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Multiple sclerosis and epilepsy

Lan Luan, Yuqiang Sun, Kang Yang
Coexistence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and a temporal neocortical lesion, including focal cortical dysplasia, vascular malformations or benign primary brain tumors, is defined as dual pathology. In the majority of cases, the complete evidence based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for each of the dual pathological lesions is difficult to obtain. As a result, patients with dual pathology are poor surgical candidates due to potential incomplete resection of the epileptogenic zone...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ivan Presta, Marco Vismara, Fabiana Novellino, Annalidia Donato, Paolo Zaffino, Elisabetta Scali, Krizia Caterina Pirrone, Maria Francesca Spadea, Natalia Malara, Giuseppe Donato
Recent studies have clarified many still unknown aspects related to innate immunity and the blood-brain barrier relationship. They have also confirmed the close links between effector immune system cells, such as granulocytes, macrophages, microglia, natural killer cells and mast cells, and barrier functionality. The latter, in turn, is able to influence not only the entry of the cells of the immune system into the nervous tissue, but also their own activation. Interestingly, these two components and their interactions play a role of great importance not only in infectious diseases, but in almost all the pathologies of the central nervous system...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Koji Sakai, Kei Yamada
In the recent 5 years (2014-2018), there has been growing interest in the use of machine learning (ML) techniques to explore image diagnosis and prognosis of therapeutic lesion changes within the area of neuroradiology. However, to date, the majority of research trend and current status have not been clearly illuminated in the neuroradiology field. More than 1000 papers have been published during the past 5 years on subject classification and prediction focused on multiple brain disorders. We provide a survey of 209 papers in this field with a focus on top ten active areas of research; i...
November 29, 2018: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Petra Hundehege, Juncal Fernandez-Orth, Pia Römer, Tobias Ruck, Thomas Müntefering, Susann Eichler, Manuela Cerina, Lisa Epping, Sarah Albrecht, Amélie F Menke, Katharina Birkner, Kerstin Göbel, Thomas Budde, Frauke Zipp, Heinz Wiendl, Ali Gorji, Stefan Bittner, Sven G Meuth
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a prototypical autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) disease. Particularly progressive forms of MS (PMS) show significant neuroaxonal damage as consequence of demyelination and neuronal hyperexcitation. Immuno-modulatory treatment strategies are beneficial in relapsing MS (RMS), but mostly fail in PMS. Pregabalin (Lyrica®) is prescribed to MS patients to treat neuropathic pain. Mechanistically, it targets voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and reduces harmful neuronal hyperexcitation in mouse epilepsy models...
November 27, 2018: Neuro-Signals
Sulaiman Almobarak, Mohammad Almuhaizea, Musaad Abukhaled, Suad Alyamani, Omar Dabbagh, Aziza Chedrawi, Sameena Khan, Hesham Aldhalaan
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic neurocutaneous disorder, with heterogeneous manifestations. We aimed to review the clinical presentation of TSC and its association with epilepsy among Saudi population. This was a retrospective chart review study of 88 patients diagnosed with TSC with or without epilepsy. In 38.6% of patients, symptoms began before 1 year of age. The most frequent initial manifestations of TSC were new onset of seizures (68.2%), skin manifestations (46.6%) and development delay (23...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Rebecca L Cox, Froylan Calderon de Anda, Tomer Mangoubi, Akira Yoshii
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant neurogenetic disorder affecting the brain and other vital organs. Neurological symptoms include epilepsy, intellectual disability, and autism. TSC is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. These gene products form a protein complex and normally suppress mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity. mTOR inhibitors have been used to treat subependymal glioma (SEGA) that is a brain tumor characteristic of TSC. However, neuropathology of TSC also involves dysregulated cortical circuit formation including neuronal migration, axodendritic differentiation, and synapse formation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Nichole Stetten, Jamie Pomeranz, Michael Moorhouse, Ali Yurasek, Amy V Blue
PURPOSE: Twenty-nine states have bypassed federal regulations by legalizing marijuana (MJ) either medicinally, recreationally or both. The FDA states that there is no empirical evidence that MJ is effective to treat these disorders. With over a billion individuals living with a disability across the globe, it is crucial to fully research the efficaciousness and safety of medical MJ to treat this population. The purpose to present the results of a scoping review of studies focused on the levels of evidence currently available on medical MJ's efficacy in treatment across a large range of disabilities...
