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Noreen Khalid, Mumtaz Hussain, Hillary S Young, Benjamin Boyce, Muhammad Aqeel, Ali Noman
Concerns about motor vehicle emissions on human health are typically focused on aerial pollution and are regulated via controls on tailpipe emissions. However, vehicles also contribute heavy metal emissions through non-tailpipe pathways (e.g., brake wear, tire particulates). The metal pollutants produced via both tailpipe and non-tailpipe pathways pose threats to both human and ecosystem health long after they have settled from the atmosphere largely via contamination of soils and plants. In this study, we examined the effect of vehicular pollution on soils and plants in five paired sites in Gaviota, CA...
October 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ahmed M El-Gazzar, Mohamed Abdelgied, David B Alexander, William T Alexander, Takamasa Numano, Masaaki Iigo, Aya Naiki, Satoru Takahashi, Hiroshi Takase, Akihiko Hirose, Jun Kannno, Osama Saeid Elokle, Ashraf Mohamed Nazem, Hiroyuki Tsuda
Very little is known about the in vivo toxicity of inhaled double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs). In the present study, we compared the pulmonary toxicity of DWCNT to MWCNT-7, a well-known multi-walled carbon nanotube. Rats were divided into six groups: untreated, vehicle, low-dose DWCNT, high-dose DWCNT, low-dose MWCNT-7, and high-dose MWCNT-7. The test materials were administered by intra-tracheal intra-pulmonary spraying (TIPS) every other day for 15 days: the low-dose and high-dose groups were administered final total doses of 0...
October 19, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Qiaozhi Zhang, Mengjiao Zhao, Qinqin Xu, Hongrui Ren, Jianzhong Yin
Sorghum was pretreated by sole ultrasound or supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 ), as well as the method combining both to intensify enzymatic hydrolysis. The effect of the time (1-5 h) and temperature (30-70 °C) on ultrasonic pretreatment was investigated, and the best condition was determined as 5 h and 50 °C with the EH sugar yield of 33.69%. The influence of the time (6-48 h), temperature (40-80 °C), and pressure (15-25 MPa) on scCO2 pretreatment were also discussed in this study. The optimum condition of scCO2 pretreatment was identified as 60 °C, 20 MPa, and 36 h with the EH sugar yield of 43...
October 20, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hamdan Omar, Muhamad Afizzul Misman
BACKGROUND: Malaysia typically suffers from frequent cloud cover, hindering spatially consistent reporting of deforestation and forest degradation, which limits the accurate reporting of carbon loss and CO2 emissions for reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) intervention. This study proposed an approach for accurate and consistent measurements of biomass carbon and CO2 emissions using a single L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor system. A time-series analysis of aboveground biomass (AGB) using the PALSAR and PALSAR-2 systems addressed a number of critical questions that have not been previously answered...
October 19, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Ken-Ichi Saitow, Yufeng Wang, Shintaro Takahashi
Nitrogen and carbon co-doped TiO2 particles with a brilliant yellow-orange color were produced mechanochemically by high-energy ball milling as one-pot synthesis. This facile synthesis required only grinding TiO2 with melamine at room temperature. Using monochoromatic lights with the same intensity in visible and UV, the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 particles was accurately evaluated with respect to the degradation of an aqueous dye (methylene blue) solution. The activities under visible light (450 and 500 nm) were, respectively, 4 and 2 times higher than that of the unmilled TiO2 under UV light (377 nm), corresponding to 9 and 5 times higher than the UV under the solar light condition...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yara A Alzahid, Peyman Mostaghimi, Alireza Gerami, Ankita Singh, Karen Privat, Tammy Amirian, Ryan T Armstrong
Fluid flow in porous rocks is commonly capillary driven and thus, dependent on the surface characteristics of rock grains and in particular the connectivity of corners and crevices in which fluids reside. Traditional microfluidic fabrication techniques do not provide a connected pathway of crevices that are essential to mimic multiphase flow in rocks. Here, geo-material microfluidic devices with connected pathways of corners and crevices were created by functionalising Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with rock minerals...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Esther M Schwarzenbach, Mark J Caddick, Matthew Petroff, Benjamin C Gill, Emily H G Cooperdock, Jaime D Barnes
Subduction zones impose an important control on the geochemical cycling between the surficial and internal reservoirs of the Earth. Sulphur and carbon are transferred into Earth's mantle by subduction of pelagic sediments and altered oceanic lithosphere. Release of oxidizing sulphate- and carbonate-bearing fluids modifies the redox state of the mantle and the chemical budget of subduction zones. Yet, the mechanisms of sulphur and carbon cycling within subduction zones are still unclear, in part because data are typically derived from arc volcanoes where fluid compositions are modified during transport through the mantle wedge...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Admore Mureva, David Ward, Tiffany Pillay, Pauline Chivenge, Michael Cramer
