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Kazushige Goto, Daichi Sumi, Chihiro Kojima, Aya Ishibashi
The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of hypoxic exposure during prolonged endurance exercise sessions (79 min in total) on post-exercise hepcidin levels in trained male endurance athletes. Ten endurance athletes (mean ± standard deviation; height: 169.8 ± 7.1 cm, weight: 57.1 ± 5.0 kg) conducted two endurance exercise sessions under either a normobaric hypoxic condition [inspired O2 fraction (FiO2) = 14.5%] or a normoxic condition (FiO2 = 20.9%). Exercise consisted of 10 × 3 min running on a treadmill at 95% of maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) with 60s of active rest at 60% of [Formula: see text]...
2017: PloS One
Wenyi Zhang, Zhengbing He, Wei Guan, Rui Ma
This paper suggests a probability-dominant user equilibrium (PdUE) model to describe the selfish routing equilibrium in a stochastic traffic network. At PdUE, travel demands are only assigned to the most dominant routes in the same origin-destination pair. A probability-dominant rerouting dynamic model is proposed to explain the behavioral mechanism of PdUE. To facilitate applications, the logit formula of PdUE is developed, of which a well-designed route set is not indispensable and the equivalent varitional inequality formation is simple...
2017: PloS One
Elia Matteucci, Andrea Baschieri, Andrea Mazzanti, Letizia Sambri, Jorge Ávila, Antonio Pertegás, Henk J Bolink, Filippo Monti, Enrico Leoni, Nicola Armaroli
A series of monoanionic Ir(III) complexes (2-4) of general formula [Ir(C^N)2(b-trz)](TBA) are presented, where C^N indicates three different cyclometallating ligands (Hppy = 2-phenylpyridine; Hdfppy = 2-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)pyridine; Hpqu = 2-methyl-3-phenylquinoxaline), b-trz is a bis-tetrazolate anionic N^N chelator (H2b-trz = di(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)methane), and TBA = tetrabutylammonium. 2-4 are prepared in good yields by means of the reaction of the suitable b-trz bidentate ligand with the desired iridium(III) precursor...
August 22, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Arianna Aceti, Luca Maggio, Isadora Beghetti, Davide Gori, Giovanni Barone, Maria Luisa Callegari, Maria Pia Fantini, Flavia Indrio, Fabio Meneghin, Lorenzo Morelli, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti, Luigi Corvaglia
Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics' efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs...
August 22, 2017: Nutrients
Yan Zhou, Qingyu Ma, Gepu Guo, Juan Tu, Dong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Based on the interaction of ultrasonic excitation and magneto-electrical induction, magneto-acousto-electrical (MAE) technology was demonstrated to have the capability of differentiating conductivity variations along the acoustic transmission. By applying the characteristics of the MAE voltage, a simplified algorithm of MAE measurement based conductivity reconstruction was developed. METHODS: With the analyses of acoustic vibration, ultrasound propagation, Hall Effect and magneto-electrical induction, theoretical and experimental studies of MAE measurement and conductivity reconstruction were performed...
August 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Abigail Buckle, Celia Taylor
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a costly gastrointestinal disorder that mainly affects preterm and low-birth-weight infants and can lead to considerable morbidity and mortality. Mother's own milk is protective against NEC but is not always available. In such cases, donor human milk has also been shown to be protective (although to a lesser extent) compared with formula milk, but it is more expensive. This systematic review aimed at evaluating the cost of donor milk, the cost of treating NEC, and the cost-effectiveness of exclusive donor milk versus formula milk feeding to reduce the short-term health and treatment costs of NEC...
August 22, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Zijuan Bi, Yu Zheng, Jianye Yuan, Zhaoxiang Bian
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional bowel disorders (FBD), which is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, abdominal bloating/distention associated with defecation or changed bowel habits. Currently, there is no evidence of obvious anatomic or physiologic abnormalities on the routine diagnostic examinations. There are multiple pathological factors involved in IBS responsible for its heterogeneous nature, although the exact etiology and pathology of IBS are not well known and it is disappointed to develop biomarkers for this disorder...
