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Adrenal cortex

Sheng Wei, Zifa Li, Meng Ren, Jieqiong Wang, Jie Gao, Yinghui Guo, Kaiyong Xu, Fang Li, Dehao Zhu, Hao Zhang, Rongju Lv, Mingqi Qiao
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological surveys and studies with animal models have established a relationship between maternal stress and affective disorders in their offspring. However, whether maternal depression before pregnancy influences behaviour and related neurobiological mechanisms in the offspring has not been studied. RESULTS: A social defeat stress (SDS) maternal rat model was established using the resident-intruder paradigm with female specific pathogen-free Wistar rats and evaluated with behavioural tests...
October 16, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
X W Liu, P Y Liu, C Jiang, Y H Gao
Glucocorticoids is a type of steroid hormone secreted from zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex.As an immune and inflammatory inhibitor, glucocorticoids has been used to treat many kinds of diseases.T cell response plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. However, the role of glucocorticoids in the mechanism and treatment of liver disease in current clinical practice is controversial. This paper summarizes the progress of glucocorticoid use for the treatment of liver diseases in recent years...
July 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Björn-Ole Bast, Uta Rickert, Janna Schneppenheim, François Cossais, Henrik Wilms, Philipp Arnold, Ralph Lucius
Over the last years, studies on microglia cell function in chronic neuro-inflammation and neuronal necrosis pointed towards an eminent role of these cells in Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Disease. It was found, that microglia cell activity can be stimulated towards a pro- or an anti-inflammatory profile, depending on the stimulating signals. Therefore, investigation of receptors expressed by microglia cells and ligands influencing their activation state is of eminent interest. A receptor found to be expressed by microglia cells is the mineralocorticoid receptor...
October 2018: Heliyon
Gunhyuk Park, Young-Suk Jung, Moon-Ki Park, Chae Ha Yang, Yong-Ung Kim
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with the hallmark characteristics of pruritus, psychological stress, and sleep disturbance, all possibly associated with an increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the etiology of the possible association between AD and ADHD is still not well understood. 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene or corticosterone was used to evaluate the atopic symptom and its psychologic stress in the atopic mice model. Melatonin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor, urocortin, proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone, cAMP, cAMP response element-binding protein, dopamine and noradrenaline were analyzed spectrophotometrically, and the expression of dopamine beta-hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase were measured by Western blotting or immunohistochemistry...
October 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emin Evren Özcan, Muhammet Dural, Bülent Görenek
In endocrine diseases, hormonal changes, electrolyte abnormalities, and the deterioration of heart structure can lead to various arrhythmias. In diabetic patients, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and hypokalemia can trigger arrhythmias, and diabetic cardiomyopathy can also cause electrical and structural remodeling to form substrates for arrhythmias. The risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) increases in hyperthyroidism; however, the prevalence of ventricular arrhythmias in hypothyroidism is higher. Besides AF and ventricular tachycardias, bradycardias and atrioventricular blocks can also be seen in pheochromocytoma due to the desensitization of adrenergic cardiovascular receptors...
October 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Kenichiro Fukuoka, Joerg Wilting, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Gen Murakami, Akimitsu Ishizawa, Akio Matsubara
Although the embryonic kidney's ascent is well established, the intermediate morphological changes that occur during the process are unclear. To evaluate the morphological events that accompany the kidney's ascent, we examined serial sagittal sections from 24 embryos at five to seven weeks' gestation. Six specimens had bilaterally ascending kidneys that were between the levels of the second to fifth lumbar vertebrae, and each kidney had a primitive renal cortex surrounding clusters of ampullae, which branched from the pelvis, and a dense tissue band that connected the renal cortex with the embryonic adrenal cortex or celiac ganglia, and there was no adipose capsule or renal artery...
October 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Qingqing Xia, Hui Wang, Hongqiang Yin, Zhuo Yang
Corticosterone (CORT) is a kind of corticosteroid produced by cortex of adrenal glands. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperfunction leads to excessive CORT, which is associated with depression. Few studies have investigated the role of CORT in voltage-gated ion channels and its upstream signaling pathway in central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of excessive CORT resulting in brain impairment on voltage-gated ion channels, and its upstream signaling effectors in hippocampal CA1 neurons...
