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Multiple sclerosis and epilepsy

I J Chou, C F Kuo, R Tanasescu, C R Tench, C G Tiley, C S Constantinescu, W P Whitehouse
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the prevalence of epilepsy in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) at diagnosis and the risk of developing epilepsy after the diagnosis of MS, and the relative risk of mortality associated with epilepsy. METHODS: We used the UK Clinical Practice Research Data-link to identify 2,526 incident MS patients and 9,980 age-, sex- and index year-matched non-MS controls from 1997 to 2006. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for epilepsy and Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs; 95% CI) for epilepsy and mortality...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Andrea Arena, Till S Zimmer, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Anatoly Korotkov, Jasper J Anink, Angelika Mühlebner, Floor E Jansen, Wim van Hecke, Wim G Spliet, Peter C van Rijen, Annamaria Vezzani, Johannes C Baayen, Sander Idema, Anand M Iyer, Marzia Perluigi, James D Mills, Erwin A van Vliet, Eleonora Aronica
Oxidative stress (OS) occurs in brains of patients with epilepsy and coincides with brain inflammation, and both phenomena contribute to seizure generation in animal models. We investigated whether expression of OS and brain inflammation markers co-occurred also in resected brain tissue of patients with epileptogenic cortical malformations: hemimegalencephaly (HME), focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and cortical tubers in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Moreover, we studied molecular mechanisms linking OS and inflammation in an in vitro model of neuronal function...
October 10, 2018: Brain Pathology
Christina Wolfson, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Romain Pasquet, Ron Postuma, Mark R Keezer
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to study the association between the presence of a neurological disease and the comorbidity burden, as well as healthcare utilization. METHODS: Using baseline data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), we examined the burden of five neurological conditions. The CLSA is a population-based study of approximately 50,000 individuals, aged 45 to 85 years at baseline. We used multivariable Poisson regression to identify correlates of comorbidity burden and healthcare utilization...
October 9, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Yulia Treister-Goltzman, Tamar Freud, Yan Press, Roni Peleg
Widespread use of cannabis as a drug and passage of legislation on its use should lead to an increase in the number of scientific publications on cannabis. The aim of this study was to compare trends in scientific publication for papers on medical cannabis, papers on cannabis in general, and all papers between the years 2000 and 2017. A search of PubMed and Web of Science was conducted. The overall number of scientific publications in PubMed increased 2.5-fold. In contrast, the number of publications on cannabis increased 4...
October 6, 2018: Population Health Management
Ewa Poleszak, Sylwia Wośko, Karolina Sławińska, Aleksandra Szopa, Andrzej Wróbel, Anna Serefko
Cannabis sativa is one of the most popular recreational and medicinal plants. Benefits from use of cannabinoid agents in epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and others have been suggested. It seems that the endocannabinoid system is also involved in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression, though its role in this mental disease has not been fully understood yet. Both the pro- and antidepressant activity have been reported after cannabis consumption and a number of pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that both agonist and antagonist of the endocannabinoid receptors act similarly to antidepressants...
October 2, 2018: Life Sciences
Melanie D Sweeney, Zhen Zhao, Axel Montagne, Amy R Nelson, Berislav V Zlokovic
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents neurotoxic plasma components, blood cells, and pathogens from entering the brain. At the same time, the BBB regulates transport of molecules into and out of the central nervous system (CNS), which maintains tightly controlled chemical composition of the neuronal milieu that is required for proper neuronal functioning. In this review, we first examine molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the establishment of the BBB. Then, we focus on BBB transport physiology, endothelial and pericyte transporters, and perivascular and paravascular transport...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Ming-Chi Lai, Kao-Min Lin, Poh-Shiow Yeh, Sheng-Nan Wu, Chin-Wei Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Immunological mechanisms can be triggered as a response to central nervous system insults and can lead to seizures. In this study an investigation was made to determine if glatiramer acetate (GA), an immunomodulator currently used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, could protect rats from pilocarpine-induced seizures and chronic epilepsy. METHODS: Two groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, experimental (GA) and control, were used in the study...
