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Adrenal cortex

Elizabeth M Kenny, Emin Fidan, Qin Yang, Tamil S Anthonymuthu, Lee Ann New, Elizabeth A Meyer, Hong Wang, Patrick M Kochanek, C Edward Dixon, Valerian E Kagan, Hülya Bayır
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury triggers multiple cell death pathways, possibly including ferroptosis-a recently described cell death pathway that results from accumulation of 15-lipoxygenase-mediated lipid oxidation products, specifically oxidized phosphatidylethanolamine containing arachidonic or adrenic acid. This study aimed to investigate whether ferroptosis contributed to the pathogenesis of in vitro and in vivo traumatic brain injury, and whether inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase provided neuroprotection...
December 6, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Olena Kleshchova, Jenna K Rieder, Jack Grinband, Mariann R Weierich
BACKGROUND: Chronic hypervigilance, a state of sustained alertness and hyperarousal in the absence of threat, has been shown to predict poorer clinical outcomes post-trauma. An exaggerated and persistent amygdala alerting response to affective information has been proposed as a reactivity-based, and thus indirect, marker of hypervigilance. However, because chronic hypervigilance is a persistent rather than reactive state, it should be directly observable under resting-state conditions without the need for exposure to affectively charged stimuli...
November 26, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Zita Halász
Experimental and clinical data suggest a complex interaction between the endocrine and immune systems. However, only few epidemiological studies are available dealing with endocrine complications in different types of primary immunodeficiency diseases. It is well documented that there is a close association between immunodeficiency syndromes and the development of autoimmune disorders. Most of the endocrine dysfunctions are caused mainly by immune dysregulation and autoimmunity like in APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis, ectodermal dystrophy) and IPEX (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) syndromes...
December 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Sasigarn A Bowden, Rohan Henry
Adrenal insufficiency may result from a wide variety of congenital or acquired disorders of hypothalamus, pituitary, or adrenal cortex. Destruction or dysfunction of the adrenal cortex is the cause of primary adrenal insufficiency, while secondary adrenal insufficiency is a result of pituitary or hypothalamic disease. Timely diagnosis and clinical management of adrenal insufficiency are critical to prevent morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes the etiologies, presentation, and diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency utilizing different dynamic hormone testing and describes current treatment recommendations and new therapies...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Charlotte Steenblock, Maria F Rubin de Celis, Luis F Delgadillo Silva, Verena Pawolski, Ana Brennand, Martin Werdermann, Ilona Berger, Alice Santambrogio, Mirko Peitzsch, Cynthia L Andoniadou, Andrew V Schally, Stefan R Bornstein
The adrenal gland is a master regulator of the human body during response to stress. This organ shows constant replacement of senescent cells by newly differentiated cells. A high degree of plasticity is critical to sustain homeostasis under different physiological demands. This is achieved in part through proliferation and differentiation of adult adrenal progenitors. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a Nestin+ population of adrenocortical progenitors located under the adrenal capsule and scattered throughout the cortex...
December 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Arezoo Khoradmehr, Fahime Mazaheri, Morteza Anvari, Amin Tamadon
Objective: Fast Free-of-Acrylamide Clearing Tissue (FACT) is a recently developed protocol for the whole tissue three-dimensional (3D) imaging. The FACT protocol clears lipids using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to increase the penetration of light and reflection of fluorescent signals from the depth of cleared tissue. The aim of the present study was using FACT protocol in combination with imaging of auto-fluorescency of red blood cells in vessels to image the vasculature of a translucent mouse tissues...
April 2019: Cell Journal
Ann E Walts, Joseph Frye, David M Engman, Alberto M Marchevsky
It is uncertain whether thymic neuroendocrine tumors (NET) associated with Cushing's syndrome (CS) produce corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and whether the thymus contains ACTH and/or CRH cells that could originate NET. The clinicopathologic features of 5 typical (TC) and 6 atypical carcinoids (ATC), 10 additional non-neoplastic thymi, 6 adrenal glands with bilateral nodular hyperplasia and 8 adrenal cortical adenomas were reviewed. Representative slides were immunostained for ACTH and CRH...
