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Microbiome And Chronic Kidney Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455339/impact-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-cardiovascular-and-autoimmune-diseases
#1
EDITORIAL
Michael Weis
The gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ, generating enzymes and bioactive metabolites, which affect host physiology. In addition metabolism-independent processes like impaired intestinal barrier function may result in bacterial translocation and an increased inflammation. Specific microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) have been detected that induce immune activation via cognate pattern-recognition receptors on host immune cells, with subsequent consequences on inflammatory-induced endothelial dysfunction...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410105/dietary-metabolism-the-gut-microbiome-and-heart-failure
#2
REVIEW
W H Wilson Tang, Daniel Y Li, Stanley L Hazen
Advances in our understanding of how the gut microbiota contributes to human health and diseases have expanded our insight into how microbial composition and function affect the human host. Heart failure is associated with splanchnic circulation congestion, leading to bowel wall oedema and impaired intestinal barrier function. This situation is thought to heighten the overall inflammatory state via increased bacterial translocation and the presence of bacterial products in the systemic blood circulation. Several metabolites produced by gut microorganisms from dietary metabolism have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320619/protective-association-between-jc-polyoma-viruria-and-kidney-disease
#3
Jasmin Divers, Carl D Langefeld, Douglas S Lyles, Lijun Ma, Barry I Freedman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The presence of viruses in urine (urine virome) typically reflects infection in the kidneys and urinary tract. The urinary virome is associated with HIV-associated nephropathy and chronic glomerulosclerosis. There are many associations of this microbiome with human diseases that remain to be described. This manuscript reviews emerging data on relationships between kidney disease and urinary tract infection/colonization with JC polyomavirus (JCPyV). RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately 30% of the adult population sheds JCPyV in the urine...
October 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298666/diet-gut-microbiome-and-indoxyl-sulphate-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#4
REVIEW
Chih-Yu Yang, Der-Cherng Tarng
Emerging evidence suggests that intestinal dysbiosis plays an important role in host inflammation locally and systemically. Such pathological condition is even more prevailing in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Of note, indoxyl sulphate (IS), a gut-derived uremic toxin, is notorious for its pro-inflammatory feature in CKD patients. IS accumulates in the body as the urinary excretion of uremic toxins is impaired, and further worsens the kidney function in a vicious cycle to CKD. Dietary restriction in vegetables, fruits and yogurt leads to the predominance of indole-producing intestinal microbial flora and further exaggerates the accumulation of IS in CKD patients...
October 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288265/the-metabolomic-quest-for-a-biomarker-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
Robert Davies
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing burden on people and on healthcare for which the diagnostics are niether disease-specific nor indicative of progression. Biomarkers are sought to enable clinicians to offer more appropriate patient-centred treatments, which could come to fruition by using a metabolomics approach. This mini-review highlights the current literature of metabolomics and CKD, and suggests additional factors that need to be considered in this quest for a biomarker, namely the diet and the gut microbiome, for more meaningful advances to be made...
October 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30287477/the-phosphate-binder-ferric-citrate-alters-the-gut-microbiome-in-rats-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri, Ane C F Nunes, André M Comeau, Morgan G I Langille, Whitney England, Mahyar Khazaeli, Yasunori Suematsu, Joann Phan, Katrine Whiteson
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the gut microbiome is altered and bacterial-derived uremic toxins promote systemic inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Ferric citrate complex is a dietary phosphate binder prescribed for patients with end-stage kidney disease to treat hyperphosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Iron is an essential nutrient in both microbes and mammals. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the large iron load administered with ferric citrate in CKD may significantly change the gut microbiome...
December 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30268024/nmr-based-metabonomic-approach-reveals-changes-in-the-urinary-and-fecal-metabolome-caused-by-resveratrol
#7
Gabriela Torres Santiago, José Iván Serrano Contreras, María Estela Meléndez Camargo, L Gerardo Zepeda Vallejo
An untargeted NMR-based metabonomics approach was used to evaluate the effects of pure resveratrol (RSV, 50 and 250 mg/kg per os) on the urinary and faecal metabolome of normal female Wistar rats. Multivariate data analysis on both the endogenous and xenobiotic metabotype of RSV provided an insight into its metabolic fate and influence on endogenous metabolites. The xenobiotic trajectory shows that RSV is highly metabolized within the first 12 h, the period of the most significant variation of endogenous metabolites...
