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Viviana Manzulli, Antonio Fasanella, Antonio Parisi, Luigina Serrecchia, Adelia Donatiello, Valeria Rondinone, Marta Caruso, Sabine Zange, Alina Tscherne, Nicola Decaro, Carmine Pedarra, Domenico Galante
Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis , is a non-contagious infectious disease that affects a wide range of animal species (primarily ruminants), as well as humans. Due to the often fatal outcome in human cases, the quick administration of definitely effective antimicrobials is crucial either as prophylaxis or for the therapy of clinical cases. In this study, a total of 110 B. anthracis strains, temporally, geographically and genetically different, isolated during anthrax outbreaks in Italy from 1984 to 2017, were screened for their susceptibility towards 16 clinically relevant antimicrobial agents using the broth microdilution method...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
Pere Ràfols, Dídac Vilalta, Sònia Torres, Raul Calavia, Bram Heijs, Liam A McDonnell, Jesús Brezmes, Esteban Del Castillo, Oscar Yanes, Noelia Ramírez, Xavier Correig
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a molecular imaging technique that maps the distribution of molecules in biological tissues with high spatial resolution. The most widely used MSI modality is matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), mainly due to the large variety of analyte classes amenable for MALDI analysis. However, the organic matrices used in classical MALDI may impact the quality of the molecular images due to limited lateral resolution and strong background noise in the low mass range, hindering its use in metabolomics...
2018: PloS One
Ali H Tayeb, Mehdi Tajvidi
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are able to form strong oxygen-barrier films suitable for food packaging but lack the needed water resistance in comparison to plastics. Desired water barrier quality can be achieved by applying mineral additives within the nanofibrils network. In current contribution, a sustainable hybrid system with improved water-barrier function is proposed by incorporating colloidal montmorillonite nano-clay (MMT) and two crosslinking agents namely; polyamidoamine epichlorohydrin (PAE) and Acrodur® thermoset acrylic resin (ACR) into CNF interfaces...
December 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lars Wiehemeier, Marian Cors, Oliver Wrede, Julian Oberdisse, Thomas Hellweg, Tilman Kottke
Stimuli-responsive microgels are colloidal particles and promising candidates for applications such as targeted drug delivery, matrices for catalysts, nanoactuators and smart surface coatings. To tailor the response, the architecture of microgels is of paramount importance with respect to these applications. Statistical copolymer microgels based on N-isopropylmethacrylamide (NiPMAM) and N-n-propylacrylamide (NnPAM) show a cooperative phase transition leading to a collapse at a specific temperature. Interestingly, some core-shell microgel particles reveal a linear response of the hydrodynamic radius with temperature...
December 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Manisha Mukherjee, Yidan Hu, Chuan Hao Tan, Scott A Rice, Bin Cao
Quorum quenching (QQ) has been reported to be a promising approach for membrane biofouling control. Entrapment of QQ bacteria in porous matrices is required to retain them in continuously operated membrane processes and to prevent uncontrollable biofilm formation by the QQ bacteria on membrane surfaces. It would be more desirable if the formation and dispersal of biofilms by QQ bacteria could be controlled so that the QQ bacterial cells are self-immobilized, but the QQ biofilm itself still does not compromise membrane performance...
December 2018: Science Advances
Wei Gao, Yong Tian, Huan Liu, Yaqi Cai, Aifeng Liu, Yong-Liang Yu, Zongshan Zhao, Guibin Jiang
Rapid detection of ultratrace pollutants in complex matrices is a great challenge for studying their environmental behaviors and impacts. In this work, a method is developed by combining covalent organic framework (COF) based solid phase microextraction (SPME) with constant flow desorption ionization mass spectrometry for rapid detection of trace tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in multiple water media. The limits of detection and qualification are 0.92 and 3.1 ng L-1 for TBBPA, respectively. The linear range is between 0...
December 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Rana Attalla, Erin Puersten, Nidhi Jain, P Ravi Selvaganapathy
One of the primary focuses in recent years in tissue engineering has been the fabrication and integration of vascular structures into artificial tissue constructs. However, most available methodologies lack the ability to create multi-layered concentric conduits inside natural extracellular matrices (ECMs) and gels that replicate more accurately the hierarchical architecture of biological blood vessels. In this work, we present a new microfluidic nozzle design capable of multi-axial extrusion in order to 3D print and pattern bi- and tri-layered hollow channel structures...
