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dynamic brain connectivity

Chin Wai Hui, Sanjeev K Bhardwaj, Kaushik Sharma, Antoneta T Joseph, Kanchan Bisht, Katherine Picard, Marie-Ève Tremblay, Lalit K Srivastava
Impaired ventral hippocampal (VH)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) connectivity is implicated in many cognitive and behavioral disorders. Excitotoxic neonatal VH (nVH) lesion in rat pups has been shown to induce synaptic pruning in the PFC as well as behavioral changes of relevance to developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. In the current study, we hypothesized that microglia, immune cells required for proper brain development and plasticity, may play a role in the development of abnormal behaviors in the nVH-lesioned animals...
December 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Pranas Katauskis, Feliksas Ivanauskas, Aidas Alaburda
Information in the brain is stored in a form of an altered synaptic strength between neurons. The long-term potentiation (LTP), a phenomenon when a short-term increase in neural activity is transformed into a long-lasting increase in strengths of synaptic connectivity, provides an experimental substrate of memory. Using reaction-diffusion equations, we established an LTP model, describing the dynamics of glutamate (Glu), calcium (Ca2+ ) and nitric oxide (NO) in response to the stimulus-a presynaptic action potential...
December 10, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Gwenda Engels, Annemarie Vlaar, Brónagh McCoy, Erik Scherder, Linda Douw
Research has shown that dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with better attention performance and with motor symptom severity. In the current study, we aimed to investigate dFC of both the default mode network (DMN) and the frontoparietal network (FPN) as neural correlates of cognitive functioning in patients with PD. Additionally, we investigated pain and motor problems as symptoms of PD in relation to dFC. Twenty-four PD patients and 27 healthy controls participated in this study...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Heonsoo Lee, Daniel Golkowski, Denis Jordan, Sebastian Berger, Rüdiger Ilg, Joseph Lee, George A Mashour, UnCheol Lee
Recent modeling and empirical studies support the hypothesis that large-scale brain networks function near a critical state. Similar functional connectivity patterns derived from resting state empirical data and brain network models at criticality provide further support. However, despite the strong implication of a relationship, there has been no principled explanation of how criticality shapes the characteristic functional connectivity in large-scale brain networks. Here, we hypothesized that the network science concept of partial phase locking is the underlying mechanism of optimal functional connectivity in the resting state...
December 6, 2018: NeuroImage
Sou Nobukawa, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Tetsuya Takahashi
The dynamics of the human brain network has attracted broad attention, in recognition of the concept that functional connectivity is not static, but changes its pattern over time, even in the resting state. We hypothesized that analysis of continuously captured time-varying instantaneous phase synchronization between signals from different brain regions might add another dimension to already identified network dynamics. To validate this hypothesis as an aid to elucidating the physiological mechanisms of aging, we examined time-series of instantaneous phase synchronization events in resting-state EEG activity across the brain, in healthy younger and healthy older subjects...
December 7, 2018: NeuroImage
Ricardo J Rodrigues, Joana M Marques, Rodrigo A Cunha
ATP and adenosine are released from cells as a function of their metabolic activity, being important cell-to-cell communication signals. Both purines are also released from neurons in an activity-dependent manner, with several established roles to fine tune brain function in adults, as best heralded by the effects of caffeine, an antagonist of adenosine receptors. Purines are also dynamically released from early neurogenesis and different purine receptors are dynamically expressed throughout development. Accordingly, emerging evidence supports multiple roles for purinergic signalling in the control of different processes of brain development, such as embryonic neurogenesis, migration of principal neurons and interneurons, guidance for neuronal connectivity, synaptogenesis and synaptic stability/elimination...
December 4, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Rihui Li, Thinh Nguyen, Thomas Potter, Yingchun Zhang
Emerging evidence indicates that cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with disruptions in brain network. Exploring alterations in the AD brain network is therefore of great importance for understanding and treating the disease. This study employs an integrative functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) - electroencephalography (EEG) analysis approach to explore dynamic, regional alterations in the AD-linked brain network. FNIRS and EEG data were simultaneously recorded from 14 participants (8 healthy controls and 6 patients with mild AD) during a digit verbal span task (DVST)...
