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Karine Beaugelin-Seiller, Brenda J Howard, Jacqueline Garnier-Laplace
There is a need to prioritise the requirements for data to assess the radiological risk for fauna and flora, as inevitable large data gaps occur due to the large number of combinations of radionuclides and organisms for which doses need to be assessed. The potentially most important dose-forming radionuclide-pathways combinations need to be identified to optimize filling these gaps. Few attempts have been made to classify the importance of isotopes with regard to radiation protection of the environment. A hierarchical approach is described here for radionuclides that are potentially present in generic ecosystems (freshwater, marine or terrestrial) and is applied for scenarios considering ecologically relevant chronic exposure...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Paige A Bommarito, Xiaofan Xu, Carmen González-Horta, Blanca Sánchez-Ramirez, Lourdes Ballinas-Casarrubias, René Santos Luna, Susana Román Pérez, Juan Eugenio Hernández Ávila, Gonzalo G García-Vargas, Luz M Del Razo, Mirek Stýblo, Michelle A Mendez, Rebecca C Fry
BACKGROUND: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) via drinking water is a serious global health threat. Various factors influence susceptibility to iAs-associated health outcomes, including differences in iAs metabolism. Previous studies have shown that obesity is associated with iAs metabolism. It has been hypothesized that this association can be explained by confounding from nutritional factors involved in one-carbon metabolism, such as folate or other B vitamins, whose intake may differ across BMI categories and is known be associated with iAs metabolism...
December 12, 2018: Environment International
Jessica L Scoggin, Chao Tan, Nam H Nguyen, Urna Kansakar, Mahboubeh Madadi, Shabnam Siddiqui, Prabhu U Arumugam, Mark A DeCoster, Teresa A Murray
Glutamate, a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is essential for regulation of thought, movement, memory, and other higher functions controlled by the brain. Dysregulation of glutamate signaling is associated with severe neuropathological conditions, such as epilepsy, and glioma, a form of brain cancer. Glutamate signals are currently detected by several types of neurochemical probes ranging from microdialysis-based to enzyme-based carbon fiber microsensors. However, an important technology gap exists in the ability to measure glutamate dynamics continuously, and in real time, and from multiple locations in the brain, which limits our ability to further understand the involved spatiotemporal mechanisms of underlying neuropathologies...
November 16, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Dongqing Wu, Fan Jing, Xin Xi, Lie Ma, Deng Lu, Peng Yang, Ruili Liu
An acid-pasting approach is developed in this work to fabricate the composite of perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) and carbon black in concentrated sulfuric acid. Different from traditional mechanical mixing, the solution-based fabrication strategy enables the sufficient blending of PTCDI as active component and carbon black as conductive agent in the PTCDI/CB composite. Serving as the cathode material, the PTCDI/CB composite shows excellent electrochemical performances in both lithium ion battery (137 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and 110 mAh g-1 at 2000 mA g-1 ) and sodium ion battery (134 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and 99 mAh g-1 at 1000 mA g-1 ), which are comparable to the state-of-art organic/inorganic cathode materials...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Rui-Gang Zhang, Kewu Pan, Yuan Hao, Chung-Yin Yip, Wing-Hung Ko
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an anti-inflammatory gaseous molecule produced endogenously by heme oxygenases (HOs) HO-1 and HO-2. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of CO in the human bronchial epithelium are still not fully understood. In this study, the cationic peptide poly-l-arginine (PLA) was utilized to induce bronchial epithelial damage and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine release in the human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE14o-. Expression of both HO-1 and HO-2 after PLA exposure was examined...
December 12, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Arzum Erdem, Ece Eksin
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common type of genetic variation among people. Development of reliable methods for the detection of SNP is crucial in aspects of molecular diagnosis and personalized medicine. In our study, a genomagnetic assay in combination with zip nucleic acid (ZNA) for electrochemical detection of SNP related to Factor V Leiden (FV Leiden) mutation. For the first time in the literature, a new generation nucleic acid; ZNA was applied herein for electrochemical monitoring of nucleic acid hybridization...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Lívia Bueno Campi, Fabiane Carneiro Lopes, Luís Eduardo Silva Soares, Alexandra Mussolino de Queiroz, Harley Francisco de Oliveira, Paulo César Saquy, Manoel Damião de Sousa-Neto
BACKGROUND: The radiotherapy can directly affect the bond strength of the adhesive materials, interfering in the prognosis of restorative treatments, which may be caused by chemical changes in dentin structure. METHODS: Twenty inferior homologues premolars were distributed in 2 groups (in vitro study) (n = 10): nonirradiated and irradiated. The specimens were submitted to the analysis of phosphate (ν1 PO4 3- ;ν2 PO4 3- ;ν4 PO4 3- ), carbonate (ν3 CO3 2- ), amide I, CH2 , amide III, and amide I/III ratio by confocal Raman spectroscopy...