October 4, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Josef van Helden, Ralf Weiskirchen
OBJECTIVES: Androstenedione is an androgen produced as an intermediate product of the biosynthesis of testosterone and estradiol in testicles, ovaries and also in the adrenal cortex. Measurement is used for diagnosing and differentiating hirsutism and virilisation, enzyme deficiencies of the steroid hormone biosynthesis, and in suspicion of androgen-producing tumors. METHODS: Specimens included de-identified residual serum specimens submitted for routine testing and banked adult and pediatric sera...
September 24, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Soumia Hammadi, Owen Chan, Mohamed Abdellali, Maha Medjerab, Hadjer Agoun, Zineb Bellahreche, Ali Khalkhal, Yasmina Dahmani
This study was designed to investigate the HPA-axis impairment in the streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic gerbils (Gerbillus gerbillus). Twenty-six male gerbils (body weight ~27 g) were divided into 3 groups: vehicle control (n = 10), 2 days of diabetes (n = 09) and 30 days of diabetes (n = 07). The latter 2 groups received an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (150 mg/kg of body weight). At 2 and 30 days of diabetes, streptozotocin-diabetic gerbils underwent a retro-orbital puncture for assessment of biochemical and hormonal parameters...
August 2018: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
Giada Poli, Erica Sarchielli, Daniele Guasti, Susanna Benvenuti, Lara Ballerini, Benedetta Mazzanti, Roberta Armignacco, Giulia Cantini, Matteo Lulli, Vasileios Chortis, Wiebke Arlt, Paolo Romagnoli, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Massimo Mannelli, Michaela Luconi
The adrenal gland is a multiendocrine organ with a steroidogenic mesenchymal cortex and an inner catecholamine-producing medulla of neuroendocrine origin. After embryonic development, this plastic organ undergoes a functional postnatal remodeling. Elucidating these complex processes is pivotal for understanding the early bases of functional endocrine disorders and tumors affecting the mature gland. We developed an in vitro human adrenal cell model derived from fetal adrenal specimens at different gestational ages, consisting of neuroendocrine and cortical components and expressing the zona and functional markers of the original fetal organ...
September 24, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Esteban M Repetto, Morena Wiszniewski, Ana L Bonelli, Carolina V Vecino, Camila Martinez Calejman, Pablo Arias, Cora B Cymeryng
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to analyze the involvement of oxidative stress and inflammation in the modulation of glucocorticoid production in the adrenal cortex of diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were treated with or without streptozotocin (STZ, an insulinopenic model of diabetes) and either α-lipoic (90 mg/kg ip.), α-tocopherol (200 mg/kg po.) or with STZ and supplemented with insulin (STZ + INS: 2.5U/day) for 4 weeks. Oxidative/nitrosative stress parameters and antioxidant enzymes were determined in adrenocortical tissues...
September 21, 2018: Endocrine
Xingrao Ke, Qi Fu, Amber Majnik, Susan Cohen, Qiuli Liu, Robert Lane
Adverse early life environment (AELE) predisposes adult offspring towards 35 anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders are associated with prenatal injuries in key regions 36 of the brain including prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HP) and hypothalamus 37 (HT). Injuries in these brain regions result in an impaired hypothalamus-pituitary-38 adrenal axis (HPA axis) and stress response. An important regulator of the stress 39 response is FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5). FKBP5 is a co-chaperone of the 40 glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and inhibits GR-mediated regulatory feed-back on the HPA 41 axis in response to stress...
September 21, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Agnieszka Dworzyńska, Katarzyna Paduszyńska, Lech Pomorski
Introduction Adrenal insufficiency is a typical complication after surgical treatment of adrenal tumors, especially after the removal of both adrenal glands. Human beings are not able to survive without adrenal glands and without proper hormonal substitution. Autotransplantation of a fragment of the adrenal gland may prevent this complication. This can be done by transplanting the entire adrenal glands or its fragment, such as the adrenal cortex cells. In the case of adrenal tumors, the entire adrenal gland can not be transplanted...
