immunization schedule for preterm and term infants. However, significant delays in vaccination of premature infants have been reported. OBJECTIVE:  The objective of this study was to assess the variability of immunization practices in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN:  We conducted an online survey of 2,443 neonatologists in the United States, who are members of the Section for Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine of the AAP...
June 8, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Courtney Briggs-Steinberg, Shetal Shah
Rotavirus is the most common nonseasonal vaccine preventable illness. Despite increased severity of rotaviral illness in early infancy, most neonatal intensive care units (NICU) do not administer rotavirus vaccination either during the NICU stay at age of eligibility or at discharge as the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends. In this commentary, we review the rationale for the administration of rotavirus vaccination to premature infants. Further, we outline data supporting vaccine administration at chronologic age while still admitted to the NICU...
June 8, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Lisa M Einhorn, Brad M Taicher, Nathaniel H Greene, Leon J Reinstein, Edmund H Jooste, Michael J Campbell, Kelly A Machovec
BACKGROUND: Infants with congenital heart disease often require feeding tube placement to supplement oral intake. Gastrostomy tubes may be placed by either surgical or percutaneous endoscopic methods, but there is currently no data comparing outcomes of these procedures in this population. AIMS: The aim of our retrospective study was to investigate the perioperative outcomes between the 2 groups to determine if there are clinically significant differences. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of all infants with congenital heart disease at a single academic institution having isolated surgical or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement from January 2011 to December 2015...
June 7, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
André Moraes Freitas, Ricardo Mörschbächer, Mariana R Thorell, Ernani Luis Rhoden
Background and objectives: Advances in neonatal care promoted increased survival rates of preterm infants, with a consequent increase in the number of children affected by retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This study estimates the incidence of ROP and evaluates potential risk factors associated. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of preterm infants born in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit was conducted from March 2005 to August 2015. Six hundred and thirty-nine newborns were included based on the following criteria: infants born with less than 32 weeks' gestation or birth weight below 1500 g; or neonates born with 32-37 weeks' gestation or birth weight above 1500 g and any of the following associated: multiple gestation, respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, blood transfusions or intraventricular hemorrhage...
2018: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
Deborah L O'Connor, Alex Kiss, Christopher Tomlinson, Nicole Bando, Ann Bayliss, Douglas M Campbell, Alan Daneman, Jane Francis, Kirsten Kotsopoulos, Prakesh S Shah, Simone Vaz, Brock Williams, Sharon Unger
Background: Human milk-based fortifiers (HMBFs) are being adopted in neonatal care to enrich the nutrients in human milk for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants despite being costly and there being limited efficacy data. No randomized clinical trial has evaluated the use of HMBF compared with bovine milk-based fortifiers (BMBFs) in the absence of formula feeding. Objective: To determine if HMBF compared with BMBF for routine nutrient enrichment of human milk improves feeding tolerance, reduces morbidity, reduces fecal calprotectin (a measure of gut inflammation), and supports the growth of infants <1250 g...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Barbara Weaver, Kelsey Guerreso, E Alexander Conner, Kendra Russell, Robert Vogel, Mitch Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Premature infants may require packed red blood cell transfusions, but current guidelines lack empirical evidence and vary among institutions and prescribers. OBJECTIVE: To compare the physiological changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics and oxygen delivery between premature infants with anemia who receive packed red blood cell transfusions and premature infants without anemia. METHODS: The study was a prospective observational cohort investigation of 75 premature infants...
2018: AACN Advanced Critical Care
Anna Serlachius, Jessica Hames, Vanessa Juth, Dale Garton, Simon Rowley, Keith J Petrie
AIM: It has been increasingly recognised that family-centred care (FCC) is associated with enhanced well-being for both parents and infants in paediatric settings, including the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Over the past 4 years, our NICU has increasingly adopted a collaborative philosophy of care. The purpose of the study was to examine parental experiences of FCC during both the admission and discharge time points in order to examine differences in parents' experiences and identify areas for improvement...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Valentin A Schriever, Janine Gellrich, Nora Rochor, Ilona Croy, Helene Cao-Van, Mario Rüdiger, Thomas Hummel
Because of their immaturity many premature infants are fed via nasogastric tube. One objective of the neonatal care is to feed infants orally early. The olfactory function of premature infants is developed before birth and odorants have a significant impact on nutrition in infants. The aim of the study was to test whether odor stimulation has a positive effect on the transition from gavage to oral feeding in infants. Participants were premature infants with gestational age of more than 27 weeks, with full or partial gavage feeding, stable vital parameters and without invasive ventilation...