Grasslands and savannas are experiencing intensive land-cover change due to woody plant encroachment. This change in land cover is thought to alter soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in these ecosystems. Some studies have reported a negative correlation between soil C and N and mean annual precipitation while others have indicated that there is no relationship with mean annual precipitation. We quantified the changes in C and N pools and δ13 C and δ15 N values to a depth of 1 m in pairs of encroached and adjacent open grassland sites along a precipitation gradient from 300 mm to 1500 mm per annum in South Africa...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tania Colasanti, Silvana Fiorito, Cristiano Alessandri, Annalucia Serafino, Federica Andreola, Cristiana Barbati, Francesca Morello, Michela Alfè, Gabriele Di Blasio, Valentina Gargiulo, Marta Vomero, Fabrizio Conti, Guido Valesini
A variety of environmental agents has been found to influence the development of autoimmune diseases; in particular, the studies investigating the potential association of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases with environmental micro and nano-particulate matter are very few and contradictory. In this study, the role of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), one of the most important components of environment particulate matter, emitted from Euro 4 and Euro 5 engines in altering the Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial (NHBE) cell biological activity was evaluated...
October 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Jonathan Dorival, Sophie Ruppert, Melissa Gunnoo, Adam Orłowski, Maylis Chapelais-Baron, Jérôme Dabin, Aurore Labourel, Damien Thompson, Gurvan Michel, Mirjam Czjzek, Sabine Genicot
Cell walls of marine macroalgae are composed of diverse polysaccharides that provide abundant carbon sources for marine heterotrophic bacteria. Among them, Zobellia galactanivorans is considered as a model for studying algae-bacteria interactions. The degradation of typical algal polysaccharides, such as agars or alginate, has been intensively studied in this bacterium, but the catabolism of plant-like polysaccharides is essentially uncharacterized. Here we identify a polysaccharide utilization locus in the genome of Z...
October 19, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Xingzhong Jin, Stuart A Kinner, Robyn Hopkins, Emily Stockings, Ryan J Courtney, Anthony Shakeshaft, Dennis Petrie, Timothy Dobbins, Kate Dolan
INTRODUCTION: Smoking remains the leading risk factor for disease burden and mortality worldwide. Heavy Smoking is often associated with poor Nutrition, Alcohol abuse and Physical inactivity (known as 'SNAP'). Australia's first prison smoking ban was introduced in the Northern Territory in July 2013. However, relapse to smoking after release from prison is normative. Holistic and cost-effective interventions are needed to maintain post-release abstinence to realise the potential public health impact of smoke-free prison policies...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Sadaf Oliai Araghi, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Suzanne C van Dijk, Karin M A Swart, Hanneke W van Laarhoven, Natasja M van Schoor, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Valery Lemmens, Bruno H Ch Stricker, André G Uitterlinden, Nathalie van der Velde
BACKGROUND: Folic acid and vitamin-B12 play key roles in one-carbon metabolism. Disruption of one-carbon metabolism may be involved in the risk of cancer. Our aim was to assess the long-term effect of supplementation with both folic acid and vitamin-B12 on the incidence of overall cancer and on colorectal cancer in the B-PROOF trial. METHODS: Long-term follow-up of B-PROOF trial participants (N=2,524), a multi-center, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial designed to assess the effect of 2-3 years daily supplementation with folic acid (400 µg) and vitamin-B12 (500 µg) versus placebo on fracture incidence...
October 19, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Andrea Goya Grocin, Remigiusz A Serwa, Julia Morales Sanfrutos, Markus Ritzefeld, Edward W Tate
N -myristoylation is the covalent addition of a 14-carbon saturated fatty acid (myristate) to the N-terminal glycine of specific protein substrates by N -myristoyltransferase (NMT) and plays an important role in protein regulation by controlling localization, stability, and interactions. We developed a novel method for whole-proteome profiling of free N-terminal glycines through labeling with S. Aureus sortase A (SrtA) and used it for assessment of target engagement by an NMT inhibitor. Analysis of the SrtA-labeling pattern with an engineered biotinylated depsipeptide SrtA substrate (Biotin-ALPET-Haa, Haa = 2-hydroxyacetamide) enabled whole proteome identification and quantification of de novo generated N-terminal Gly proteins in response to NMT inhibition by nanoLC-MS/MS proteomics, and was confirmed for specific substrates across multiple cell lines by gel-based analyses and ELISA...