December 15, 2018: Head & Neck
Rong Ge, Honglin He, Xiaoli Ren, Li Zhang, Guirui Yu, T Luke Smallman, Tao Zhou, Shi-Yong Yu, Yiqi Luo, Zongqiang Xie, Silong Wang, Huimin Wang, Guoyi Zhou, Qibin Zhang, Anzhi Wang, Zexin Fan, Yiping Zhang, Weijun Shen, Huajun Yin, Luxiang Lin
It is critical to accurately estimate carbon (C) turnover time as it dominates the uncertainty in ecosystem C sinks and their response to future climate change. In the absence of direct observations of ecosystem C losses, C turnover times are commonly estimated under the steady-state assumption (SSA), which has been applied across a large range of temporal and spatial scales including many at which the validity of the assumption is likely to be violated. However the errors associated with improperly applying SSA to estimate C turnover time and its covariance with climate as well as ecosystem C sequestrations have yet to be fully quantified...
December 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
Noa Sadigurschi, Hava M Golan
Individuals with autism constitute a variable population whose members are spread along the autism spectrum. Sub-populations within that spectrum exhibit other conditions, such as anxiety, intellectual disabilities, hyperactivity and epilepsy, with different severities and co-occurrences. Among the genes associated with the increased risk for autism is the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T polymorphism, which impairs one-carbon metabolic pathway efficiency. The frequency of the MTHFR677TT homozygote is markedly higher among autism patients and their mothers than in the general population...
December 15, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Martin J Lai, Ethan I Lan
Direct conversion of carbon dioxide into chemicals using engineered autotrophic microorganisms offers a potential solution for both sustainability and carbon mitigation. Butyrate is an important chemical used in various industries, including fragrance, food, and plastics. A model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 was engineered for the direct photosynthetic conversion of CO2 to butyrate. An engineered Clostridium Coenzyme A (CoA) dependent pathway leading to the synthesis of butyryl-CoA, the precursor to butyrate, was introduced into S...
December 14, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Gayatri, Manju Rani, Ajay Kumar Mahato, Subodh Kumar Sinha, Monika Dalal, Nagender Kumar Singh, Pranab Kumar Mandal
Citrate synthase (CS) and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) have been considered as candidate enzymes to provide carbon skeletons for nitrogen assimilation, i.e., production of 2-oxoglutarate required by the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase cycle. The CS and NADP-ICDH cDNAs were encoded for polypeptides of 402 and 480 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 53.01 and 45 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.08 and 5.98, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins in wheat across kingdoms confirmed the close relationship with Aegilops tauschii and Hordeum vulgare...
December 15, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Yong Jiang, Zhongbao Zhou, Cenjie Liu
Although the Chinese government emphasizes the significance of public transportation development and encourages green travel, no empirical study has examined whether the expansion of public transportation facilitates the mitigation of carbon emissions. To this end, we employ a panel quantile regression to test the endogenous relationship between public transportation scale and carbon emissions. The results suggest that the effect of public transportation scale on carbon emissions is heterogeneous across China's provinces based on the level of carbon emissions...
December 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michelle S Lemos, Allan S Cruz, Kelly G Fernandes Dantas
The aim of this study was to evaluate three digestion procedures using a diluted oxidant mixture of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and water for determination of Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and Zn in shrimp and crab samples from Northern Brazil by microwave-induced plasma optical emission spectrometry. The efficiency of the digestion procedure was evaluated by comparing the residual carbon content, residual acidity, and elemental concentrations obtained in the samples. Digestion procedure 2 (4 mL HNO3  + 4 mL H2 O2  + 4 mL H2 O) was chosen due the adequate residual carbon content (5...