January 5, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212017/-oxalate-nephropathy-due-to-malabsorption-syndrome
#8
Sten E Deurvorst, Job J Alberga, Anne van Tellingen, Marcel J Flens
Enteric oxalate nephropathy is caused by hyperoxaluria. Factors which contribute to excessive oxalate absorption are an abundance of free fatty acids in the intestine due to malabsorption, changes in the microbiome, and bowel inflammation. We present two cases that illustrate different pathophysiological aspects of this disease. The first patient was a 70-year-old male who developed oxalate nephropathy through malabsorption caused by chronic pancreatitis. It is plausible that the oxalate nephropathy was set off by antibiotic treatment which influenced the microbiome...
August 23, 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30186183/antidepressant-like-effects-of-cistanche-tubulosa-extract-on-chronic-unpredictable-stress-rats-through-restoration-of-gut-microbiota-homeostasis
#9
Yang Li, Ying Peng, Ping Ma, Hanlin Yang, Haiyan Xiong, Mengyue Wang, Chongsheng Peng, Pengfei Tu, Xiaobo Li
Growing evidence shows that neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, are linked with gut microbiome through the gut-brain axis. Cistanches Herba is well known for the treatment of "kidney-yang" deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and has been used for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in recent years. In this study, chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced depression model was established to explore the impact of Cistanche tubulosa extract (CTE) on behavioral tests, monoamine neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in hippocampus and colon, gut microbiota composition, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100156/moderate-renal-impairment-and-toxic-metabolites-produced-by-the-intestinal-microbiome-dietary-implications
#10
Michael Pignanelli, Chrysi Bogiatzi, Gregory Gloor, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Gregor Reid, Bradley L Urquhart, Kelsey N Ruetz, Thomas J Velenosi, J David Spence
OBJECTIVE: Toxic metabolites produced by the intestinal microbiome from animal proteins, carnitine (mainly from red meat), or phosphatidylcholine (mainly from egg yolk), have important adverse effects on cardiovascular disease. These are renally eliminated and may be termed gut-derived uremic toxins (GDUT). We hypothesized that even moderate renal impairment and intake of nutrient precursors would raise plasma levels of GDUT. DESIGN: A cohort study. SETTING: Academic medical center...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939312/intestinal-barrier-disruption-and-dysregulated-mucosal-immunity-contribute-to-kidney-fibrosis-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Jihyun Yang, Sung Yoon Lim, Yoon Sook Ko, Hee Young Lee, Se Won Oh, Myung Gyu Kim, Won Yong Cho, Sang Kyung Jo
Background: Emerging evidence suggests that intestinal dysbiosis is associated with diverse pathological processes. In this study we demonstrated intestinal barrier disruption and aberrant mucosal immunity in 5/6 nephrectomized mice and the effect of probiotics on chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: CKD was induced in 6-week-old mice by 5/6 nephrectomy. They were fed a lactobacilli mixture for 8 weeks. Serum, urine and stool samples were collected for renal function assessments and gut microbiome analyses...
June 22, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909116/altered-microrna-regulation-of-short-chain-fatty-acid-receptors-in-the-hypertensive-kidney-is-normalized-with-hydrogen-sulfide-supplementation
#12
Gregory J Weber, Jaleyea Foster, Sathnur B Pushpakumar, Utpal Sen
Hypertension affects nearly one third of the adult US population and is a significant risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). An expanding body of recent studies indicates that gut microbiome has crucial roles in regulating physiological processes through, among other mechanisms, one mode of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and their target receptors. In addition, these SCFA receptors are potential targets of regulation by host miRNAs, however, the mechanisms through which this occurs is not clearly defined...
August 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847376/the-systems-biology-of-uric-acid-transporters-the-role-of-remote-sensing-and-signaling
#13
Sanjay K Nigam, Vibha Bhatnagar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Uric acid homeostasis in the body is mediated by a number of SLC and ABC transporters in the kidney and intestine, including several multispecific 'drug' transporters (e.g., OAT1, OAT3, and ABCG2). Optimization of uric acid levels can be viewed as a 'systems biology' problem. Here, we consider uric acid transporters from a systems physiology perspective using the framework of the 'Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis.' This hypothesis explains how SLC and ABC 'drug' and other transporters mediate interorgan and interorganismal communication (e...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728993/the-crosstalk-of-gut-microbiota-and-chronic-kidney-disease-role-of-inflammation-proteinuria-hypertension-and-diabetes-mellitus
#14
REVIEW
Mehmet Kanbay, Emine M Onal, Baris Afsar, Tuncay Dagel, Aslihan Yerlikaya, Adrian Covic, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been shown to result in profound changes in the composition and functions of the gut microbial flora which by disrupting intestinal epithelial barrier and generating toxic by-products contributes to systemic inflammation and the associated complications. On the other hand, emerging evidence points to the role of the gut microbiota in the development and progression of CKD by provoking inflammation, proteinuria, hypertension, and diabetes. These observations demonstrate the causal interconnection between the gut microbial dysbiosis and CKD...
