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Ali Keivanloo, Tayebeh Besharati-Seidani, Babak Kaboudin, Akihiro Yoshida, Tsutomu Yokomatsu
Synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted 1-alkylpyrrolo[2,3-b]quinoxalines was accomplished through the reaction of 3-chloroquinoxalin-2-amines with internal alkynes in the presence of Pd(OAc)[Formula: see text], NaOAc, and KOtBu in DMSO. This method afforded desired pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinoxalines in 65-92% reaction yields. The minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration determinations against Micrococcus luteus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed that some of the synthesized compounds showed the same values compared to tetracycline...
June 16, 2018: Molecular Diversity
Lauren R Brink, Bo Lönnerdal
Milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) surround droplets delivering lipids to the breast-fed infant and are enriched with glycoproteins upon exocytosis out of the mammary cell. MFGM is typically removed during processing of cow milk for the manufacture of infant formula. Recent clinical trials have found that formula supplemented with bovine MFGM improved cognition. Here, we aimed to explore the mechanisms behind this improved developmental outcome. Sprague-Dawley rats were bred, and their litters were manipulated to either 10 pups to represent normal growth (N) or 16 pups to represent restricted growth (R) per dam...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Yu Long, Sixin Li, Jingchun Qin, Liwei Xie, Liping Gan, Fengming Jie, Yanli Wu, Yanwu Li, Qun Du
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T (Treg) cells and T helper 17 (Th17) cells play crucial roles in ulcerative colitis (UC). Kuijieling (KJL) is an effective Chinese medicine formula for treating UC in clinic. Kuijieling has shown remedy effect on the imbalance between Treg and Th17 cells. This study aimed to further reveal the exact underlying mechanism of how Kuijieling regulates the differentiation of Treg and Th17 cells in the treatment of UC. METHODS: Colitis was induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in rats and treated by KJL...
June 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Marica Baldoncini, Matteo Albéri, Carlo Bottardi, Enrico Chiarelli, Kassandra Giulia Cristina Raptis, Virginia Strati, Fabio Mantovani
Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy recently emerged as a promising technique for non-stop monitoring of soil water content with possible applications in the field of precision farming. The potentialities of the method are investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations applied to the reconstruction of gamma-ray spectra collected by a NaI scintillation detector permanently installed at an agricultural experimental site. A two steps simulation strategy based on a geometrical translational invariance is developed...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Ana C Cepeda-Lopez, Michael B Zimmermann, Sophia Wussler, Alida Melse-Boonstra, Nicole Naef, Sandro Manuel Mueller, Marco Toigo, Isabelle Herter-Aeberli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Iron deficiency (ID) is common in overweight and obese individuals (OW/OB) but the mechanism is uncertain. Greater blood volume (BV) in OW/OB may increase hemoglobin (Hb) mass and iron requirements, and confound iron biomarkers by hemodilution. Quantification of BV/PV changes in OW/OB is challenging and a formula to estimate BV/PV based on anthropometric indices would be valuable. In normal weight (NW) and OW/OB women, we aimed at: (1) measure BV and assess whether differences in BV affect concentrations and total circulating mass of Hb and iron biomarkers; (2) develop an algorithm describing BV in OW/OB...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Satoshi Nishiwaki, Hidenori Tanaka, Hiroto Kojima, Shinichiro Okamoto
A human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated donor is the primary alternative donor for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in Japan. In considering an optimal donor registry size, the availability of HLA-matched donors is important. In this study, the probability of finding an HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 allele-matched donor was estimated using two different methods based on the haplotype frequencies in the Japanese population: an actual measurement method (AMM) and a formula method (FM). According to AMM, the probabilities of finding an HLA-matched donor were 40...
