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Nam Hee Kim, Sun Min Park, Hye Won Kim, Tae Jin Cho, Soon Han Kim, Changsun Choi, Min Suk Rhee
Contamination of foodstuffs by potentially enteropathogenic Arcobacter spp. is becoming a concern worldwide. However, few studies have examined virulence-associated genes in isolates of Arcobacter spp. from food. Here, we investigated the prevalence of three pathogenic Arcobacter species, A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirrowii, in chicken, pork, and leafy green vegetables (n = 323) in South Korea. Samples were examined using two different protocols selected from a literature review: Acrobacter selective broth (ASB) II + Arcobacter selective medium (ASM) II (protocol A), and ASB II + modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar supplemented with CAT (protocol B)...
April 2019: Food Microbiology
Matthew J Powers, M Stephen Trent
The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is a critical barrier that prevents entry of noxious compounds. Integral to this functionality is the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipooligosaccharide (LOS), a molecule that is located exclusively in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane. Its lipid anchor, lipid A, is a glycolipid whose hydrophobicity and net negative charge are primarily responsible for the robustness of the membrane. Because of this, lipid A is a hallmark of Gram-negative physiology and is generally essential for survival...
September 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Herlice do Nascimento Veras, Pedro H Q S Medeiros, Samilly A Ribeiro, Thiago M Freitas, Ana K S Santos, Marília S M G Amaral, Mariana D Bona, Alexandre Havt, Ila F N Lima, Noélia L Lima, Alessandra Di Moura, Álvaro M Leite, Alberto M Soares, José Q Filho, Richard L Guerrant, Aldo A M Lima
Campylobacter spp. have been associated with anthropometric Z-score decrements, but the role of specific virulence genes associated with these outcomes has not been explored. This study aimed to investigate whether specific Campylobacter jejuni virulence-related gene and immune-inflammatory biomarkers are associated with malnutrition in children from Northeastern Brazil. A case-control study was performed in Fortaleza, Brazil. Children aging 6-24 months were characterized as malnourished (cases) if weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) = 2 and as nourished (controls) if WAZ ≥ 1...
October 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
R-G Luo, X-Y Miao, L-L Luo, B Mao, F-Y Yu, J-F Xu
OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between the virulence genes exoU and pldA in isolated mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the clinical outcomes of patients with non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study was performed in the Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital from October 2012 to January 2015. We consecutively enrolled all non-CF bronchiectasis patients with mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or sputum...
July 21, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
David Šilha, Barbora Vacková, Lucie Šilhová
Bacteria of the Arcobacter (A.) genus, originating mainly from food and water, are dreaded germs for humans as well as animals. However, the virulence of these bacteria has not been fully elucidated yet. This study looked at the occurrence of eight virulence-associated factors (ciaB, cj1349, pldA, irgA, hecA, tlyA, mviN, hecB) in a total of 80 isolates of Arcobacter butzleri and 22 isolates of A. cryaerophilus. The isolates were derived from food, water, and clinical samples. A polymerase chain reaction using specific primers was used to detect these virulence-associated genes...
June 24, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Yunfeng Liang, Lei Sun, Wee Ser, Feng Lin, Steven Tien Guan Thng, Qiping Chen, Zhiping Lin
Non-tumorous skin pigmentation disorders can have a huge negative emotional impact on patients. The correct diagnosis of these disorders is essential for proper treatments to be instituted. In this paper, we present a computerized method for classifying five non-tumorous skin pigmentation disorders (i.e., freckles, lentigines, Hori's nevus, melasma and nevus of Ota) based on probabilistic linear discriminant analysis (PLDA). To address the large within-class variance problem with pigmentation images, a voting based PLDA (V-PLDA) approach is proposed...
August 1, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Samantha Reddy, Oliver T Zishiri
Virulence-associated genes have been recognised and detected in Campylobacter species. The majority of them have been proven to be associated with pathogenicity. This study aimed to detect the presence of virulence genes associated with pathogenicity and responsible for invasion, expression of adherence, colonisation and production of the cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Commercial chicken faecal samples were randomly sampled from chicken farms within the Durban metropolitan area in South Africa...
February 15, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Kerrie L May, Thomas J Silhavy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: MBio
Christopher M Stead, Diane C Cockrell, Paul A Beare, Heather E Miller, Robert A Heinzen
BACKGROUND: Many gram-negative bacteria produce an outer membrane phospholipase A (PldA) that plays an important role in outer membrane function and is associated with virulence. RESULTS: In the current study, we characterized a pldA mutant of Coxiella burnetii, an intracellular gram-negative pathogen and the agent of human Q fever. The C. burnetti pldA open reading frame directs synthesis of a protein with conserved PldA active site residues. A C. burnetii ΔpldA deletion mutant had a significant growth defect in THP-1 macrophages, but not axenic medium, that was rescued by complementation...
