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Adrenal cortex

Robyn Human, Michelle Henry, W Jake Jacobs, Kevin G F Thomas
Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (as might occur, for example, when the organism encounters a threat to allostatic balance) leads to the release of cortisol into the bloodstream and, ultimately, to altered neural functioning in particular brain regions (e.g., the prefrontal cortex (PFC)). Although previous studies suggest that exposure to acute psychosocial stress (and hence, presumably, elevation of circulating cortisol levels) enhances male performance on PFC-based working memory (WM) tasks, few studies have adequately investigated female performance on WM tasks under conditions of elevated cortisol...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Tarik Kirkgoz, Tulay Guran
Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a life-threatening disorder of adrenal cortex which is characterized by deficient biosynthesis of glucocorticoids, with or without deficiency in mineralocorticoids and adrenal androgens. Typical manifestations of primary adrenal insufficiency include hyperpigmentation, hypotension, hypoglycaemia, hyponatremia with or without hyperkalemia that are generally preceded by nonspecific symptoms at the onset. Recessively inherited monogenic disorders constitute the largest group of primary adrenal insufficiency in children...
August 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Toshihide Yamamoto
In 1855, Thomas Addison described an illness now known as Addison disease (AD) caused by damage to the adrenal cortex and manifesting in weakness, weight loss, hypotension, gastrointestinal disturbances, and brownish pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes. Corticosteroid supplementation, corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] of medicinal use) test, and anti-adrenal auto-antibodies (AA) have come into use in the 100 years since Addison's death. Following the methodological innovations, 4 disorders which share impaired response to corticotropin in common have been discovered (i...
August 7, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Maria Helena Vianna Metello Jacob, Rafael Oliveira Fernandes, Jessica Hellen Poletto Bonetto, Roberta Hack Mendes, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo, Adriane Bello-Klein, Maria Flavia Marques Ribeiro
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an important precursor of active steroid hormone, produced abundantly by the adrenal cortex with an age-dependent pattern. We investigated whether chronic DHEA administration impacts on redox status and on Akt protein activation in skeletal muscle during the aging process (3 and 24 month-old rats). Rats received one weekly dose/5 weeks of DHEA (10 mg/kg) or vehicle. Gastrocnemius muscle was removed to evaluate glutathione system, hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant enzymes, and expression of Akt kinase protein...
August 3, 2018: Current Aging Science
James Frederick Henry Pittaway, Leonardo Guasti
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with an incidence worldwide of 0.7-2.0 cases/million/year. Initial staging is the most important factor in determining prognosis. If diagnosed early, surgical resection +/- adjuvant treatment can lead to five-year survival of up to 80%. However, often it is diagnosed late and in advanced disease five-year survival is <15% with a high recurrence rate even after radical surgery. The mainstay of adjuvant treatment is with the drug mitotane. Mitotane has a specific cytotoxic effect on steroidogenic cells of the adrenal cortex but despite this progression through treatment is common...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Rami M El Zein, Sheerazed Boulkroun, Fabio Luiz Fernandes-Rosa, Maria-Christina Zennaro
Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) are a major cause of primary aldosteronism (PA), the most common form of secondary hypertension. Exome analysis of APA has allowed the identification of recurrent somatic mutations in KCNJ5, CACNA1D, ATP1A1, and ATP2B3 in more than 50 % of sporadic cases. These gain of function mutations in ion channels and pumps lead to increased and autonomous aldosterone production. In addition, somatic CTNNB1 mutations have also been identified in APA. The CTNNB1 mutations were also identified in cortisol-producing adenomas and adrenal cancer, but their role in APA development and the mechanisms specifying the hormonal production or the malignant phenotype remain unknown...