June 15, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Mikkel Jensen, Niels Møller Israelsen, Michael Maria, Thomas Feuchter, Adrian Podoleanu, Ole Bang
In ultra-high resolution (UHR-) optical coherence tomography (OCT) group velocity dispersion (GVD) must be corrected for in order to approach the theoretical resolution limit. One approach promises not only compensation, but complete annihilation of even order dispersion effects, and that at all sample depths. This approach has hitherto been demonstrated with an experimentally demanding 'balanced detection' configuration based on using two detectors. We demonstrate intensity correlation (IC) OCT using a conventional spectral domain (SD) UHR-OCT system with a single detector...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jinglan Huang, Li Zhang, Jun Tang, Jing Shi, Yi Qu, Tao Xiong, Dezhi Mu
OBJECTIVE: To summarise current evidence evaluating the effects of human milk on the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. DESIGN: We searched for studies on human milk and BPD in English and Chinese databases on 26 July 2017. Furthermore, the references of included studies were also screened. The inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis were the following: (1) preterm infants (<37 weeks); (2) human milk; (3) comparing with formula feeding; (4) the outcome included BPD; and (5) the type of study was randomised controlled trial (RCT) or cohort study...
June 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Youyou Luo, Jie Chen, Youhong Fang, Jingan Lou, Jindan Yu
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis is a chronic progressive inflammatory condition. The clinical spectrum includes pernicious anemia, atrophic gastritis, antibodies to parietal cell antigens and intrinsic factor, achlorhydria, hypergastrinemia and carcinoma. It is rare in paediatric cohorts. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a boy with metaplastic atrophic gastritis in whom immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked(IPEX) syndrome was confirmed by FOXP3 gene mutation...
June 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Dominik Lips, Philipp Maass
Several fluctuation formulas are available for calculating elastic constants from equilibrium correlation functions in computer simulations, but the ones available for simulations at constant pressure exhibit slow convergence properties and cannot be used for the determination of local elastic constants. To overcome these drawbacks, we derive a stress-stress fluctuation formula in the NPT ensemble based on known expressions in the NVT ensemble. We validate the formula in the NPT ensemble by calculating elastic constants for the simple nearest-neighbor Lennard-Jones crystal and by comparing the results with those obtained in the NVT ensemble...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Judith H Parkinson, Raoul Kutil, Jonas Kuppler, Robert R Junker, Wolfgang Trutschnig, Arne C Bathke
The problem of quantifying the overlap of Hutchinsonian niches has received much attention lately, in particular in quantitative ecology, from where it also originates. However, the niche concept has the potential to also be useful in many other application areas, as for example in economics. We are presenting a fully nonparametric, robust solution to this problem, along with exact shortcut formulas based on rank-statistics, and with a rather intuitive probabilistic interpretation. Furthermore, by deriving the asymptotic sampling distribution of the estimators, we are proposing the first asymptotically valid inference method, providing confidence intervals for the niche overlap...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Biostatistics
Yichao Zhu, Jing Luo, Xu Guo, Yang Xiang, Stephen Jonathan Chapman
Materials containing a high proportion of grain boundaries offer significant potential for the development of radiation-resistant structural materials. However, a proper understanding of the connection between the radiation-induced microstructural behavior of a grain boundary and its impact at long natural time scales is still missing. In this Letter, point defect absorption at interfaces is summarized by a jump Robin-type condition at a coarse-grained level, wherein the role of interface microstructure is effectively taken into account...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Victor V Kotlyar, Alexey A Kovalev, Anton G Nalimov
Using the Richards-Wolf formulas for an arbitrary circularly polarized optical vortex with an integer topological charge m, we obtain explicit expressions for all components of the electric and magnetic field strength vectors near the focus, as well as expressions for the intensity (energy density) and for the energy flux (components of the Poynting vector) in the focal plane of an aplanatic optical system. For m=2, from the obtained expressions it follows that the energy flux near the optical axis propagates in the reversed direction, rotating along a spiral around the optical axis...
June 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Alison B Callahan, Ashley A Campbell, Susel Oropesa, Aryeh Baraban, Michael Kazim
PURPOSE: Diagnosing thyroid eye disease-compressive optic neuropathy (TED-CON) is challenging, particularly in cases lacking a relative afferent pupillary defect. Large case series of TED-CON patients and accessible diagnostic tools are lacking in the current literature. This study aims to create a mathematical formula that accurately predicts the presence or absence of CON based on the most salient clinical measures of optic neuropathy. METHODS: A retrospective case series compares 108 patients (216 orbits) with either unilateral or bilateral TED-CON and 41 age-matched patients (82 orbits) with noncompressive TED...