October 2, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Frederick L Hitti, Kerry A Vaughan, Ashwin G Ramayya, Brendan J McShane, Gordon H Baltuch
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has revolutionized the treatment of neurological disease, but its therapeutic efficacy is limited by the lifetime of the implantable pulse generator (IPG) batteries. At the end of the battery life, IPG replacement surgery is required. New IPGs with rechargeable batteries (RC-IPGs) have recently been introduced and allow for decreased reoperation rates for IPG replacements. The authors aimed to examine the merits and limitations of these devices...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Natascia Bruni, Carlo Della Pepa, Simonetta Oliaro-Bosso, Enrica Pessione, Daniela Gastaldi, Franco Dosio
There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that cannabinoids are beneficial for a range of clinical conditions, including pain, inflammation, epilepsy, sleep disorders, the symptoms of multiple sclerosis, anorexia, schizophrenia and other conditions. The transformation of cannabinoids from herbal preparations into highly regulated prescription drugs is therefore progressing rapidly. The development of such drugs requires well-controlled clinical trials to be carried out in order to objectively establish therapeutic efficacy, dose ranges and safety...
September 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Nhan Thi Ho, Barbara Kroner, Zachary Grinspan, Brandy Fureman, Kathleen Farrell, Jingzhou Zhang, Janice Buelow, Dale C Hesdorffer
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and characteristics of comorbidities in persons with rare epilepsies. STUDY DESIGN: Persons with rare epilepsies and caregivers of those affected were recruited through the Epilepsy Foundation and more than 30 rare epilepsy advocacy organizations affiliated with the Rare Epilepsy Network (REN). A web-based survey was conducted using a questionnaire consisting of core sections to collect data from affected persons on various aspects, including comorbidities...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz, Syed Rahman, Antti Tanskanen, Maila Majak, Juha Mehtälä, Fabian Hoti, Erik Jedenius, Dana Enkusson, Amy Leval, Jan Sermon, Heidi Taipale, Jari Tiihonen
Background: The study aimed to (1) compare the risk of health care use, adverse health status, and work productivity loss of parents of patients with schizophrenia to parents of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), epilepsy, and healthy controls; and (2) evaluate such outcome measures while considering disease severity of schizophrenia. Methods: Based on linkage of Swedish registers, at least one parent was included (n = 18215) of patients with schizophrenia (information 2006-2013, n = 10883)...
September 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Suresh S Pujar, Marina M Martinos, Mario Cortina-Borja, W K Kling Chong, Michelle De Haan, Christopher Gillberg, Brian G Neville, Rod C Scott, Richard F Chin
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE), a common childhood medical neurological emergency, is not well characterised. We aimed to investigate the long-term outcomes in a cohort of participants who previously had CSE. METHODS: In this prospective study, we followed up a population-based childhood CSE cohort from north London, UK (the north London convulsive status epilepticus surveillance study cohort; NLSTEPSS). We collected data from structured clinical neurological assessment, neurocognitive assessment (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence), brain MRI, medical records, and structured interviews with participants and their parents to determine neurological outcomes, with adverse outcome defined as presence of one or more of epilepsy (active or in remission), motor disability, intellectual disability, or statement of special educational needs...
