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Vladimir Ivanovski, Thomas G Mayerhöfer, Antje Kriltz, Jürgen Popp
Several samples of flat soda-lime silicate glass were investigated by the Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection (IR-ATR) spectroscopy technique. The specular reflectance spectra together with the results of the performed dispersion analysis and the generated reflectance spectra, using Fresnel equations, suggest that the samples are isotropic. In contrast, spectra recorded by the ATR technique suggest an anisotropic structure on the surface of the specimen different from that in the bulk. This is established through differences in the s- and p-polarized IR-ATR spectra, which cannot be simply transformed into one another employing Fresnel formula for an isotropic case...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Ji-Yuan Liang, Jun-Yun Wu, Ming-Yeh Yang, Anren Hu, Liang-Yü Chen
Polyphenols are associated with a wide range of physiological properties. Catechin is a flavan-3-ol with five phenolic hydroxyl groups. After blue light illumination, the transparent solution of catechin became yellowish. The effects of visible light illumination (400-800nm) were investigated on molecular structures and antioxidant capacities of catechin. Under the neutral or alkaline aqueous with the illumination of blue light, the photolysis and polymerization of catechin were observed in this study. A chromogenic catechin dimer was separated and identified as a proanthocyanidin by the chromatographic technique and mass spectrometry...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Sergey Alekhin, Wolfgang Altmannshofer, Takehiko Asaka, Brian Batell, Fedor Bezrukov, Kyrylo Bondarenko, Alexey Boyarsky, Ki-Young Choi, Cristóbal Corral, Nathaniel Craig, David Curtin, Sacha Davidson, André de Gouvêa, Stefano Dell'Oro, Patrick deNiverville, P S Bhupal Dev, Herbi Dreiner, Marco Drewes, Shintaro Eijima, Rouven Essig, Anthony Fradette, Björn Garbrecht, Belen Gavela, Gian F Giudice, Mark D Goodsell, Dmitry Gorbunov, Stefania Gori, Christophe Grojean, Alberto Guffanti, Thomas Hambye, Steen H Hansen, Juan Carlos Helo, Pilar Hernandez, Alejandro Ibarra, Artem Ivashko, Eder Izaguirre, Joerg Jaeckel, Yu Seon Jeong, Felix Kahlhoefer, Yonatan Kahn, Andrey Katz, Choong Sun Kim, Sergey Kovalenko, Gordan Krnjaic, Valery E Lyubovitskij, Simone Marcocci, Matthew Mccullough, David McKeen, Guenakh Mitselmakher, Sven-Olaf Moch, Rabindra N Mohapatra, David E Morrissey, Maksym Ovchynnikov, Emmanuel Paschos, Apostolos Pilaftsis, Maxim Pospelov, Mary Hall Reno, Andreas Ringwald, Adam Ritz, Leszek Roszkowski, Valery Rubakov, Oleg Ruchayskiy, Ingo Schienbein, Daniel Schmeier, Kai Schmidt-Hoberg, Pedro Schwaller, Goran Senjanovic, Osamu Seto, Mikhail Shaposhnikov, Lesya Shchutska, Jessie Shelton, Robert Shrock, Brian Shuve, Michael Spannowsky, Andy Spray, Florian Staub, Daniel Stolarski, Matt Strassler, Vladimir Tello, Francesco Tramontano, Anurag Tripathi, Sean Tulin, Francesco Vissani, Martin W Winkler, Kathryn M Zurek
This paper describes the physics case for a new fixed target facility at CERN SPS. The SHiP (search for hidden particles) experiment is intended to hunt for new physics in the largely unexplored domain of very weakly interacting particles with masses below the Fermi scale, inaccessible to the LHC experiments, and to study tau neutrino physics. The same proton beam setup can be used later to look for decays of tau-leptons with lepton flavour number non-conservation, [Formula: see text] and to search for weakly-interacting sub-GeV dark matter candidates...
December 2016: Reports on Progress in Physics
David W Shaffer, Indrani Bhowmick, Arnold L Rheingold, Charlene Tsay, Brooke N Livesay, Matthew P Shores, Jenny Y Yang
We describe the structural and electronic impacts of modifying the bridging atom in a family of Co(ii) pincer complexes with the formula Co(t-Bu)2P(E)Py(E)P(t-Bu)2Br2 (Py = pyridine, E = CH2, NH, and O for compounds 1-3, respectively). Structural characterization by single crystal X-ray diffraction indicates that compounds 1 and 3 are 5-coordinate complexes with both bromides bound to the Co(ii) ion, while compound 2 is square planar with one bromide in the outer coordination sphere. The reduction potentials of 1-3, characterized by cyclic voltammetry, are consistent with the increasing electron-withdrawing character of the pincer ligand as the linker (E) between the pyridine and phosphine arms becomes more electronegative...