December 11, 2018: Biofabrication
Wuqun Tao, Jijing Tian, Tuan Xu, Li Xu, Heidi Qunhui Xie, Zhiguang Zhou, Zhiling Guo, Hualing Fu, Xuejiao Yin, Yangsheng Chen, Haiming Xu, Songyan Zhang, Wanglong Zhang, Chao Ma, Feng Ji, Jun Yang, Bin Zhao
Dechlorane 602 (Dec 602), a chlorinated flame retardant, has been widely detected in different environmental matrices and biota. However, toxicity data for Dec 602 seldom have been reported. A metabolomics study based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed to study the urine and sera metabolic profiles of mice administered with Dec 602 (0, 0.001, 0.1, and 10 mg/kg body weight per day) for 7 days. A significant difference in metabolic profiling was observed between the Dec 602 treated group and the control group by multivariate analysis, which directly reflected the metabolic perturbations caused by Dec 602...
November 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Thimo Groffen, Marcel Eens, Lieven Bervoets
Perfluoroalkylated acids (PFAAs) are persistent chemicals that have been detected globally in the environment and in wildlife. Although it is known that PFAAs sorb to solid matrices, little is known on PFAA concentrations in soils. PFAA pollution has often been studied in aquatic invertebrates. However, this has rarely been done on terrestrial species. In the present study, we examined whether the concentrations of 15 PFAAs in isopods (Oniscidae), collected at a fluorochemical plant and in four other areas, representing a gradient in distance from the pollution source (1 km to 11 km), were related to those in the soil and in eggs of a songbird, the great tit (Parus major), collected in the same areas...
December 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Franca M R Witjas, Bernard M van den Berg, Cathelijne W van den Berg, Marten A Engelse, Ton J Rabelink
All tissues are surrounded by a mixture of noncellular matrix components, that not only provide physical and mechanical support to cells, but also mediate biochemical signaling between cells. The extracellular matrix (ECM) of endothelial cells, also known as the perivascular matrix, forms an organ specific vascular niche that orchestrates mechano-, growth factor, and angiocrine signaling required for tissue homeostasis and organ repair. This concise review describes how this perivascular ECM functions as a signaling platform and how this knowledge can impact the field of regenerative medicine, for example, when designing artificial matrices or using decellularized scaffolds from organs...
December 11, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
F A Ibrahim, M E Fathy, H M Elmansi
Orciprenaline sulphate (ORP) is a direct-acting sympathomimetic with mainly beta-adrenoceptor stimulant activity. It is used as a bronchodilator in the management of reversible airway obstruction. For the first time, a rapid highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method is described that is relied on measuring the fluorescence spectra of ORP at acidic pH and without addition of any chemical reagents. The relative fluorescence intensity was measured at 310 nm and after excitation at 224 nm. ORP native fluorescence was calibrated in both water and acetonitrile as diluting solvents...
December 11, 2018: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Fumiya Tao, Hirotaka Mihara, Nobuhiko Kojima
The hepatic functions of the hepatocytes in multicellular spheroid (MCS) are lower than those in the liver. One of the causes is that conventional hepatic MCSs do not reproduce liver-specific microstructures such as hepatic cord. It is necessary to design the inner structure of hepatic MCSs mimicking a structural feature of hepatic cord to represent further hepatic functions. Here we introduce a unique method to engineer the microarchitectures in the MCSs by formation of void spaces or filling of extracellular matrices (ECMs)...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Camilla B Mitchell, Bronte Black, Faith Sun, Wojciech Chrzanowski, Justin Cooper-White, Benois Maisonneuve, Brett Stringer, Bryan Day, Maté Biro, Geraldine M O'Neill
INTRODUCTION: The brain is a very soft tissue. Glioblastoma (GBM) brain tumours are highly infiltrative into the surrounding healthy brain tissue and invasion mechanisms that have been defined using rigid substrates therefore may not apply to GBM dissemination. GBMs characteristically lose expression of the high molecular weight tropomyosins, a class of actin-associating proteins and essential regulators of the actin stress fibres and focal adhesions that underpin cell migration on rigid substrates...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Jacinta Edebeli, Markus Ammann, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch
The reaction of ozone with bromide is an initiation process in bromine activation resulting in the formation of reactive bromine species with impacts on the fate of compounds in the lower atmosphere. Environmental halide sources often contain organics, which are known to influence aqueous bulk reactivity. Here, we present a study investigating the temperature dependence of bromide oxidation by ozone using a coated wall flow tube reactor coated with an aqueous mixture of citric acid, as a proxy for oxidized secondary organic matter, and sodium bromide...