November 22, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
M Bicikova, L Macova, L Kolatorova, M Hill, J Novotny, D Jandova, L Starka
The paper presents the results of our effort to reveal objective parameters for evaluation of the spa treatment for patients with anxiety-depressive disorders. The study was based on our previous experience with neuroactive steroids and neurosteroids, which play a crucial role in the psychological well-being of patients by maintaining balance of the organism. A total number of 94 steroids were determinated in a group of 70 female patients diagnosed with anxiety-depressive disorders. Patients underwent a month spa treatment while maintaining unchanged medication dosing with SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)...
November 28, 2018: Physiological Research
C J Montes-Rodriguez, E Urteaga-Urias
INTRODUCTION: Adverse life experiences promote the development of mental illness such as depression, anxiety or schizophrenia. However, some individuals are capable to overcome adversity, achieving a physical and psychological normal development; this process is known as resilience. AIM: To discuss the neuronal substrates of resilience. DEVELOPMENT: We propose that resilience at neuronal level needs systems for representing and evaluating the context (adverse situation) in order to display an adequate behavioural output, and for reorganizing memory associated to the adverse situation in order to tell a new story using the same elements of experience; this is, a system that allows to reorganize neuronal ensembles associated to the adverse memory...
December 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Konstantinos Kalafatakis, G Russell, Stafford Lightman
Glucocorticoids are a class of systematically secreted hormones, vital for mammalian life, which are intensively investigated for more than 80 years. They regulate multiple body processes like metabolism, fluid homeostasis, immune and stress system responsivity, as well as brain function. Glucocorticoids have a complex rhythm by which they are released to circulation from the adrenal cortex. The hormone exhibits a circadian variation, with high hormonal levels being secreted just prior and during the active part of the day, and progressively lower and lower amounts being released during the inactive part of it...
November 1, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Kareem Eldin Mohammed Ahmed, Håvard G Frøysa, Odd André Karlsen, Nello Blaser, Karin Elisabeth Zimmer, Hanne Friis Berntsen, Steven Verhaegen, Erik Ropstad, Ralf Kellmann, Anders Goksøyr
The presence of environmental pollutants in our ecosystem may impose harmful health effects to wildlife and humans. Several of these toxic chemicals have a potential to interfere with the endocrine system. The adrenal cortex has been identified as the main target organ affected by endocrine disrupting chemicals. The aim of this work was to assess exposure effects of defined and environmentally relevant mixtures of chlorinated, brominated and perfluorinated chemicals on steroidogenesis, using the H295R adrenocortical cell line model in combination with a newly developed liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method...
November 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Eun Na Kim, Dong Eun Song, Hee Mang Yoon, Beom Hee Lee, Chong Jai Kim
Patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) are predisposed to developing embryonal tumors, with hepatoblastoma being the most common type. Our patient showed hemihypertrophy, macroglossia, and paternal uniparental disomy in chromosome 11 and was diagnosed with BWS. When the patient was nine months old, a 2.5×1.5 cm oval hypoechoic exophytic mass was detected in the inferior tip of his right liver. Preoperative imaging identified it as hepatoblastoma; however, histologic, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic findings were compatible with adrenal cortical neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
Peeyush Bhargava, Guillermo Sangster, Kabiul Haque, John Garrett, Maren Donato, Horacio D'Agostino
Adrenal tumors are very commonly encountered in the practice of radiology. They may arise from the adrenal gland itself, either the cortex or the medulla, or they could be secondary lesions. They may be benign or malignant. The functioning adrenal tumors lead to hypersecretion of adrenal hormones leading to clinical syndromes. Computed tomography is the most common imaging modality used for the initial evaluation of adrenal tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging and functional scintigraphic techniques are frequently used for atypical presentations or further evaluation...
October 25, 2018: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Emily L Belleau, Michael T Treadway, Diego A Pizzagalli
Volumetric reductions in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are among the most well-documented neural abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD). Hippocampal and mPFC structural reductions have been specifically tied to MDD illness progression markers, including greater number of major depressive episodes (MDEs), longer illness duration, and nonremission/treatment resistance. Chronic stress plays a critical role in the development of hippocampal and mPFC deficits, with some studies suggesting that these deficits occur irrespective of MDE occurrence...