June 13, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Tommy Waltmann, Curt Waltmann, Nathan Horst, Alex Travesset
We elucidate how nanocrystals ``bond'' to form ordered structures. For that purpose we consider nanocrystal configurations consisting of regular polygons and polyhedra, which are the motifs that constitute single component and binary nanocrystal superlattices, and simulate them using united atom models. We compute the free energy and quantify many body effects, i.e. those that cannot be accounted for by pair potential (two-body) interactions, further showing that they arise from coalescing vortices of capping ligands...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mauro Fianchini, Nuno A G Bandeira
Ethylene efficiently binds late transition metals of groups 10 and 11. In spite of their reactivity, homoleptic compounds of formula [M-(η2 -C2 H4 )3 ]n+ (with n = 0,1) have been isolated in solution and solid state and characterized spectroscopically throughout the last 50 years with metals from groups 10 and 11. X-ray diffraction studies proved that such homoleptic adducts adopt planar "wheel" structures where ethylene moieties lies flat in the same plane both in group 10 and 11. These experimental findings were also confirmed by several in-depth computational investigations carried out to understand the bond pattern of such peculiar structures...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
S P Repetsky, I G Vyshyvana, S P Kruchinin, Stefano Bellucci
In the one-band model of strong coupling, the influence of substitutional impurity atoms on the energy spectrum and electrical conductance of graphene is studied. It is established that the ordering of substitutional impurity atoms on nodes of the crystal lattice causes the appearance of a gap in the energy spectrum of graphene with width η|δ| centered at the point yδ, where η is the parameter of ordering, δ is the difference of the scattering potentials of impurity atoms and carbon atoms, and y is the impurity concentration...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laurent Béghin, Xavier Marchandise, Eric Lien, Myriam Bricout, Jean-Paul Bernet, Jean-François Lienhardt, Françoise Jeannerot, Vincent Menet, Jean-Christophe Requillart, Jacques Marx, Nanda De Groot, Jonathan Jaeger, Philippe Steenhout, Dominique Turck
BACKGROUND: Palmitate in breast milk is predominantly located in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position, while infant formulae contain palmitate predominantly in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions. During digestion, palmitate in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions is hydrolyzed to free palmitic acid that can subsequently complex with calcium to form insoluble soaps; this may partially explain why formula-fed infants have harder stools than breast-fed infants. METHODS: This large (n = 488) randomized, double-blind, multicentre trial investigated whether increasing the sn-2 palmitate content of infant formula improves stool consistency and bone mineral content (measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), without affecting growth or health...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Xin Gan, Wei Wang, Yujie Hu, Fengqin Li, Xu Mao, Jin Xu
OBJECTIVE: To develop a Cronobacter spieces identification PCR method based on RNA polymerase beta subunit( rpo B) gene and identify species of Cronobacter isolated from different sources. METHODS: A total of 7 primer pairs based on the rpo B were design, and 9 standard strains were set as reference strains to identify species of261 strains isolated from infant formula foods, cereal based foods and clinical diarrhea cases in 2012-2014 in China. RESULTS: The molecular weight of 9 standard strains were as same as expect, 179 of 216 Cronobacter isolates were C...
September 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Heng Wang, Liangpo Liu, Heqing Shen
OBJECTIVE: Monitoring infants' exposure to 10 phthalates by measuring their urinary metabolites using a modified high performance liquid chromatography tandemelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry( HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method. METHODS: A total of 50 infants at 0-6 month-old were recruited and their urine samples were collected by commercial available gel diapers. After the urine expression, phthalates were hydrolyzed by β-glucuronidase, cleaned up by HLB cartridge, then these metabolites were measured by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS equipped with a Hypersil Gold Phenyl column...
July 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
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