October 19, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Joanne K Hobbs, Andrew G Hettle, Chelsea Vickers, Alisdair B Boraston
Pectin is a complex uronic acid-containing polysaccharide typically found in plant cell walls, though forms of pectin are also found in marine diatoms and seagrasses. Genetic loci that target pectin have recently been identified in two phyla of marine bacteria. These loci appear to encode for a pectin saccharification pathway that is distinct from the canonical pathway typically associated with phytopathogenic terrestrial bacteria. However, very few components of the marine pectin metabolism pathway have been experimentally validated...
October 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
S Feuerbaum, N Saile, G Pohlentz, J Müthing, H Schmidt
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strain EDL933 encodes the single chromosomal 9-O-acetylesterase NanS, and several copies of prophage-encoded 9-O-acetylesterases (NanS-p). These enzymes have recently been shown to cleave 5-N-acetyl-9-O-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2 ) to yield de-O-acetylated Neu5Ac, the latter of which may serve as a carbon and/or nitrogen source. In the current study, we investigated the NanS- and NanS-p-mediated digestion of synthetic O-acetylated neuraminic acids and bovine submaxillary glands mucin (BSM)-derived O-acetylneuraminic acids by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and nano electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI MS)...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Diker Nurettin, Bayram Burak
The objective of this study was to conduct a computer assessment of the biomechanical stability of locking fixation plates of different thicknesses, made of titanium alloy and carbon-fiber- reinforced polyetheretherkotone (CFR-PEEK) in Class III atrophic mandibular fractures. Class III atrophic mandibular models were constructed using three-dimensional finite element models. After simulation of fracture on the left side, plates with different thicknesses (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm) were adapted to the models and three locking screws on each side of the fracture were used for fixation...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Kunhao Yang, Zhongqiu Li, Yueguang Lv, Chuyi Yu, Peilong Wang, Xiaoou Su, Li Wu, Yujian He
An electrochemical aptasensor for ultrasensitive detection of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl (OH-PCB) was developed. In this work, the sulfydryl aptamer selected for OH-PCB was easily immobilized on the surface of the modified glassy carbon electrode via Au-S bond due to incorporation of gold nanoparticles/poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride-graphene composite. The fabrication process of the electrochemical aptasensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry...
December 24, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Yuantao Zhou, Shurui Cao, Cunxian Xi, Guoyin Lai, Xianliang Li, Lei Zhang, Guomin Wang, Zhiqiong Chen
Highly graphitic nanoporous carbon (NPC) was obtained from an agricultural waste-citrus peel at optimum condition. Then, a low-cost and pore size-controlled magnetic graphitic nanoporous carbon (MNPC) with ultrahigh specific surface area (1064 m2  g-1 ) was successfully fabricated by coprecipitation of Fe3 O4 particles onto NPC. The prepared MNPC was characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Raman spectrum, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR). BET results showed a significant increase in the micropores volume and specific surface area of MNPCs following the increase of carbonization temperature, which implied that highly efficient carbonization made NPC an excellent active phase for MNPC...
December 24, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Wajee Jaikaew, Adrian Ruff, Panida Khunkaewla, Thomas Erichsen, Wolfgang Schuhmann, Albert Schulte
Robotic square wave voltammetry (SVW) in 24-well microtiter plates has been developed as a reliable non-manual procedure for quantifying drug release from pharmaceutical hydrogels. The assay was established using 1% agarose disks containing Paracetamol® (PCT) as a model preparation. Computerized buffer delivery and SVW in calibration and hydrogel sample wells were performed by a three-electrode arrangement combined with a thin plastic tube. For the glassy carbon working electrode of the assembly the upper limit of the linear response and the lower detection limit of sequential 'in-well' PCT-SVW were 1000 and 0...
December 24, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Keenan Mintz, Eric Waidely, Yiqun Zhou, Zhili Peng, Abdulrahman O Al-Youbi, Abdulaziz S Bashammakh, Mohammad S El-Shahawi, Roger M Leblanc
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the leading causes of mortality in the world. The detection of HCC in its early stage is the key for early treatment and thus the improvement of the chances of survival. Among the various methods of HCC screening, assays based on the detection of biomarker that is specific to HCC such as alpha-l-fucosidase (AFU) have been regarded as the most prominent methods. In this regards, a new assay for the detection of AFU to screen HCC was developed. This assay was based on the energy transfer between carbon dots (C-dots) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the concentration of AFU could be monitored by the degree of C-dots fluorescence quenching due to the energy transfer...
December 24, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
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