November 20, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Mohammed T Rahman, Chaitali Ghosh, Mohammed Hossain, Debra Linfield, Fariba Rezaee, Damir Janigro, Nicola Marchi, Anette H H van Boxel-Dezaire
Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) precedes lesion formation in the brains of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Since recent data implicate disruption of the small intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) in the pathogenesis of MS, we hypothesized that the increased permeability of the BBB and IEB are mechanistically linked. Zonulin, a protein produced by small intestine epithelium, can rapidly increase small intestinal permeability. Zonulin blood levels are elevated in MS, but it is unknown whether zonulin can also disrupt the BBB...
December 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Caroline Moerke, Isabel Jaco, Christin Dewitz, Tammo Müller, Annette V Jacobsen, Jérémie Gautheron, Jürgen Fritsch, Jessica Schmitz, Jan Hinrich Bräsen, Claudia Günther, James M Murphy, Ulrich Kunzendorf, Pascal Meier, Stefan Krautwald
Different forms of regulated cell death-like apoptosis and necroptosis contribute to the pathophysiology of clinical conditions including ischemia-reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction, sepsis, and multiple sclerosis. In particular, the kinase activity of the receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is crucial for cell fate in inflammation and cell death. However, despite its involvement in pathological conditions, no pharmacologic inhibitor of RIPK1-mediated cell death is currently in clinical use...
November 15, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Ethan B Russo
Neurological therapeutics have been hampered by its inability to advance beyond symptomatic treatment of neurodegenerative disorders into the realm of actual palliation, arrest or reversal of the attendant pathological processes. While cannabis-based medicines have demonstrated safety, efficacy and consistency sufficient for regulatory approval in spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS), and in Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut Syndromes (LGS), many therapeutic challenges remain. This review will examine the intriguing promise that recent discoveries regarding cannabis-based medicines offer to neurological therapeutics by incorporating the neutral phytocannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), their acidic precursors, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), and cannabis terpenoids in the putative treatment of five syndromes, currently labeled recalcitrant to therapeutic success, and wherein improved pharmacological intervention is required: intractable epilepsy, brain tumors, Parkinson disease (PD), Alzheimer disease (AD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI)/chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Syed Obaidur Rahman, Rakesh Kumar Singh, Salman Hussain, Mohd Akhtar, Abul Kalam Najmi
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are member of eicosanoid inflammatory lipid mediators family produced by oxidation of arachidonic acid by action of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). 5-LOX is activated by enzyme 5-Lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP), which further lead to production of cysLTs i.e. leukotriene C4 (LTC4), leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and leukotriene E4 (LTE4). CysLTs then produce their potent inflammatory actions by activating CysLT1 and CysLT2 receptors. Inhibitors of cysLTs are indicated in asthma, allergic rhinitis and other inflammatory disorders...
October 30, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Emilie Panicucci, Mikael Cohen, Veronique Bourg, Fanny Rocher, Pierre Thomas, Christine Lebrun
BACKGROUND: Dalfampridine extended release (DAL) is a broad-spectrum voltage-gated potassium channel blocker that is indicated in multiple sclerosis to improve the nerve conduction of demyelinated axons. Seizures are a known side effect of DAL, which is contraindicated in patients with a history of epilepsy. OBJECTIVE: Three cases of multiple sclerosis (MS) with de novo convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) probably related to dalfampridine administration are described...
October 30, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Tetsuya Akaishi, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are detected in the serum of some patients with demyelinating diseases. These patients are known to show repeated clinical episodes of inflammatory demyelinating attacks in the central nervous system. Although the associated pathogenicity and mechanism of inflammatory demyelination remains inconclusive, it is known that patients with MOG-IgG antibodies have a different clinical spectrum from those with other demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis...
October 23, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Helena Dresch Vascouto, Maria Emília Rodrigues de Oliveira Thais, Camila Moreira Osório, Juliana Ben, Lucia Sukys Claudino, Alexandre Ademar Hoeller, Hans J Markowitsch, Peter Wolf, Katia Lin, Roger Walz
OBJECTIVES: Sleepiness and cognitive impairment are common symptoms observed in patients with epilepsy. We investigate whether self-reported sleepiness is associated with cognitive performance in patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). Seventy-one consecutive patients with MTLE-HS were evaluated with the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) before neuropsychological evaluation. Their mean SSS scores were compared with controls. Each cognitive test was compared between patients with (SSS ≥ 3) or without sleepiness (SSS < 3)...