February 2018: The lancet child & adolescent health
Margarete Dulce Bagatini, Alessandra Antunes Dos Santos, Andréia Machado Cardoso, Aline Mânica, Cristina Ruedell Reschke, Fabiano Barbosa Carvalho
Evidences show that purinergic signaling is involved in processes associated with health and disease, including noncommunicable, neurological, and degenerative diseases. These diseases strike from children to elderly and are generally characterized by progressive deterioration of cells, eventually leading to tissue or organ degeneration. These pathological conditions can be associated with disturbance in the signaling mediated by nucleotides and nucleosides of adenine, in expression or activity of extracellular ectonucleotidases and in activation of P2X and P2Y receptors...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Panagiotis Zis, Dimos-Dimitrios Mitsikostas
Placebo is an intervention with no therapeutic effect that is used as a control in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Placebo effects and responses can produce a beneficial effect that cannot be attributed to the properties of the intervention itself, since it is usually inactive, and should, therefore, be due to the patient's expectations about treatment (placebo effects), or confounding factors such as natural history, co-interventions, biases, among other co-factors (placebo responses). However, adverse events (AEs) may occur when using a placebo intervention, a phenomenon that is called nocebo...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Stephen G Reich
Russell Nelson DeJong (1907-1990) became professor and chair of the Department of Neurology at the University of Michigan in 1950. A prolific author with more than 200 publications, DeJong wrote on virtually all areas of neurology. DeJong's classic monograph, The Neurologic Examination (1950), grew into an encyclopedic volume from lectures he gave to junior and senior medical students; DeJong saw it through four editions. He was one of the founders of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN), serving as its vice-president from 1961 to 1963 and as the first editor-in-chief of its journal, Neurology...
July 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Felix P Bernhard, Jennifer Sartor, Kristina Bettecken, Markus A Hobert, Carina Arnold, Yvonne G Weber, Sven Poli, Nils G Margraf, Christian Schlenstedt, Clint Hansen, Walter Maetzler
BACKGROUND: Deficits in gait and balance are common among neurological inpatients. Currently, assessment of these patients is mainly subjective. New assessment options using wearables may provide complementary and more objective information. METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional feasibility study performed over a four-month period, all patients referred to a normal neurology ward of a university hospital and aged between 40 and 89 years were asked to participate...
August 16, 2018: BMC Neurology
Georgia Kalozoumi, Olga Kel-Margoulis, Elizabeth Vafiadaki, David Greenberg, Hélène Bernard, Hermona Soreq, Antoine Depaulis, Despina Sanoudou
The Mesio-Temporal Lobe Epilepsy syndrome is the most common form of intractable epilepsy. It is characterized by recurrence of focal seizures and is often associated with hippocampal sclerosis and drug resistance. We aimed to characterize the molecular changes occurring during the initial stages of epileptogenesis in search of new therapeutic targets for Mesio-Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. We used a mouse model obtained by intra-hippocampal microinjection of kainate and performed hippocampal whole genome expression analysis at 6h, 12h and 24h post-injection, followed by multilevel bioinformatics analysis...
2018: PloS One
Jinlin Song, Elyse Swallow, Qayyim Said, Miranda Peeples, Mark Meiselbach, James Signorovitch, Michael Kohrman, Bruce Korf, Darcy Krueger, Michael Wong, Steven Sparagana
INTRODUCTION: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare congenital disorder often associated with epilepsy. However, real-world treatment patterns for epilepsy in patients with TSC are not yet well categorized. METHODS: This study included patients with TSC and epilepsy from fifteen clinics in the United States and one in Belgium who were enrolled in the TSC Natural History Database (2006-2014). Patient demographics and epilepsy treatment patterns, including the use of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), epilepsy surgeries, and dietary therapies were assessed...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Jinping Cheng, Nils Korte, Ross Nortley, Huma Sethi, Yamei Tang, David Attwell
Many central nervous system diseases currently lack effective treatment and are often associated with defects in microvascular function, including a failure to match the energy supplied by the blood to the energy used on neuronal computation, or a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. Pericytes, an under-studied cell type located on capillaries, are of crucial importance in regulating diverse microvascular functions, such as angiogenesis, the blood-brain barrier, capillary blood flow and the movement of immune cells into the brain...
October 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Sarah G K Engel, Sonal Bhatia
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dermatologic manifestations and growth of multiple benign tumors often involving the brain, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, and liver. It exhibits wide phenotypic variation, ranging from the most severe cases with intellectual disability and intractable epilepsy to the mildest, clinically silent forms of the disease. The incidence of TSC is reported to be 1/6000; however, this does not account for those with milder forms of the disease, of which forme fruste is the mildest...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
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