August 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Zhansheng Wang, Hui Xu, Lirong Yan, Qingyang Li, Liangce Rong
An efficient and green reaction of isatins, 3-amino-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (3-amine-1H-pyrazole), and [Formula: see text]-diketone in aqueous medium in the presence of [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] is reported, and a series of novel spirocompounds was obtained with high yields. The advantages of this reaction were simple procedure, moderate reaction conditions, and wide range of substrates. More importantly, the catalyst [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] could be recovered for reuse up to five times...
August 21, 2017: Molecular Diversity
Caleb M Bryce, Christopher C Wilmers, Terrie M Williams
Quantification of fine-scale movement, performance, and energetics of hunting by large carnivores is critical for understanding the physiological underpinnings of trophic interactions. This is particularly challenging for wide-ranging terrestrial canid and felid predators, which can each affect ecosystem structure through distinct hunting modes. To compare free-ranging pursuit and escape performance from group-hunting and solitary predators in unprecedented detail, we calibrated and deployed accelerometer-GPS collars during predator-prey chase sequences using packs of hound dogs (Canis lupus familiaris, 26 kg, n = 4-5 per chase) pursuing simultaneously instrumented solitary pumas (Puma concolor, 60 kg, n = 2)...
2017: PeerJ
Filipe Manuel Clemente, Sixto González-Víllora, Anne Delextrat, Fernando Manuel Lourenço Martins, Juan Carlos Pastor Vicedo
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of different small-sided and conditioning games (SSCG) with different tactical contents on heart rate responses, technical performance and collective organization of youth basketball players of different performance levels. Twenty male basketball players from U14 (13.7 ± 0.8 years old; 4.2 ± 1.4 years of practice) and U16 (15.3 ± 1.1 years old; 6.4 ± 2.1 years of practice) participated in this research study. The two-way MANOVA revealed that the sports level (p = 0...
September 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
Hideki Nojima, Masayasu Yoneda, Hiroshi Watanabe, Kiminori Yamane, Yoshihiro Kitahara, Kiyokazu Sekikawa, Hideya Yamamoto, Akihito Yokoyama, Noboru Hattori, Nobuoki Kohno
BACKGROUND: We investigated the influence of aerobic capacity on the improvement in glycemic control achieved by long-term aerobic exercise in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Fifty-three male patients with type 2 diabetes, recruited from outpatient clinics, wore multiple-memory accelerometers and were instructed to exercise at moderate intensity for ≥30 min on ≥3 days per week over 12 months. Peak oxygen uptake (peak [Formula: see text]) and serum glycated albumin (GA) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6, 12 months...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Anil Kumar, M Arul Kumar, Irene J Beyerlein
We use first-principles density functional theory to study the preferred modes of slip in the high-pressure ω phase of Zr. The generalized stacking fault energy surfaces associated with shearing on nine distinct crystallographic slip modes in the hexagonal ω-Zr crystal are calculated, from which characteristics such as ideal shear stress, the dislocation Burgers vector, and possible accompanying atomic shuffles, are extracted. Comparison of energy barriers and ideal shear stresses suggests that the favorable modes are prismatic 〈c〉, prismatic-II [Formula: see text] and pyramidal-II 〈c + a〉, which are distinct from the ground state hexagonal close packed α phase of Zr...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Harro M Timmerman, Nicole B M M Rutten, Jos Boekhorst, Delphine M Saulnier, Guus A M Kortman, Nikhat Contractor, Martin Kullen, Esther Floris, Hermie J M Harmsen, Arine M Vlieger, Michiel Kleerebezem, Ger T Rijkers
The establishment of the infant gut microbiota is a highly dynamic process dependent on extrinsic and intrinsic factors. We characterized the faecal microbiota of 4 breastfed infants and 4 formula-fed infants at 17 consecutive time points during the first 12 weeks of life. Microbiota composition was analysed by a combination of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR). In this dataset, individuality was a major driver of microbiota composition (P = 0.002) and was more pronounced in breastfed infants...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Thu Le, Alberto Striolo, C Heath Turner, David R Cole
An important scientific debate focuses on the possibility of abiotic synthesis of hydrocarbons during oceanic crust-seawater interactions. While on-site measurements near hydrothermal vents support this possibility, laboratory studies have provided data that are in some cases contradictory. At conditions relevant for sub-surface environments it has been shown that classic thermodynamics favour the production of CO2 from CH4, while abiotic methane synthesis would require the opposite. However, confinement effects are known to alter reaction equilibria...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yu-Seong Seo, Jae Hak Lee, Won Nam Kang, Jungseek Hwang
