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Emma L Feeney, Rebecca Barron, Victoria Dible, Zita Hamilton, Yvonne Power, Linda Tanner, Cal Flynn, Paul Bouchier, Tom Beresford, Nessa Noronha, Eileen R Gibney
Background: Dairy fat consumed as cheese has different effects on blood lipids than that consumed as butter. It is unknown whether the effect is specific to fat interaction with other cheese nutrients (calcium, casein proteins), or to the cheese matrix itself. Objective: We aimed to test the effect of 6 wk daily consumption of ∼40 g dairy fat, eaten within macronutrient-matched food matrices, on markers of metabolic health, in overweight adults aged ≥50 y. Design: The study was a 6-wk randomized parallel intervention; 164 volunteers (75 men) received ∼40 g of dairy fat/d, in 1 of 4 treatments: (A) 120 g full-fat Irish cheddar cheese (FFCC) (n = 46); (B) 120 g reduced-fat Irish cheddar cheese + butter (21 g) (RFC + B) (n = 45); (C) butter (49 g), calcium caseinate powder (30 g), and Ca supplement (CaCO3) (500 mg) (BCC) (n = 42); or (D) 120 g FFCC, for 6 wk (as per A) (n = 31)...
August 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Shisei Tei, Jukka-Pekka Kauppi, Junya Fujino, Kathryn F Jankowski, Ryosaku Kawada, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
Although behavioral flexibility and conflict regulation may rely on executive function, the mechanism underlying these relationships remains obscure. We studied whether subjects' conflict ratings were associated with right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) and temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) activity during flexible decision-making in a moral dilemma task using inter-subject correlation (ISC)-based approach (i.e., brain-behavior correlation matrices analysis). We observed a statistically significant positive correlation between the ISC matrix of rTPJ and conflict-scores...
August 11, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Sui Li, Dong Zeng, Jiangjun Peng, Zhaoying Bian, Hao Zhang, Qi Xie, Yongbo Wang, Yuting Liao, Shanli Zhang, Jing Huang, Deyu Meng, Zongben Xu, Jianhua Ma
Cerebrovascular diseases, i.e., acute stroke, are a common cause of serious long-term disability. Cerebral perfusion computed tomography (CPCT) can provide rapid, highresolution, quantitative hemodynamic maps to assess and stratify perfusion in patients with acute stroke symptoms. However, CPCT imaging typically involves a substantial radiation dose due to its repeated scanning protocol. Therefore, in this work, we present a low-dose CPCT image reconstruction method to yield high-quality CPCT images and high-precision hemodynamic maps by utilizing the great similarity information among the repeated scanned CPCT images...
August 13, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
G C Lopes, J Perdigão, D Baptista, A Ballarin
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of hydrofluoric acid (HF) vs self-etching ceramic primer on resin cement microshear bond strength (μSBS) and ultramorphology of lithium disilicate (LD) ceramic. METHODS AND MATERIALS: LD (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) blocks (14×4×2 mm3 ) were polished to 1200 grit and assigned to nine groups (n=5): CON: control, no LD surface treatment; IVO: 5.0% HF (IPS Ceramic Etching Gel, Ivoclar Vivadent); VIT: 5.0% HF (Vita Ceramics Etch, VITA Zahnfabrik); FGM: 5...
August 14, 2018: Operative Dentistry
Samanta Uclés, Elena Hakme, Carmen Ferrer, Amadeo R Fernández-Alba
Thermally labile pesticides (captafol, captan, dicofol, and folpet) are highly prone to suffer thermal degradation during sample introduction into a gas chromatograph (GC) to tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI), 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP), and phthalimide (PI), respectively, mainly produced in the glass liner of the injector. This undesired behavior leads to inaccurate qualitative and quantitative results. Direct on-column injection (OCI) technique is evaluated as an alternative to avoid or minimize compound alteration during the analysis...
August 13, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Stavroula Nanaki, Panagiotis Barmpalexis, Alexandros Iatrou, Evi Christodoulou, Margaritis Kostoglou, Dimitrios N Bikiaris
The present study evaluates the preparation of risperidone controlled release microspheres as appropriate long-acting injectable formulations based on a series of novel biodegradable and biocompatible poly(lactic acid)⁻poly(propylene adipate) (PLA/PPAd) polymer blends. Initially, PPAd was synthesized using a two-stage melt polycondensation method (esterification and polycondensation) and characterized by 1H-NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. DSC and XRD results for PLA/PPAd blends (prepared by the solvent evaporation method) showed that these are immiscible, while enzymatic hydrolysis studies performed at 37 °C showed increased mass loss for PPAd compared to PLA...