June 2, 2018: Chemical Senses
Shahla Moradi, Mohammad Arshdi-Bostanabad, Alehe Seyedrasooli, Lily Tapak, Sousan Valizadeh
Background: Despite the increased survival of premature infants, many infants are discharged from the hospital while they still require care and follow-up. The present study aimed to determine the effect of empowerment program on maternal discharge preparation and infants' length of hospital stay. Materials and Methods: In this pretest-posttest clinical trial, 60 premature infants along with their mothers were selected from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a teaching hospital in Kermanshah in 2016 via convenience sampling and were allocated to experimental and control groups...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
Timothy Disher, Chris Cameron, Souvik Mitra, Kelcey Cathcart, Marsha Campbell-Yeo
CONTEXT: Retinopathy of prematurity eye examinations conducted in the neonatal intensive care. OBJECTIVE: To combine randomized trials of pain-relieving interventions for retinopathy of prematurity examinations using network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Systematic review and network meta-analysis of Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform...
June 1, 2018: Pediatrics
Elsa Lorthe, Héloïse Torchin, Pierre Delorme, Pierre-Yves Ancel, Laetitia Marchand-Martin, Laurence Foix-L'helias, Valérie Benhammou, Catherine Gire, Claude D'Ercole, Norbert Winer, Loïc Sentilhes, Damien Subtil, François Goffinet, Gilles Kayem
BACKGROUND: Most clinical guidelines state that with early preterm premature rupture of membranes, obstetric and pediatric teams must share a realistic and individualized appraisal of neonatal outcomes with parents and consider their wishes for all decisions. However, we currently lack reliable and relevant data, according to gestational age at rupture of membranes, to adequately counsel parents during pregnancy and to reflect on our policies of care at these extreme gestational ages...
May 28, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Janet B Sharpe, Mark W Davies
AIM: The risk of mortality and morbidity is increased in outborn, extremely premature infants. We aim to determine whether earlier arrival of the retrieval team after the birth of infants less than 29 weeks gestation improves short-term mortality and morbidity. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of infants less than 29 weeks gestation who were retrieved to the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH) over a 5-year period. Demographic information regarding the infant and mother, retrieval team arrival time and outcome data was collected...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
L Cordero, R Oza-Frank, M R Stenger, M B Landon, C A Nankervis
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic infants born to women with pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) are usually admitted to the well baby nursery (WBN) while those who are symptomatic or in need of specialized care are admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). OBJECTIVE: To determine if changes in the NICU admission rate of asymptomatic infants born to women with PGDM during two different epochs affected breastfeeding (BF) initiation rates. DESIGN/METHODS: Retrospective cohort investigation of 386 women with PGDM and their infants who delivered in 2008-11 (epoch 1) and 457 who delivered in 2013-16 (epoch 2) at a single institution...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
J Dako, J Buzzard, M Jain, R Pandey, S Groh-Wargo, P Shekhawat
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is a multifactorial condition where PRBC transfusion is associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (TANEC) in about a third of all cases of NEC. We have investigated the role of feeding practices in incidence of TANEC. We sought to compare infants diagnosed with TANEC versus infants diagnosed with classic NEC and investigated the effects of a standardized slow enteral feeding (SSEF) protocol on TANEC incidence as well as the effects of SSEF on growth of infants with NEC...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Emis Akbari, Noam Binnoon-Erez, Michelle Rodrigues, Alessandro Ricci, Juliane Schneider, Sheri Madigan, Jennifer Jenkins
AIM: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between KMC and infant/toddler biopsychosocial outcomes. METHOD: PubMed, MEDLINE (OvidSP), MEDLINE in Process (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), PsycINFO (OvidSP), and AMED (OvidSP) were searched. Observational studies and randomized control trials through October 2015 that investigated the association between KMC intervention and infant/toddler biopsychosocial outcomes were included. Studies with <10 participants, those using skin-to-skin only during painful procedures or only on the day of birth, and those that did not report quantitative outcomes were excluded...
May 26, 2018: Early Human Development
S Grace Prakalapakorn, Sharon F Freedman, Amy K Hutchinson, Piyada Saehout, Mine Cetinkaya-Rundel, David K Wallace, Kittisak Kulvichit
PURPOSE: To evaluate an alternative retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening system that identifies infants meriting examination by an ophthalmologist in a middle-income country. METHODS: The authors hypothesized that grading posterior pole images for the presence of pre-plus or plus disease has high sensitivity to identify infants with type 1 ROP that requires treatment. Part 1 of the study evaluated the feasibility of having a non-ophthalmologist health care worker obtain retinal images of prematurely born infants using a non-contact retinal camera (Pictor; Volk Optical, Inc...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
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