October 24, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Nuria A Illán-Cabeza, Sonia B Jiménez-Pulido, Francisco Hueso-Ureña, Tomás Peña-Ruiz, Miguel Quirós-Olozábal, Miguel N Moreno-Carretero
2,4-Bis(1,3,7-trimethyl-pteridine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione-6-yl)-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-1H-1,5-benzodiazepine (DLMBZD) has been prepared and its molecular and crystal structures have been determined from spectral and XRD data. The benzodiazepine ligand was reacted with zinc(ii), cadmium(ii) and mercury(ii) chloride, bromide and iodide to give complexes with general formula [M(DLMBZD)X2]. The complexes have been synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR and elemental analysis. The structure of seven complexes has been obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction...
October 24, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Verónica Jornet-Mollá, Yan Duan, Carlos Giménez-Saiz, João C Waerenborgh, Francisco M Romero
The paper reports the syntheses, crystal structures, thermal and (photo)magnetic properties of spin crossover salts of formula [Fe(bpp)2](C6H8O4)·4H2O (1·4H2O), [Fe(bpp)2](C8H4O4)·2CH3OH·H2O (2·2MeOH·H2O) and [Fe(bpp)2](C8H4O4)·5H2O (2·5H2O) (bpp = 2,6-bis(pyrazol-3yl)pyridine; C6H8O4 = adipate dianion; C8H4O4 = terephthalate dianion). The salts exhibit an intricate network of hydrogen bonds between low-spin iron(ii) complexes and carboxylate dianions, with solvent molecules sitting in the voids. Desolvation is accompanied by a low-spin (LS) to high-spin (HS) transformation in the materials...
October 24, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Giorgina B Piccoli, Federica Ventrella, Irene Capizzi, Federica N Vigotti, Elena Mongilardi, Giorgio Grassi, Valentina Loi, Gianfranca Cabiddu, Paolo Avagnina, Elisabetta Versino
Low-protein diets (LPDs) are often considered as contraindicated in diabetic patients, and are seldom studied. The aim of this observational study was to provide new data on this issue. It involved 149 diabetic and 300 non-diabetic patients who followed a LPD, with a personalized approach aimed at moderate protein restriction (0.6 g/day). Survival analysis was performed according to Kaplan-Meier, and multivariate analysis with Cox model. Diabetic versus non-diabetic patients were of similar age (median 70 years) and creatinine levels at the start of the diet (2...
October 21, 2016: Nutrients
Hendrik Treutler, Steffen Neumann
Mass spectrometry is a key analytical platform for metabolomics. The precise quantification and identification of small molecules is a prerequisite for elucidating the metabolism and the detection, validation, and evaluation of isotope clusters in LC-MS data is important for this task. Here, we present an approach for the improved detection of isotope clusters using chemical prior knowledge and the validation of detected isotope clusters depending on the substance mass using database statistics. We find remarkable improvements regarding the number of detected isotope clusters and are able to predict the correct molecular formula in the top three ranks in 92 % of the cases...
October 20, 2016: Metabolites
Xichao Duan, Sanling Yuan, Kaifa Wang
In this paper, we propose and investigate an age-structured hepatitis B virus (HBV) model with saturating incidence and spatial diffusion where the viral contamination process is described by the age-since-infection. We first analyze the well-posedness of the initial-boundary values problem of the model in the bounded domain Ω ⊂ Rn and obtain an explicit formula for the basic reproductive number R0 of the model. Then we investigate the global behavior of the model in terms of R0: if R0 ≤ 1, then the uninfected steady state is globally asymptotically stable, whereas if R0 > 1, then the infected steady state is globally asymptotically stable...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Naim Al Mahi, Munni Begum
One of the primary objectives of ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequencing or RNA-Seq experiment is to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes in two or more treatment conditions. It is a common practice to assume that all read counts from RNA-Seq data follow overdispersed (OD) Poisson or negative binomial (NB) distribution, which is sometimes misleading because within each condition, some genes may have unvarying transcription levels with no overdispersion. In such a case, it is more appropriate and logical to consider two sets of genes: OD and non-overdispersed (NOD)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
Emilie Evain-Bana, Lucie Schiavo, Christophe Bour, Don Antoine Lanfranchi, Simone Berardozzi, Francesca Ghirga, Denyse Bagrel, Bruno Botta, Gilles Hanquet, Mattia Mori
The cell division cycle 25 phosphatases (CDC25A, B, and C; E.C. are key regulator of the cell cycle in human cells. Their aberrant expression has been associated with the insurgence and development of various types of cancer, and with a poor clinical prognosis. Therefore, CDC25 phosphatases are a valuable target for the development of small molecule inhibitors of therapeutic relevance. Here, we used an integrated strategy mixing organic chemistry with biological investigation and molecular modeling to study novel quinonoid derivatives as CDC25 inhibitors...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Rushin Shojaii, Anne L Martel
The registration of two-dimensional histology images to reference images from other modalities is an important preprocessing step in the reconstruction of three-dimensional histology volumes. This is a challenging problem because of the differences in the appearances of histology images and other modalities, and the presence of large nonrigid deformations which occur during slide preparation. This paper shows the feasibility of using densely sampled scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) features and a SIFTFlow deformable registration algorithm for coregistering whole-mount histology images with blockface optical images...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