August 13, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Julien Dubois, Paola Galdi, Lynn K Paul, Ralph Adolphs
Individual people differ in their ability to reason, solve problems, think abstractly, plan and learn. A reliable measure of this general ability, also known as intelligence, can be derived from scores across a diverse set of cognitive tasks. There is great interest in understanding the neural underpinnings of individual differences in intelligence, because it is the single best predictor of long-term life success. The most replicated neural correlate of human intelligence to date is total brain volume; however, this coarse morphometric correlate says little about function...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Vera Lidwina Negenborn, Danny Aschwin Young-Afat, Rieky Elise Gustina Dikmans, Jan Maerten Smit, Henri Adolf Hubert Winters, Johan Peter William Don Griot, Johannes Wilhelmus Rembertus Twisk, Pieter Quinten Ruhé, Marcus Antonius Maria Mureau, Oren Lapid, Esther Moerman, Adriaan Anne William Martinus van Turnhout, Mathias Joseph Petrus Franciscus Ritt, Mark-Bram Bouman, Margriet Gezina Mullender
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the use of acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR). Suggested advantages are that ADMs facilitate one-stage IBBR and improve aesthetic outcomes. We compared immediate one-stage ADM-assisted IBBR with two-stage IBBR (current standard of care). Our previously reported secondary endpoint showed that one-stage ADM-assisted IBBR was associated with significantly more adverse outcomes. Here, we present the primary endpoint results aiming to assess whether one-stage IBBR with ADM provides higher patient-reported quality of life (QOL) compared with two-stage IBBR...
August 10, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Chiharu Ishii, Takeyuki Akita, Masashi Mita, Tomomi Ide, Kenji Hamase
An automated two-dimensional HPLC-MS/MS system was designed and developed for the highly selective determination of trace levels of d-amino acids. As the targets, frequently observed ones in mammalian physiological fluids, Ala, Asp, Glu, Leu, Pro and Ser, were selected because these d-amino acids are the potential biomarkers for the early and sensitive diagnoses of various diseases. The target analytes were derivatized with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F), then isolated by a reversed-phase column in the first dimension...
July 29, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Gábor Vasvári, József Kalmár, Péter Veres, Miklós Vecsernyés, Ildikó Bácskay, Pálma Fehér, Zoltán Ujhelyi, Ádám Haimhoffer, Ágnes Rusznyák, Ferenc Fenyvesi, Judit Váradi
In this current article matrix formulations for oral drug delivery are reviewed. Conventional dosage forms and novel applications such as 3D printed matrices and aerogel matrices are discussed. Beside characterization, excipients and matrix forming agents are also enlisted and classified. The incorporated drug could exist in crystalline or in amorphous forms, which makes drug dissolution easily tunable. Main drug release mechanisms are detailed and reviewed to support rational design in pharmaceutical technology and manufacturing considering the fact that R&D members of the industry are forced to obtain knowledge about excipients and methods pros and cons...
July 2018: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
Eleftheria Babaliari, George Petekidis, Maria Chatzinikolaidou
Bone tissue engineering provides advanced solutions to overcome the limitations of currently used therapies for bone reconstruction. Dynamic culturing of cell-biomaterial constructs positively affects the cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we present a precisely flow-controlled microfluidic system employed for the investigation of bone-forming cell responses cultured on fibrous collagen matrices by applying two flow rates, 30 and 50 μL/min. We characterized the collagen substrates morphologically by means of scanning electron microscopy, investigated their viscoelastic properties, and evaluated the orientation, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation capacity of pre-osteoblastic cells cultured on them...
August 12, 2018: Bioengineering
Aubrey L Woern, Dennis J Byard, Robert B Oakley, Matthew J Fiedler, Samantha L Snabes, Joshua M Pearce
Fused particle fabrication (FPF) (or fused granular fabrication (FGF)) has potential for increasing recycled polymers in 3-D printing. Here, the open source Gigabot X is used to develop a new method to optimize FPF/FGF for recycled materials. Virgin polylactic acid (PLA) pellets and prints were analyzed and were then compared to four recycled polymers including the two most popular printing materials (PLA and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)) as well as the two most common waste plastics (polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene (PP))...