December 10, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Xianxu Chu, Chao Song, Yang Yang, Xiaoqing Zeng
The oxidation of a prototypical phosphinidene oxide FP[double bond, length as m-dash]O has been studied in O2-doped Ar and N2 matrices at 10 K. Upon 266 nm laser irradiation, FP[double bond, length as m-dash]O combines with O2 and yields the cyclic peroxide, dioxaphosphirane oxide FP([double bond, length as m-dash]O)(O2). Unexpected oxygen scrambling occurs during the oxygenation as evidenced by the observation of a 1 : 2 mixture of FP([double bond, length as m-dash]16O)(18O18O) and FP([double bond, length as m-dash]18O)(16O18O) when 18O2 was used...
December 10, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Chijioke Olisah, Omobola O Okoh, Anthony I Okoh
The aim of this bibliometric analysis is to review the status and research evolution on the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on biological and environmental matrices from January 1992 to February 2018 in the Web of Science focusing on original articles and reviews. One thousand four hundred and eighty two articles were found in the databases of the Web of Science on the analysis of PBDEs. Quantitative and qualitative parameters (countries, number of articles, frequency, average article citations and total average citations) were used to analyse each article and ranking of countries based on productivity, authors and article citation...
November 2018: Heliyon
Ruihuan Zhang, Lin Jiang, Maosheng Zhong, Dan Han, Rui Zheng, Quankai Fu, Youya Zhou, Jie Ma
A total of 128 available soil-soil gas data pairs of benzene were collected from five contaminated sites in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration. Soil gas concentrations predicted by the linear adsorption model and the dual equilibrium desorption (DED) model were compared with measured values. Although specifying the immersion of soil samples in methanol during sampling and preservation to minimize volatilization losses and biodegradation, the study still found that many points with high soil gas concentrations correspond to unreasonably low soil concentrations...
December 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Daniel O'Malley, Velimir V Vesselinov, Boian S Alexandrov, Ludmil B Alexandrov
D-Wave quantum annealers represent a novel computational architecture and have attracted significant interest. Much of this interest has focused on the quantum behavior of D-Wave machines, and there have been few practical algorithms that use the D-Wave. Machine learning has been identified as an area where quantum annealing may be useful. Here, we show that the D-Wave 2X can be effectively used as part of an unsupervised machine learning method. This method takes a matrix as input and produces two low-rank matrices as output-one containing latent features in the data and another matrix describing how the features can be combined to approximately reproduce the input matrix...
2018: PloS One
Sergio Arregui, Alberto Aleta, Joaquín Sanz, Yamir Moreno
The modeling of large-scale communicable epidemics has greatly benefited in the last years from the increasing availability of highly detailed data. Particullarly, in order to achieve quantitative descriptions of the evolution of epidemics, contact networks and mixing patterns are key. These heterogeneous patterns depend on several factors such as location, socioeconomic conditions, time, and age. This last factor has been shown to encapsulate a large fraction of the observed inter-individual variation in contact patterns, an observation validated by different measurements of age-dependent contact matrices...
December 7, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Muhammad Asif, Hugo F M C M Martiniano, Astrid M Vicente, Francisco M Couto
Identifying disease genes from a vast amount of genetic data is one of the most challenging tasks in the post-genomic era. Also, complex diseases present highly heterogeneous genotype, which difficult biological marker identification. Machine learning methods are widely used to identify these markers, but their performance is highly dependent upon the size and quality of available data. In this study, we demonstrated that machine learning classifiers trained on gene functional similarities, using Gene Ontology (GO), can improve the identification of genes involved in complex diseases...
2018: PloS One
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