October 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Jingjing Xu, Rui Wang, Yuan Liu, Wei Wang, Dexiang Liu, Hong Jiang, Fang Pan
Maladaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is involved in susceptibility to depression. Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and the co-chaperone protein, FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5), play crucial roles in dysfunction of the HPA axis. Further, certain microRNAs (miRNAs), such as miR-124a and miR-18a, which could reduce GR protein expression, contribute to affective disorders, while miR-511 as a regulator of FKBP5 is involved in an increased risk of depression. However, the short-term and persistent impacts of adolescent stress on miR-124a, miR-18a, and miR-511 expressions in the brain are unknown...
November 11, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Hiromi Tanaka, Ayuka Ehara, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Kanji Yoshimoto, Kazutaka Shimoda, Shuich Ueda
It is well known that an abusive environment in childhood is related to individual anxiety behavior in adulthood. Though an imbalance of adrenocorticosteroid receptors and a dysfunction of monoaminergic neuron systems have been proposed, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To address these problems, we recently developed a new model of shaking brain injury (SBI) in neonatal rats. These model rats showed transient microhemorrhages in the gray matter of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Using this model, we assessed the effects of neonatal repeated mild SBI on subsequent behavior and the stress response, and we further examined the possible contribution of adrenocorticosteroid receptors in the hippocampus and central monoaminergic neuron systems mediating such abnormalities...
November 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Michał K Zarobkiewicz, Mateusz M Woźniakowski, Ewelina Wawryk-Gawda, Mirosław A Sławiński, Paweł Halczuk, Agnieszka Korolczuk, Barbara Jodłowska-Jędrych
Background and objectives : Energy drinks are popular non-alcoholic beverages. They are consumed in large amounts, mainly by active, young people. Although they are easily accessible and marketed as safe, numerous cases of adverse effects have been published, including cardiac arrest, arrythmias, acute hepatitis, and renal failure. The aim of the current study is the assessment of energy drink influence on the histological structure of adrenal cortex in rats. Material and Methods : 15 male young Wistar rats were equally divided into three groups: control (C), experimental (E) and reversibility control (RC)...
November 19, 2018: Medicina
Mohammad Alkhateeb, Mohammad Alsakkal, Mohammad Nour Alfauri, Diana Alasmar
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular manifestations associated with Addison's disease are previously documented. We described a case of an 11-year-old girl who developed dilated cardiomyopathy as a complication to Addison's disease. Glucocorticoid replacement therapy resulted in near-complete recovery of cardiac function. It is the first reported case of reversible cardiomyopathy as a complication of primary adrenal insufficiency in Syria. CASE PRESENTATION: An 11-year-old Caucasian girl with no significant past medical history presented with abdominal pain, vomiting after meals, and a low-grade fever...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Ajeet Kumar, Shalini Dogra, Chandan Sona, Deepmala Umrao, Mamunur Rashid, Sandeep K Singh, Muhammad Wahajuddin, Prem N Yadav
The last two decades of research has established histamine (HA) as a neurotransmitter. Since H3R antagonists are known to modulate several neurotransmitters besides HA, H3R antagonists have shown potential for the treatment of different central nervous system disorders, including depression. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of H3R antagonism in depression are not clear, yet. In the present study, we investigated the antidepressant potential of ciproxifan, a selective H3R antagonist, in chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) model of depression in C57BL/6 J mice...
November 11, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Renata Cristina Nunes Marchette, Maíra Assunção Bicca, Evelyn Cristina da Silva Santos, Thereza Christina Monteiro de Lima
Epidemiologic studies have shown that the prevalence of stress-related mood disorders is higher in women, which suggests a different response of neuroendocrine circuits involved in the response to stressful events, as well as a genetic background influence. The aim of this study was to investigate the baseline differences in anxiety-like behaviors of females of two commonly used mice strains. Secondly, we have also aimed to study their behavioral and biochemical alterations following stress. Naïve 3-4 months-old Swiss and C57BL/6 female mice were evaluated in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and in the acoustic startle response (ASR) for anxiety-like behaviors...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
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