August 12, 2018: Materials
Liang Li, Yongtao Zhu, Jun Hong, Feng Ming, Yu Wang
The Chinese first fully polarimetric space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR)-Gaofen-3 (GF-3) was launched in August 2016, which operates at the C-band and the resolution can reach 1 m. Polarimetric SAR calibration is a procedure that corrects the polarization distortion of a measured scattering matrix by referring to the scattering matrix of a known target. The present paper describes the principle, design, manufacture, and measurement results of a novel polarimetric active radar calibrator (PARC) designed for GF-3...
August 10, 2018: Sensors
J Naouli, R Abouabdellah, A Bennouna, A Laissaoui, P W Swarzenski, H Ait Bouh, A Mesfioui, M-S Benbrahim, M-Y Dechraoui Bottein
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) events occur regularly along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coast of Morocco, and have been responsible for several severe cases of human intoxication. Along the southern Atlantic coast of Morocco, aquaculture and intensive artisanal fishing practices have recently been particularly heavily impacted, and toxic species have been observed in increasing intensity and frequency. In the 1990's a regulatory monitoring program was established for the coastal waters off Morocco by the National Institute of Fisheries Research (INRH), to reduce the risk of intoxication with biotoxins...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Malwina Jaszczak, Radosław Wach, Piotr Maras, Mariusz Dudek, Marek Kozicki
This work discusses the substitution of a gelatine physical gel matrix with a matrix made of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (Pluronic F-127) in five 3D radiotherapy polymer gel dosimeters: MAGAT, PAGAT, NIPAM, VIPARnd (VIP) and VIPARCT (VIC). The current research outcomes showed that not each polymer gel dosimeter could be manufactured with Pluronic F-127. Two of the polymer gel dosimeters (PAGAT and VIP) containing the Pluronic F-127 matrix allowed for some proper dose response for radiotherapy dosimetry (a response to a dose range of e...
August 13, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Andrew Piper, Ben M Alston, Dave J Adams, Andrew R Mount
Nanoelectrodes and nanoelectrode arrays show enhanced diffusion and greater faradaic current densities and signal-to-noise ratios compared to macro and microelectrodes, which can lead to enhanced sensing and detection. One example is the microsquare nanoband edge electrode (MNEE) array system, readily formed through microfabrication and whose quantitative response has been established electroanalytically. Hydrogels have been shown to have applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, and anti-biofouling; some also have the ability to be grown electrochemically...
August 13, 2018: Faraday Discussions
Nadine S Hillberg, Patrick I Ferdinandus, Rieky E G Dikmans, Bjorn Winkens, Juliette Hommes, René R W J van der Hulst
Background: Acellular matrices (AM) might enable a direct single-stage breast reconstruction procedure resulting in an improved efficacy of the reconstruction phase for patients. Safety concerns are an important issue due to a recent study which shows that single-stage breast reconstruction with Strattice™ resulted in more complications versus a two-stage reconstruction. Therefore, the goal of this study is to compare the short- and long-term complications of a single-stage breast reconstruction with the use of two types of AM (Strattice™ and Meso Biomatrix®) versus two-stage breast reconstruction without the use of an AM...
2018: European Journal of Plastic Surgery
Katarzyna Madej, Tatyana K Kalenik, Wojciech Piekoszewski
Pesticides are still a very important factor in food plant cultivation. The lipophilic character of most pesticides can lead to their accumulation in fat, which can have harmful effects on humans and animals. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge about the isolation and determination of pesticides in fatty commodities. The following techniques for isolation are discussed: solvent partitioning, solid phase and dispersive solid phase, QuEChERS-based procedures, matrix solid-phase dispersion, gel permeation chromatography, Soxhlet extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, and microextraction techniques...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Veronica Rey, Ana M Botana, Alvaro Antelo, Mercedes Alvarez, Luis M Botana
Although paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) have traditionally been analyzed by liquid chromatography with either pre- or post-column derivatization, and these methods have been validated successfully through inter-laboratory studies, mass spectrometry methods have also been described in literature for use in monitoring programs. However, methods using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) need to be improved in terms of sensitivity, analyte recovery and retention time stability because of undesirable matrix effects...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Maria da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Lucicleide Leonice Rodrigues, Débora de Oliveira, Giuliano Elias Pereira, Marcos Dos Santos Lima
The phenolic profile and antioxidant activity (AOX) of "organic vs. conventional" Brazilian wines and grape juices were analyzed. A simple method for the determination of minerals Cu, Fe and Mn by F-AAS was validated and used to characterize the samples studied. In the validation of the Cu, Fe and Mn determination method, the protocol for samples preparation by hot digestion with HNO3  + H2 O2 proved to be more suitable for the grape juice and wine matrices. The validation parameters were considered satisfactory...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
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