August 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725592/urinary-virome-perturbations-in-kidney-transplantation
#15
Tara K Sigdel, Neil Mercer, Sharvin Nandoe, Carrie D Nicora, Kristin Burnum-Johnson, Wei-Jun Qian, Minnie M Sarwal
The human microbiome is important for health and plays a role in essential metabolic functions and protection from certain pathogens. Conversely, dysbiosis of the microbiome is seen in the context of various diseases. Recent studies have highlighted that a complex microbial community containing hundreds of bacteria colonizes the healthy urinary tract, but little is known about the human urinary viruses in health and disease. To evaluate the human urinary virome in the context of kidney transplantation (tx), variations in the composition of the urinary virome were evaluated in urine samples from normal healthy volunteers as well as patients with kidney disease after they had undergone kidney tx...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676858/effects-of-prebiotic-fiber-xylooligosaccharide-in-adenine-induced-nephropathy-in-mice
#16
Jieping Yang, Qing Li, Susanne M Henning, Jin Zhong, Mark Hsu, Rupo Lee, Jianfeng Long, Brenda Chan, Glenn T Nagami, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
SCOPE: This study evaluates the effect of the prebiotic fiber xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on kidney function and gut microbiome in mice with adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHOD AND RESULTS: Mice are fed the control diet containing adenine for 3 weeks to induce CKD and are switched to XOS supplemented (2 or 7%) or control diets for another 3 weeks. Mice with CKD exhibit increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and kidney histopathology. XOS significantly reverses kidney injuries in CKD mice...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651696/diversity-of-the-midstream-urine-microbiome-in-adults-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Holly Kramer, Gina Kuffel, Krystal Thomas-White, Alan J Wolfe, Kavitha Vellanki, David J Leehey, Vinod K Bansal, Linda Brubaker, Robert Flanigan, Julia Koval, Anuradha Wadhwa, Michael J Zilliox
PURPOSE: To examine the characteristics of the midstream urine microbiome in adults with stage 3-5 non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 ) and diuretic use were recruited from outpatient nephrology clinics. Midstream voided urine specimens were collected using the clean-catch method. The bacterial composition was determined by sequencing the hypervariable (V4) region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene...
June 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602401/contributory-role-of-gut-microbiota-and-their-metabolites-toward-cardiovascular-complications-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Daniel Y Li, W H Wilson Tang
The gut microbiome recently has emerged as a novel risk factor that impacts health and disease. Our gut microbiota can function as an endocrine organ through its unique ability to metabolize various dietary precursors, and can fuel the systemic inflammation observed in chronic disease. This is especially important in the setting of chronic kidney disease, in which microbial metabolism can contribute directly to accumulation of circulating toxins that then can alter and shift the balance of microbiota composition and downstream functions...
March 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559506/cross-talk-between-renal-lithogenesis-and-atherosclerosis-an-unveiled-link-between-kidney-stone-formation-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Asokan Devarajan
The prevalence of kidney stones and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are increasing throughout the world. Both diseases are chronic and characterized by accumulation of oxidized proteins and lipids in the renal tissue and arterial wall, respectively. Emerging studies have revealed a positive association between nephrolithiasis and CVDs. Based on preclinical and clinical evidences, this review discusses: (i) stone forming risk factors, crystal nucleation, aggregation, injury-induced crystal retention, and stone formation, (ii) CVD risk factors such as dyslipidemia, perturbation of gut microbiome, obesity, free radical-induced lipoprotein oxidation, and retention in the arterial wall, subsequent foam cell formation, and atherosclerosis, (iii) mechanism by which stone forming risk factors such as oxalate, calcium, uric acid, and infection contribute toward CVDs, and (iv) how CVD risk factors, such as cholesterol, phospholipids, and uric acid, contribute to kidney stone formation are described...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523750/altered-microbiome-in-chronic-kidney-disease-systemic-effects-of-gut-derived-uremic-toxins
#20
REVIEW
Wei Ling Lau, Javad Savoj, Michael B Nakata, Nosratola D Vaziri
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), influx of urea and other retained toxins exerts a change in the gut microbiome. There is decreased number of beneficial bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids, an essential nutrient for the colonic epithelium, concurrent with an increase in bacteria that produce uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulphate, p -cresyl sulphate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Due to intestinal wall inflammation and degradation of intercellular tight junctions, gut-derived uremic toxins translocate into the bloodstream and exert systemic effects...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
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