April 16, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Kerrie L May, Thomas J Silhavy
The outer membrane (OM) bilayer of Gram-negative bacteria is biologically unique in its asymmetrical organization of lipids, with an inner leaflet composed of glycerophospholipids (PLs) and a surface-exposed outer leaflet composed of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This lipid organization is integral to the OM's barrier properties. Perturbations of the outer leaflet by antimicrobial peptides or defects in LPS biosynthesis or transport to the OM cause a compensatory flipping of PLs to the outer leaflet. As a result, lipid asymmetry is disrupted and OM integrity is compromised...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Sally Mavin, Roger Evans, Thomas Cornulier, Alan S Bowman
OBJECTIVES: Current serological methods cannot distinguish active from past infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The aim of this study was to develop an IgG avidity Western blot and assess its potential to differentiate patients with early and late Lyme borreliosis (LB) i.e. active disease, from those infected in the past. METHODS: An IgG avidity Western blot was developed. Penalized linear discriminant analysis (PLDA) was employed to compare the Western blot/avidity Western blot profiles of an evaluation panel consisting of 75 sera from patients with early (n = 26) and late (n = 24) LB and past infection (n = 25)...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Maria Gabriela Xavier de Oliveira, Vasco Túlio de Moura Gomes, Marcos Paulo Vieira Cunha, Luisa Zanolli Moreno, Andrea Micke Moreno, Terezinha Knöbl
Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii are Gram-negative pathogenic microorganisms that cause watery diarrhea and septicemia in humans. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of Arcobacter spp. in chicken meat from butcher shops in São Paulo (Brazil) and to verify their virulence genes and genotypic profiles. A total of 300 chicken cuts were analyzed. The results show the presence of Arcobacter spp. in 18.3% of samples, which were identified as A. butzleri (63.6%) and A...
May 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Puneet Dang, Stephen A Fisher, Derek J Stefanik, Junhyong Kim, Jonathan A Raper
Olfactory sensory neurons choose to express a single odorant receptor (OR) from a large gene repertoire and extend axons to reproducible, OR-specific locations within the olfactory bulb. This developmental process produces a topographically organized map of odorant experience in the brain. The axon guidance mechanisms that generate this pattern of connectivity, as well as those that coordinate OR choice and axonal guidance receptor expression, are incompletely understood. We applied the powerful approach of single-cell RNA-seq on newly born olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in young zebrafish larvae to address these issues...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
Beata Wysok, Joanna Wojtacka
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of virulence genes responsible for the adhesion (flaA, cadF and racR) and invasion (virB11, iam and pldA) in Campylobacter isolates from cattle and swine and determine their adherence and invasion abilities. The studies conducted revealed high prevalence rate of adherence and invasion associated genes irrespective of the isolates origin. All Campylobacter strains of swine and cattle origin adhered to HeLa cells at mean level 0.1099% ± SD 0.1341% and 0...
February 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yan Zhou, Xiang Wan, Baoxue Zhang, Tiejun Tong
Motivation: With the development of high-throughput techniques, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative for gene expression analysis, such as RNAs profiling and classification. Identifying which type of diseases a new patient belongs to with RNA-seq data has been recognized as a vital problem in medical research. As RNA-seq data are discrete, statistical methods developed for classifying microarray data cannot be readily applied for RNA-seq data classification...
April 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
Mahdi Ghorbanalizadgan, Bita Bakhshi, Shahin Najar-Peerayeh
The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and attachment/invasion potential of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates regarding their cdtABC sequence types and virulence-associated gene content. A total of 33 Campylobacter spp. were identified from 750 stool samples isolated from patients characterized with diarrhea. The prevalence rates of flaA, ciaB, and pldA genes among the isolates were 97, 100, and 15%, respectively. The iam gene was found in 100% of the C. coli isolates while it was not detected in C...
January 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Srinu Rathlavath, Vandita Kohli, Asem Sanjit Singh, Manjusha Lekshmi, Gayatri Tripathi, Sanath Kumar, Binaya Bhusan Nayak
Arcobacter butzleri is an emerging pathogen isolated from animals, food and the environment. In this study, 147 A. butzleri isolated from seafood and the coastal environment were tested for the presence of ten putative virulence genes (cadF, cj1349, ciaB, mviN, pldA, tlyA, hecA, hecB, irgA, iroE) and antimicrobial susceptibilities. Majority of the isolates harbored mviN (100%), cj1349 (97.2%), ciaB (95.9%), tlyA (91.8%), pldA (91.1%) and cadF (89.7%). Lower detection rates were observed for hecA (10.8%), hecB (19%), iroE (12...
December 18, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Hela Jribi, Hanen Sellami, Amal Ben Hassena, Radhouane Gdoura
Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. are common causes of gastroenteritis in humans; these infections are commonly due to undercooked poultry. However, their virulence mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of genotypic virulence markers in Campylobacter and Arcobacter species using PCR. The prevalence of virulence and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) genes was estimated in 71 Campylobacteraceae isolates. PCR was used to detect the presence of virulence genes (iam, cadF, virB1, flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC) using specific primers for a total of 45 Campylobacter isolates, including 37 C...
October 2017: Journal of Food Protection
M Soma Sekhar, S R Tumati, B K Chinnam, V S Kothapalli, N Mohammad Sharif
AIM: This study aimed to detect putative virulence genes in Arcobacter species of animal and human origin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 41 Arcobacter isolates (16 Arcobacter butzleri, 13 Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and 12 Arcobacter skirrowii) isolated from diverse sources such as fecal swabs of livestock (21), raw foods of animal origin (13), and human stool samples (7) were subjected to a set of six uniplex polymerase chain reaction assays targeting Arcobacter putative virulence genes (ciaB, pldA, tlyA, mviN, cadF, and cj1349)...
June 2017: Veterinary World
Chunlin Hu, Ping Huang, Zhen Zheng, Zhibiao Yang, Xinling Wang
Surface functional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been widely used as promosing materials for drug delivery. Herein, we reported a facile strategy to construct MSNs coated by enzyme-resposive polylysine-dopamine (PLDA) films through self-polymerization of dopamine derivative lysine-dopamine, in which the drug could be loaded and delivered efficiently. In detail, RhB or DOX was used as a drug model and loaded in functional MSNs via a one-pot procedure among MSNs, drug, and lysine-dopamine (LDA) under basic conditions...
June 6, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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