December 14, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Víctor Ruiz-Valdepeñas Montiel, Juliane R Sempionatto, Susana Campuzano, José M Pingarrón, Berta Esteban Fernández de Ávila, Joseph Wang
Edible electrochemical biosensors with remarkable prolonged resistance to extreme acidic conditions are described for direct glucose sensing in gastrointestinal (GI) fluids of different pH ranges and compositions. Such direct and stable glucose monitoring is realized using carbon-paste biosensors prepared from edible materials, such as olive oil and activated charcoal, shown to protect the activity of the embedded glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme from strongly acidic conditions. The enzymatic resistance to low-pH deactivation allowed performing direct glucose monitoring in strong acidic environments (pH 1...
December 14, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Yuan Hu, Qiong Chen, Lijie Ci, Kecheng Cao, Boris Mizaikoff
In this study, carbon nanodots (CNDs) with excellent aqueous dispersibility, narrow size distribution, and oxygen-rich functional groups have been prepared via a green electrochemical method. Graphite electrodes were directly electrolyzed at ambient temperatures to form uniform CNDs in deionized water, which is free from additional oxidant/reductant. As-synthesized CNDs have been applied to coat an attenuated total reflection (ATR) waveguide enabling surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopic studies for detecting a variety of analytes in aqueous phase with remarkably enhanced IR band intensities...
December 14, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Nicola Galea, Gian Marco Dacquino, Rosa Maria Ammendola, Simona Coco, Luciano Agati, Laura De Luca, Iacopo Carbone, Francesco Fedele, Carlo Catalano, Marco Francone
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prognostic role of early post-infarction cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) on long-term risk stratification of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). METHODS: Seventy-seven STEMI patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and LVEF > 50% at CMR were included. The median time between STEMI and CMR was 5 days (IQR 2-8). LV volumes and function, area at risk (on T2 weighted images), infarcted myocardium (on late enhanced images), intramyocardial hemorrhage, and early and late microvascular obstruction (MVO) were detected and measured...
December 14, 2018: European Radiology
Volker Behrends, Guro F Giskeødegård, Natalia Bravo-Santano, Michal Letek, Hector C Keun
Acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the most commonly used analgesics worldwide, and overdoses are associated with lactic acidosis, hepatocyte toxicity, and acute liver failure due to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Hepatoma cell lines typically lack the CYP450 activity to generate the reactive metabolite of APAP observed in vivo, but are still subject to APAP cytotoxicity. In this study, we employed metabolic profiling and isotope labelling approaches to investigate the metabolic impact of acute exposure to cytotoxic doses of APAP on the widely used HepG2 cell model...
December 14, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Yizhou Liu, Armando Navarro-Vázquez, Roberto R Gil, Christian Griesinger, Gary E Martin, R Thomas Williamson
The use of anisotropic NMR data, such as residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) and residual chemical shift anisotropies (RCSAs), has emerged as a powerful technique for structural characterization of organic small molecules. RDCs typically report the relative orientations of different 1 H-13 C bonds; RCSAs report the relative orientations of different carbon chemical shielding tensors and hence are more useful for proton-deficient molecules. This information is complementary to that obtained from conventional NMR data such as J couplings, isotropic chemical shifts, and nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs)/rotational frame nuclear Overhauser effects (ROEs)...
December 14, 2018: Nature Protocols
Duy Khanh Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh Thuy Tran, Thanh Tien Nguyen, Ming-Fa Lin
The dramatic changes in electronic and magnetic properties are investigated using the first-principles calculations for halogen(X: Cl, Br, I, At)-adsorbed graphene nanoribbons. The rich and unique features are clearly revealed in the atoms-dominated electronic band structures, spin arrangement/magnetic moment, spatial charge distribution, and orbital- and spin-projected density of states. Halogen adsorptions can create the non-magnetic, ferromagnetic or anti-ferromagnetic metals, being mainly determined by concentrations and edge structures...
December 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
J A Frederickson, M H Engel, R L Cifelli
We explore hypothetical ecologies to explain diversity among predatory dinosaurs in North America's medial Cretaceous, based on occurrence, tooth morphology, and stable isotope analysis. The Mussentuchit local fauna, Utah, USA, is among the best-known terrestrial vertebrate assemblages from the Cretaceous. Study samples include teeth from six microvertebrate sites, ranging in depositional setting from distal floodplain to channel lags. We recognize four theropod morphotypes: a comparatively large theropod (morph 1), a medium-sized dromaeosaurid (morph 2), a small dromaeosaurid (morph 3), and a tooth-morph similar to the genus Richardoestesia (morph 4)...
December 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
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