December 3, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Yanlu Wang, Ivanka Savic Berglund, Martin Uppman, Tie-Qiang Li
PURPOSE: Characterize the static and dynamic functional connectivity for subjects with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) using a quantitative data-driven analysis approach. METHODS: Whole-brain resting-state functional MRI data were acquired on a 3 T whole-body clinical MRI scanner from 18 subjects clinically diagnosed with JME and 25 healthy control subjects. 2-min sliding-window approach was incorporated in the quantitative data-driven data analysis framework to assess both the dynamic and static functional connectivity in the resting brains...
November 19, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Xiangyun Long, Fei Liu, Nan Huang, Na Liu, Jie Zhang, Jing Chen, Ansi Qi, Xiaofeng Guan, Zheng Lu
BACKGROUND: By combining regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) analyses, this study aimed to explore brain functional alterations in Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS), which could provide complementary information for the neurophysiological indicators for schizophrenia (SZ) associated brain dysfunction. METHODS: Twenty-one APS subjects and twenty healthy controls were enrolled in the data acquisition of demographics and clinical characteristics as well as structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI)...
December 7, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Steven M Peterson, Daniel Perry Ferris
Objective Due to its high temporal resolution, electroencephalography (EEG) has become a promising tool for quantifying cortical dynamics and effective connectivity in a mobile setting. While many connectivity estimators are available, the efficacy of these measures has not been rigorously validated in real-world scenarios. The goal of this study was to quantify the accuracy of independent component analysis and multiple connectivity measures on ground-truth connections while exposed real-world volume conduction and head motion...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Thomas W Bastian, William C von Hohenberg, Michael K Georgieff, Lorene M Lanier
During development, neurons require highly integrated metabolic machinery to meet the large energy demands of growth, differentiation, and synaptic activity within their complex cellular architecture. Dendrites/axons require anterograde trafficking of mitochondria for local ATP synthesis to support these processes. Acute energy depletion impairs mitochondrial dynamics, but how chronic energy insufficiency affects mitochondrial trafficking and quality control during neuronal development is unknown. Since iron deficiency (ID) impairs mitochondrial respiration/ATP production, we treated mixed-sex embryonic mouse hippocampal neuron cultures with the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) to model chronic energetic insufficiency and its effects on mitochondrial dynamics during neuronal development...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Angus Ho Ching Fong, Kwangsun Yoo, Monica D Rosenberg, Sheng Zhang, Chiang-Shan R Li, Dustin Scheinost, R Todd Constable, Marvin M Chun
Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) aims to maximize resolvable information from functional brain scans by considering temporal changes in network structure. Recent work has demonstrated that static, i.e. time-invariant resting-state and task-based FC predicts individual differences in behavior, including attention. Here, we show that DFC predicts attention performance across individuals. Sliding-window FC matrices were generated from fMRI data collected during rest and attention task performance by calculating Pearson's r between every pair of nodes of a whole-brain atlas within overlapping 10-60s time segments...
December 3, 2018: NeuroImage
Yunman Xia, Qunlin Chen, Liang Shi, MengZe Li, Weikang Gong, Hong Chen, Jiang Qiu
The transition from early adulthood to the elder is marked by functional and structural brain transformations. Many previous studies examined the correlation between the functional connectivity (FC) and aging using resting-state fMRI. Results showed that the changes in FC are linked to aging as well as the cognitive ability changes. However, some researchers proposed that the FC is not static but dynamic changes during the resting-state fMRI scan. In this study, we examined the correlation between the resting-state dynamic functional network connectivity and age using resting scan data of 434 subjects...
December 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Arseny A Sokolov, Peter Zeidman, Michael Erb, Philippe Ryvlin, Karl J Friston, Marina A Pavlova
The perception of actions underwrites a wide range of socio-cognitive functions. Previous neuroimaging and lesion studies identified several components of the brain network for visual biological motion (BM) processing, but interactions among these components and their relationship to behavior remain little understood. Here, using a recently developed integrative analysis of structural and effective connectivity derived from high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we assess the cerebro-cerebellar network for processing of camouflaged point-light BM...