September 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Giuseppe Barisano, Farshid Sepehrband, Samantha Ma, Kay Jann, Ryan Cabeen, Danny J Wang, Arthur W Toga, Meng Law
In recent years, ultra-high field MRI (7 T and above) has received more interest for clinical imaging. Indeed, a number of studies have shown the benefits from the application of this powerful tool not only for research purposes, but also in realms of improved diagnostics and patient management. The increased signal-to-noise ratio and higher spatial resolution compared with conventional and high-field clinical scanners allow imaging of small anatomical detail and subtle pathological findings. Furthermore, greater spectral resolution achieved at ultra-high field allows the resolution of metabolites for MR spectroscopic imaging...
November 1, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Annalisa Mencarelli, Paolo Prontera, Amedea Mencarelli, Daniela Rogaia, Gabriela Stangoni, Massimiliano Cecconi, Susanna Esposito
Sotos syndrome is one of the most common overgrowth diseases and it predisposes patients to cancer, generally in childhood. The prevalence of this genetic disorder is 1:10,000⁻1:50,000, and it is characterized by wide allelic heterogeneity, with more than 100 different known mutations in the nuclear receptor-binding SET domain containing protein 1 ( NSD1 ) gene. Most of these alterations are deletions and common micro-deletions with haploinsufficiency. Singular variants are missense mutations. The present study reports a case of a 4-year-old boy with specific clinical features of Sotos syndrome and a particular complex skin hamartoma on the right femoral side, in addition to other minor findings, such as a "café-au-lait" spot on the right hemithorax and syndactyly of the second and third right toes...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shirin Jamal Omidi, Guadalupe Fernandez BacaVaca, Nuria Lacuey, Aasef G Shaikh, Michael Morgan, Samden D Lhatoo
Ictal gaze deviation and oculogyric crisis (OGC) can show identical clinical manifestations. We report a case of repeated drug induced OGCs in a 38 year old patient with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. He was referred to our center for treatment of "intractable" epilepsy manifesting as episodic eye and head deviations with apparent unresponsiveness. In the epilepsy monitoring unit, ten typical spells were captured without epileptiform electroencephalographic correlates, but we discovered chronic exposure to metoclopramide...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
I J Chou, C F Kuo, R Tanasescu, C R Tench, C G Tiley, C S Constantinescu, W P Whitehouse
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the prevalence of epilepsy in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) at diagnosis, the risk of developing epilepsy after the diagnosis of MS and the relative risk of mortality associated with epilepsy. METHODS: We used the UK Clinical Practice Research Data-link to identify 2526 patients with incident MS and 9980 age-, sex- and index year-matched non-MS controls from 1997 to 2006. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios [95% confidence interval (CI)] for epilepsy and Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) for epilepsy and mortality...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Andrea Arena, Till S Zimmer, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Anatoly Korotkov, Jasper J Anink, Angelika Mühlebner, Floor E Jansen, Wim van Hecke, Wim G Spliet, Peter C van Rijen, Annamaria Vezzani, Johannes C Baayen, Sander Idema, Anand M Iyer, Marzia Perluigi, James D Mills, Erwin A van Vliet, Eleonora Aronica
Oxidative stress (OS) occurs in brains of patients with epilepsy and coincides with brain inflammation, and both phenomena contribute to seizure generation in animal models. We investigated whether expression of OS and brain inflammation markers co-occurred also in resected brain tissue of patients with epileptogenic cortical malformations: hemimegalencephaly (HME), focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and cortical tubers in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Moreover, we studied molecular mechanisms linking OS and inflammation in an in vitro model of neuronal function...
October 10, 2018: Brain Pathology
C Wolfson, S-M Fereshtehnejad, R Pasquet, R Postuma, M R Keezer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our objective was to study the association between the presence of a neurological disease and the comorbidity burden as well as healthcare utilization (HCU). METHODS: Using baseline data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), we examined the burden of five neurological conditions. The CLSA is a population-based study of approximately 50 000 individuals, aged 45-85 years at baseline. We used multivariable Poisson regression to identify correlates of comorbidity burden and HCU...
October 9, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
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