We investigated a high-quality MgB2 thin film with a thickness of ~1000 nm on an Al2O3 substrate using optical spectroscopy. We measured the reflectance spectra of the film at various temperatures both below, and above, the superconducting transition temperature, T c   [Formula: see text] 40 K. An earlier study showed that when the sample surface is exposed to air the optical properties of the surface change immediately, however, the saturated change is negligibly small in the far-infrared region. The optical conductivity spectrum in the normal state shows two (narrow and broad) Drude modes, with the narrow Drude mode being dominant in the low frequency region below 1000 cm(-1)...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Enrico Caldarulo, Alessandro Barducci, Kurt Wüthrich, Michele Parrinello
In transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which are lethal neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and a wide range of other mammalian species, the normal "cellular" prion protein ([Formula: see text]) is transformed into amyloid aggregates representing the "scrapie form" of the protein ([Formula: see text]). Continued research on this system is of keen interest, since new information on the physiological function of [Formula: see text] in healthy organisms is emerging, as well as new data on the mechanism of the transformation of [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] In this paper we used two different approaches: a combination of the well-tempered ensemble (WTE) and parallel tempering (PT) schemes and metadynamics (MetaD) to characterize the conformational free-energy surface of [Formula: see text] The focus of the data analysis was on an 11-residue polypeptide segment in mouse [Formula: see text](121-231) that includes the [Formula: see text]2-[Formula: see text]2 loop of residues 167-170, for which a correlation between structure and susceptibility to prion disease has previously been described...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Changzi Ge, Xiru Yu, Manman Kan, Chunfeng Qu
The multiple-contamination of heavy metals and nutrients worsens increasingly and Ulva sp. green tide occurs almost simultaneously. To reveal the biological mechanism for outbreak of the green tide, Ulva pertusa was exposed to seven-day-multiple-contamination. The relation between pH variation (VpH), Chl a content, ratio of (Chl a content)/(Chl b content) (Rchla/chlb), SOD activity of U. pertusa (ASOD) and contamination concentration is [Formula: see text] (p<0.05), Cchla=0.88±0.09-0.01±0.00×CCd (p<0...
August 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
P Adamczyk, A Werner, M Bach, J Żywiec, A Czekajło, W Grzeszczak, B Drozdzowska, W Pluskiewicz
The aim of the study was to establish factors with an impact on fracture risk and to develop an algorithm to predict osteoporotic fracture. A total of 978 postmenopausal women from the epidemiological, population-based RAC-OST-POL study with a mean age of 65.7 ± 7.3 years were enrolled. At baseline, bone mineral density at hip and clinical risk factors for fracture were collected. Afterward, each person was asked annually on fracture incidence in the 5-year follow-up. Finally, data for complete 5-year observation were gathered for the group of 802 patients...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Yi-Fei Jia, Ying-Ying Zhang, Bing Xu, An-Dong Wang, Xue-Yan Zhan
Near infrared model established under a certain condition can be applied to the new samples status, environmental conditions or instrument status through the model transfer. Spectral background correction and model update are two types of data process methods of NIR quantitative model transfer, and orthogonal signal regression (OSR) is a method based on spectra background correction, in which virtual standard spectra is used to fit a linear relation between master batches spectra and slave batches spectra, and map the slave batches spectra to the master batch spectra to realize the transfer of near infrared quantitative model...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Sijia Zhang, Vahhab Zarei, Beth A Winkelstein, Victor H Barocas
The facet capsular ligaments encapsulate the bilateral spinal facet joints and are common sources of painful injury due to afferent innervation. These ligaments exhibit architectural complexity, which is suspected to contribute to the experimentally observed lack of co-localization between macroscopic strain and microstructural tissue damage. The heterogeneous and multiscale nature of this ligament, combined with challenges in experimentally measuring its microscale mechanics, hinders the ability to understand sensory mechanisms under normal or injurious loading...
August 18, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
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