December 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
K Rubia, M Criaud, M Wulff, A Alegria, H Brinson, G Barker, D Stahl, V Giampietro
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor self-control, underpinned by inferior fronto-striatal deficits. We showed previously that 18 ADHD adolescents over 11 runs of 8.5 min of real-time functional magnetic resonance neurofeedback of the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) progressively increased activation in 2 regions of the rIFC which was associated with clinical symptom improvement. In this study, we used functional connectivity analyses to investigate whether fMRI-Neurofeedback of rIFC resulted in dynamic functional connectivity changes in underlying neural networks...
December 1, 2018: NeuroImage
M Rubega, M Carboni, M Seeber, D Pascucci, S Tourbier, G Toscano, P Van Mierlo, P Hagmann, G Plomp, S Vulliemoz, C M Michel
In the last decade, the use of high-density electrode arrays for EEG recordings combined with the improvements of source reconstruction algorithms has allowed the investigation of brain networks dynamics at a sub-second scale. One powerful tool for investigating large-scale functional brain networks with EEG is time-varying effective connectivity applied to source signals obtained from electric source imaging. Due to computational and interpretation limitations, the brain is usually parcelled into a limited number of regions of interests (ROIs) before computing EEG connectivity...
December 3, 2018: Brain Topography
Yu Lei, Benshen Song, Liang Chen, Jiabin Su, Xin Zhang, Wei Ni, Yuguo Yu, Bin Xu, Lianchun Yu, Yuxiang Gu, Ying Mao
Treatment of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in adult moyamoya disease (MMD) is still unclear because of its unveiled neural synchronization. This study introduced a dynamic measurement of connectivity number entropy (CNE) to characterize both spatial and temporal dimensions of network interactions. Fifty-one patients with MMD were recruited (27 with VCI and 24 with intact cognition), as well as 26 normal controls (NCs). Static network properties were first examined to confirm its aberrance in MMD with VCI...
December 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Shengdun Wu, Yangsong Zhang, Yan Cui, Heng Li, Jiakang Wang, Lijun Guo, Yang Xia, Dezhong Yao, Peng Xu, Daqing Guo
Our mysterious brain is believed to operate near a non-equilibrium point and generate critical self-organized avalanches in neuronal activity. A central topic in neuroscience is to elucidate the underlying circuitry mechanisms of neuronal avalanches in the brain. Recent experimental evidence has revealed significant heterogeneity in both synaptic input and output connectivity, but whether the structural heterogeneity participates in the regulation of neuronal avalanches remains poorly understood. By computational modeling, we predict that different types of structural heterogeneity contribute distinct effects on avalanche neurodynamics...
November 12, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Alessandro Principe, Miguel Ley, Gerardo Conesa, Rodrigo Rocamora
Several models have been proposed to explain brain regional and interregional communication, the majority of them using methods that tap the frequency domain, like spectral coherence. Considering brain interareal communication as binary interactions, we describe a novel method devised to predict dynamics and thus highlight abrupt changes marked by unpredictability. Based on a variable-order Markov model algorithm developed in-house for data compression, the prediction error connectivity (PEC) estimates network transitions by calculating error matrices (EMs)...
November 30, 2018: NeuroImage
Iulia M Comsa, Tristan A Bekinschtein, Srivas Chennu
As we fall sleep, our brain traverses a series of gradual changes at physiological, behavioural and cognitive levels, which are not yet fully understood. The loss of responsiveness is a critical event in the transition from wakefulness to sleep. Here we seek to understand the electrophysiological signatures that reflect the loss of capacity to respond to external stimuli during drowsiness using two complementary methods: spectral connectivity and EEG microstates. Furthermore, we integrate these two methods for the first time by investigating the connectivity patterns captured during individual microstate lifetimes...
November 29, 2018: Brain Topography
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