Sava Sakadžić, Mohammad A Yaseen, Rajeshwer Jaswal, Emmanuel Roussakis, Anders M Dale, Richard B Buxton, Sergei A Vinogradov, David A Boas, Anna Devor
The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([Formula: see text]) is an essential parameter for evaluating brain function and pathophysiology. However, the currently available approaches for quantifying [Formula: see text] rely on complex multimodal imaging and mathematical modeling. Here, we introduce a method that allows estimation of [Formula: see text] based on a single measurement modality-two-photon imaging of the partial pressure of oxygen ([Formula: see text]) in cortical tissue. We employed two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) and the oxygen-sensitive nanoprobe PtP-C343 to map the tissue [Formula: see text] distribution around cortical penetrating arterioles...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
Zhaowei Kong, Shengyan Sun, Min Liu, Qingde Shi
This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Mauro Serafini, Elisabetta Toti
The obesity burden, with 1.5 billion overweight (OW) and 500 million obese (OB) worldwide, significantly increased the risk of degenerative diseases. Excessive consumption of foods that are energy dense lead to obesity, which represents a titanic cost for not only the world's health systems but also a substantial ecological cost to the environment. The waste of resources and the unnecessary green house gas emissions (GHGs) emission, due to "obesigen" consumption of foods, have been ignored so far in practical assessments of ecological impacts...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Naren P Tallapragada
In August 2015, Turing Pharmaceuticals acquired the marketing rights to Daraprim (pyrimethamine), a drug used to treat parasitic infections like malaria and toxoplasmosis. Soon after, Turing caused an uproar when it announced that it would raise the price per tablet of Daraprim from [Formula: see text], a 5500% price hike for a drug that has been on the market for over 60 years and off patent since the 1970s. Old, off-patent drugs are becoming increasingly expensive; Daraprim is the archetypal example. Turing had the power to set a high price for Daraprim because the drug's limited patient population, the absence of competing manufacturers, and a lack of therapeutic alternatives all created an effective monopoly...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Mark N Wallace, Matthew J Cronin, Richard W Bowtell, Ian S Scott, Alan R Palmer, Penny A Gowland
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of the auditory region of the temporal lobe would benefit from the availability of image contrast that allowed direct identification of the primary auditory cortex, as this region cannot be accurately located using gyral landmarks alone. Previous work has suggested that the primary area can be identified in magnetic resonance (MR) images because of its relatively high myelin content. However, MR images are also affected by the iron content of the tissue and in this study we sought to confirm that different MR image contrasts did correlate with the myelin content in the gray matter and were not primarily affected by iron content as is the case in the primary visual and somatosensory areas...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Anita Krishnan, Jodi I Pike, Robert McCarter, Amanda L Fulgium, Emmanuel Wilson, Mary T Donofrio, Craig A Sable
BACKGROUND: Clinicians rely on age- and size-specific measures of cardiac structures to diagnose cardiac disease. No universally accepted normative data exist for fetal cardiac structures, and most fetal cardiac centers do not use the same standards. The aim of this study was to derive predictive models for Z scores for 13 commonly evaluated fetal cardiac structures using a large heterogeneous population of fetuses without structural cardiac defects. METHODS: The study used archived normal fetal echocardiograms in representative fetuses aged 12 to 39 weeks...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Marcel M Rossi, Jacqueline Alderson, Amar El-Sallam, James Dowling, Jeffrey Reinbolt, Cyril J Donnelly
The aims of this study were to: (i) establish a new criterion method to validate inertia tensor estimates by setting the experimental angular velocity data of an airborne objects as ground truth against simulations run with the estimated tensors, and (ii) test the sensitivity of the simulations to changes in the inertia tensor components. A rigid steel cylinder was covered with reflective kinematic markers and projected through a calibrated motion capture volume. Simulations of the airborne motion were run with two models, using inertia tensor estimated with geometric formula or the compound pendulum technique...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Riham I Ahmed, Essam Eldin A Osman, Fadi M Awadallah, Samir M El-Moghazy
New target compounds were designed as inhibitors of tubulin polymerization relying on using two types of ring B models (cyclohexenone and indazole) to replace the central ring in colchicine. Different functional groups (R(1)) were attached to manipulate their physicochemical properties and/or their biological activity. The designed compounds were assessed for their antitumor activity on HCT-116 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Compounds 4b, 5e and 5f exhibited comparable or higher potency than colchicine against colon HCT-116 and MCF-7 tumor cells...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
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