July 30, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Chen-Cheng Lin, Kun-Lun Huang, Che-Se Tung, Yia-Ping Liu
Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterized by fear memory problems and hypocortisolemia of which traumatic stress-induced monoaminergic disruption over infralimbic (IL) cortex is considered the key mechanism. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has recently proven its utility in treating several mental disorders but remains unexplored for PTSD. The present study aimed to examine the effects of 5-day HBO paradigm on traumatic stress (single prolonged stress, SPS, an animal model of PTSD)-induced dysregulation of fear memory/anxiety profiles and related abnormalities in IL monoamines and plasma corticosterone...
July 26, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Patty Lathan, Ann L Thompson
Hypoadrenocorticism (HOAC; Addison's disease) is an endocrine condition seen in small animal practice. Dogs with this disease can present in a variety of ways from acute hypovolemic collapse to vague, chronic, waxing, and waning clinical signs. In the most common form of this disease, animals have both mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid deficiency, resulting in hyponatremia and hyperkalemia, and signs of cortisol deficiency. The etiology may be immune-mediated destruction of the adrenal cortex, drug-induced adrenocortical necrosis (mitotane), enzyme inhibition (trilostane), or infiltrative processes such as neoplastic or fungal disease...
2018: Veterinary medicine
Sten Orrenius
My research activity started with studies on drug metabolism in rat liver microsomes in the early 1960s. The CO-binding pigment (cytochrome P450) had been discovered a few years earlier and was subsequently found to be involved in steroid hydroxylation in adrenal cortex microsomes. Our early studies suggested that it also participated in the oxidative demethylation of drugs catalyzed by liver microsomes, and that prior treatment of the animals with phenobarbital caused increased levels of the hemoprotein in the liver, and similarly enhanced rates of drug metabolism...
July 25, 2018: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Maria Sonia Baquedano, Gabriela Guercio, Mariana Costanzo, Roxana Marino, Marco A Rivarola, Alicia Belgorosky
3βHSD2 enzyme is crucial for adrenal and gonad steroid biosynthesis. In enzyme deficiency states, due to recessive loss-of-function HSD3B2 mutations, steroid flux is altered and clinical manifestations result. Deficiency of 3βHSD2 activity in the adrenals precludes normal aldosterone and cortisol synthesis and the alternative backdoor and 11-oxygenated C19 steroid pathways and the flooding of cortisol precursors along the Δ5 pathway with a marked rise in DHEA and DHEAS production. In gonads, it precludes normal T and estrogen synthesis...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Kazutaka Aoki, Yasuo Terauchi
Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by an impaired capacity to secrete insulin, insulin resistance, or both. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex, has been reported to have beneficial effects on diabetes mellitus and obesity in animal models. DHEA and DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S) have been reported to increase not only insulin secretion of the pancreas but also insulin sensitivity of the liver, adipose tissue, and muscle. We investigated the effects of DHEA on glucose metabolism in animal models and reported decrease of liver gluconeogenesis...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Shuanhu Zhou, Julie Glowacki
In humans, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), secreted mainly from the adrenal cortex, and its sulfate ester, DHEAS, are the most abundant circulating steroids. DHEA/DHEAS possess pleiotropic effects in human aging, bone, metabolic diseases, neurologic function/neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, immune system and disorders, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, muscle function, sexual dysfunction, and other health conditions. The age-related reduced levels of DHEA and DHEAS are associated with bone mineral density measures of osteopenia and osteoporosis...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Koji Sato, Motoyuki Iemitsu
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a precursor of sex steroid hormones and is converted to testosterone and estradiol. Normally, androgens and estrogens produced adrenal cortex, testis, and ovary; however, recent studies revealed androgens and estrogens are synthesized by peripheral tissues such as brain, skin, liver, kidney, bone, etc. We found skeletal muscles are also capable of synthesizing androgens and estrogens from DHEA. Circulating DHEA provides substrates required for conversion into potent androgens and estrogens in peripheral tissues...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Jelena Petrović, Dušanka Stanić, Zorica Bulat, Nela Puškaš, Milica Labudović-Borović, Bojan Batinić, Duško Mirković, Svetlana Ignjatović, Vesna Pešić
Magnesium (Mg), is not only a modulator of the glutamatergic NMDA receptors' affinity, it also prevents HPA axis hyperactivity, thus possibly being implicated in neurobiological features of mood disorders. Further uncovering of molecular mechanisms underlying magnesium's proposed effects is needed due to the recent shift in research of treatment resistant depression (TRD) towards glutamatergic pathways. Here, we applied Mg via drinking water for 28 days (50 mg/kg/day), in ACTH-treated rats, an established animal model of depression resistant to tricyclic antidepressants...