June 13, 2018: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
Zahra Bahari, Gholam H Meftahi, Mohammad A Meftahi
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in mediating executive functions and orchestrating the way in which we think, decide, and behave. Many studies have shown that PFC neurons not only play a major role in mediating behavioral responses to stress but are also sensitive to stress and undergo remodeling following stress exposure. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as a result of stress initiates a flood of alterations in prefrontal neurotransmitter release. Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the PFC is involved in the modulation of stress responsiveness...
October 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Luis Gustavo Perez-Rivas, Tracy Ann Williams, Martin Reincke
Primary aldosteronism is a common cause of endocrine hypertension. It results from the excess production of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex and is related to increased morbidity and mortality. Most cases of PA are sporadic but inherited patterns of the disease have been reported in the literature. Four forms of familial hyperaldosteronism (FH-I- FH-IV) are currently recognized, and the genetic basis has been clarified in recent years. In FH-I patients, aldosterone excess is produced by a CYP11B1/CYP11B2 fusion gene and it is suppressed by glucocorticoid treatment...
September 10, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Marieka V DeVuono, Kelly M Hrelja, Lauren Sabaziotis, Alex Rajna, Erin M Rock, Cheryl L Limebeer, David M Mutch, Linda A Parker
Δ9 -tetrahydracannabinol (THC) is recognized as an effective treatment for nausea and vomiting via its action on the cannabinoid 1 (CB1 ) receptor. Paradoxically, there is evidence that THC can also produce nausea and vomiting. Using the conditioned gaping model of nausea in rats, we evaluated the ability of several doses of THC (0.0, 0.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) to produced conditioned gaping reactions. We then investigated the ability of the CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, to block the establishment of THC-induced conditioned gaping...
October 2018: Neuropharmacology
Ying Sze, Andrew C Gill, Paula J Brunton
Sex differences in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity are well established in rodents. In addition to glucocorticoids, stress also stimulates secretion of progesterone and deoxycorticosterone (DOC) from the adrenal gland. Neuroactive steroid metabolites of these precursors can modulate HPA axis function; however it is not known whether levels of these steroids differ between male and females following stress. Here we aimed to establish whether neuroactive steroid concentrations in the brain display sex- and/or region-specific differences under basal conditions and following exposure to acute stress...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Ying Wang, Guanmao Chen, Shuming Zhong, Yanbin Jia, Liu Xia, Shunkai Lai, Lianping Zhao, Li Huang, Tiebang Liu
Disturbed hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function, which leads to excessive and prolonged hypercortisolemia, is a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relationships between depression, brain structure and function, and cortisol levels are unclear. The current study examined the whole-brain functional connectivity pattern of patients with MDD and evaluated the association between functional connectivity and serum cortisol levels in MDD. A total of 93 unmedicated patients with MDD and 139 healthy control subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Maria Yolotzin Valdespino-Vázquez, Edgar E Sevilla-Reyes, Rosalia Lira, Martha Yocupicio-Monroy, Elvira Piten-Isidro, Celia Boukadida, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Juan David Soriano-Jimenez, Alma Herrera-Salazar, Ricardo Figueroa-Damián, Gustavo Reyes-Terán, Rodrigo Zamora-Escudero, Jorge Arturo Cardona-Pérez, Angélica Maldonado-Rodríguez, Elsa Romelia Moreno-Verduzco, Jesús Torres-Flores
Background: During pregnancy Zika virus (ZIKV) replicates in the placenta and central nervous system (CNS) of infected fetuses, nevertheless the ability of ZIKV to replicate in other fetal tissues has not been extensively characterized. Methods: We determined if dissemination outside the CNS of congenitally acquired ZIKV does exist by searching for the accumulation of the viral envelope protein (E), ZIKV RNA and infectious viral particles in different organs of a deceased newborn with Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS)...
September 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
László Ákos Kovács, Josef Andreas Schiessl, Anna Elisabeth Nafz, Valér Csernus, Balázs Gaszner
The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is the main regulator of the stress response. The key of the HPA is the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (pPVN) controlled by higher-order limbic stress centers. The reactivity of the HPA axis is considered to be a function of age, but to date, little is known about the background of this age-dependency. Sporadic literature data suggest that the stress sensitivity as assessed by semi-quantitation of the neuronal activity marker c-Fos may also be influenced by age...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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