July 19, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Adem Kocaman, Mehmet Gül, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Gamze Altun, Emrah Zayman, Elfide Gizem Kıvrak
The aim of this study was to investigate the harmful effects of exposure to 900-megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the protective effects of omega-3 (Omg-3) against EMF in the rat adrenal gland. Eighteen Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned into three groups, control (Cont), EMF, and EMF + Omg-3. The EMF and EMF + Omg-3 groups both consisted of six rats exposed to an EMF of 900 MHz for 60 min/day for 15 days. No procedure was applied to the six rats in the Cont group. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed, and the mean volumes of the cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland were estimated using a stereological counting technique...
October 2017: Journal of microscopy and ultrastructure
Teresa M Seccia, Brasilina Caroccia, Elise P Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Gian Paolo Rossi
The identification of several germline and somatic ion channel mutations in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) and detection of cell clusters that can be responsible for excess aldosterone production, as well as the isolation of autoantibodies activating the angiotensin II type 1 receptor, have rapidly advanced the understanding of the biology of primary aldosteronism (PA), in particular that of APA. Hence, the main purpose of this review is to discuss how discoveries of the last decade could impact on histopathology analysis and clinical practice...
July 10, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Yuki Kobayashi, Jun Shigemura, Aihide Yoshino
Some individuals who experience psychologically traumatic events cannot process their experiences as regular memories, and these experiences develop into traumatic memories. In individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), fear conditioning occurs-these individuals subsequently respond to their direct traumatic experiences and to neutral stimuli. This conditioned response eventually leads to repeated re-experiencing. In this review, we discuss biological mechanisms associated with the development of traumatic memories...
July 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
P Yi, H L Niu, Q Gao, F H Wang, W Jia, Z R Chen, J Q Xia, L P Li, Y Cao, R X Zeng
Objective: To investigate the pathologic features of gonadal tissues of disorders of sexual development (DSD) in children. Methods: Fifty-three cases of gonadal developmental disorders were collected from July 2015 to August 2017 at Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center. Clinical manifestations, karyotypes, sex hormone levels, ultrasound imaging, histology and immunophenotype of gonadal tissues were analyzed. Results: The age of patients ranged from 7 months to 17 years with an average of (50.7 ± 47...
July 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Vivian Y Y Lam, Charlis Raineki, Linda Ellis, Wayne Yu, Joanne Weinberg
Children and adults prenatally exposed to alcohol show higher rates of mental health problems than unexposed individuals, with depression and anxiety being among the more commonly encountered disorders. Previous studies in rats showed that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can indeed increase depressive- and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood; however, depression and anxiety are often observed in the context of stress and/or a dysregulated stress response system (the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis)...
June 23, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Alexandra R Himel, Sharon A Cabral, James P Shaffery, Bernadette E Grayson
Surgical weight loss results in a host of metabolic changes that culminate in net positive health benefit to the patients. However, the psychological impact of these surgeries has not been fully studied. On one hand, surgical weight loss has been reported to improve standard quality of life and resolution of symptoms of depression. But on the other hand, reports of self-harm and increased ER visits for self-harm suggest other psychological difficulties. Inability to handle anxiety following surgical weight loss has alarming potential ramifications for these gastric surgery patients...
2018: PloS One
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