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Streptococcus pneumonia

Angela H Benton, Mary E Marquart
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic pathogen that can cause severe infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and middle ear infections. It is also one of the top pathogens contributing to bacterial keratitis and conjunctivitis. Though two pneumococcal vaccines exist for the prevention of nonocular diseases, they do little to fully prevent ocular infections. This pathogen has several virulence factors that wreak havoc on the conjunctiva, cornea, and intraocular system...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Kang Cai, Yizhong Wang, Zhongqin Guo, Xiaonan Xu, Huajun Li, Qingli Zhang
Purpose: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes serious infections globally, including invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We analyze clinical features of pediatric IPD cases identified in China and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated pneumococcal strains. Methods: Confirmed pediatric IPD patients were prospectively recruited to the study. Symptoms at the time of hospitalization, laboratory tests, antimicrobial susceptibility of pneumococcal isolates, treatments, hospital stay, and residual findings at discharge were analyzed systematically...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
David C LaFon, Moon H Nahm
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin replacement therapy is a cornerstone of the treatment of primary immunodeficiencies. Preparations used for replacement therapy are processed by purifying immunoglobulins from large pools of plasma, which were obtained from healthy donors. The constituent antibodies in these products depend on the immune history of the donor pool as well as manufacturing processes that differ among manufacturers. For these reasons various methods have been proposed to examine the levels and function of antibodies to organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, which frequently causes infections in patients with immunodeficiencies...
December 2018: Transfusion
Ricardo U Sorensen, J David M Edgar
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) strains colonize the nasopharynx and can cause mucosal infections in the upper airway and middle ear, pneumonias, and invasive infections like bacteremia, sepsis, and meningitis. Over 90 serotypes, defined by the structure of their capsular polysaccharides, are known. Twenty-three of these serotypes cause most infections and several of these serotypes can develop antibiotic resistance. Susceptibility factors that increase the susceptibility to S. pneumoniae mucosal and invasive infections include all forms of primary and secondary antibody deficiencies...
December 2018: Transfusion
Alicen B Spaulding, Dave Watson, Jill Dreyfus, Phillip Heaton, Steven Grapentine, Ellen Bendel-Stenzel, Anupam Kharbanda
Background: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality in children. Recent pediatric epidemiological data may inform prevention strategies and empiric antimicrobial therapy selection. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 2009-2016 utilizing demographic and microbiology data on inpatients <19 years using the Premier Healthcare Database. BSIs were positive blood cultures without known contaminants. Hospitalization rate was the number of BSI-positive encounters per 1,000 admissions...
December 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
María Luisa Rioseco Z, Raúl Riquelme O, Mauricio Riquelme O, Carlos Inzunza P, Javier Riquelme D, Andrea Sanhueza R
BACKGROUND: Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) is a preventable disease with high morbimortality. AIM: To evaluate clinical aspects and mortality on BPP patients admitted to a Chilean regional hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We looked for adult patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from blood cultures between 2010 and 2014 years and reviewed clinical records of those who were admitted with pneumonia. RESULTS: We identified 70 BPP patients: 58% were men, mean age was 56 years, 30% were > 65 years, 70% with basic public health insurance, 26% were alcoholics, 86% had comorbidities...
July 2018: Revista Médica de Chile
Roger Karlsson, Lucia Gonzales-Siles, Margarita Gomila, Antonio Busquets, Francisco Salvà-Serra, Daniel Jaén-Luchoro, Hedvig E Jakobsson, Anders Karlsson, Fredrik Boulund, Erik Kristiansson, Edward R B Moore
A range of methodologies may be used for analyzing bacteria, depending on the purpose and the level of resolution needed. The capability for recognition of species distinctions within the complex spectrum of bacterial diversity is necessary for progress in microbiological research. In clinical settings, accurate, rapid and cost-effective methods are essential for early and efficient treatment of infections. Characterization and identification of microorganisms, using, bottom-up proteomics, or "proteotyping", relies on recognition of species-unique or associated peptides, by tandem mass spectrometry analyses, dependent upon an accurate and comprehensive foundation of genome sequence data, allowing for differentiation of species, at amino acid-level resolution...
2018: PloS One
Codou Ndiaye, Hubert Bassene, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Didier Raoult, Cheikh Sokhna
Aside from malaria, infectious diseases are an important cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa and continue to pose major public health problems in African countries, notably pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia in all age groups. The skin is one of the main infection sites followed by the oropharynx. The skin carriage of certain pathogenic bacteria such as S. pneumoniae is often ignored or under-diagnosed. Finally, the mode of transmission of these infections remains uncertain...
December 10, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Zoly Nantenaina Ranosiarisoa, Sélim El Harrif, André Zo Andrianirina, Sandrine Duron, Marie-José Simon-Ghediri, Lova Ramparany, Annick Lalaina Robinson, Rosa Tsifiregna, Frédérique Randrianirina, Elisoa Ratsima, Josette Raymond, Patrick Imbert
BACKGROUND: Little is known about early-onset neonatal bacterial infections (EONBI) in Madagascar. Our aim was to determine their epidemiology to improve their management. METHODS: Inborn neonates at risk for EONBI and admitted in the neonatal unit of 2 tertiary hospitals in Antananarivo, Madagascar, were included in a prospective study from April 2012 to March 2013. Using a clinical algorithm, blood culture, gastric fluid culture and C-reactive protein dosage were performed in newborns at high risk of infection, that is, peri partum fever, prematurity <35 weeks' gestation or birth weight <2000 g, or presenting with clinical signs of infection...
January 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Paulina Kaplonek, Naeem Khan, Katrin Reppe, Benjamin Schumann, Madhu Emmadi, Marilda P Lisboa, Fei-Fei Xu, Adam D J Calow, Sharavathi G Parameswarappa, Martin Witzenrath, Claney L Pereira, Peter H Seeberger
Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a deadly disease in small children and the elderly even though conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines based on isolated capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are successful. The most common serotypes that cause infection are used in vaccines around the world, but differences in geographic and demographic serotype distribution compromises protection by leading vaccines. The medicinal chemistry approach to glycoconjugate vaccine development has helped to improve the stability and immunogenicity of synthetic vaccine candidates for several serotypes leading to the induction of higher levels of specific protective antibodies...
December 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Win-Yan Chan, Claire Entwisle, Giuseppe Ercoli, Elise Ramos-Sevillano, Ann McIlgorm, Paola Cecchini, Christopher Bailey, Oliver Lam, Gail Whiting, Nicola Green, David Goldblatt, Jun X Wheeler, Jeremy S Brown
Current vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae uses vaccines based on capsular polysaccharides from selected serotypes, and has led to non-vaccine serotype replacement disease. We have investigated an alternative serotype-independent approach, using multiple-antigen vaccines (MAV) prepared from S. pneumoniae TIGR4 lysates enriched for surface proteins by a chromatography step after culture under conditions that induce expression of heat shock proteins (Hsp, thought to be immune adjuvants). Proteomics and immunoblots demonstrated that compared to standard bacterial lysates, MAV was enriched with Hsps and contained several recognised protective protein antigens, including pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) and pneumolysin (Ply)...
December 10, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Svenja Siemer, Dana Westmeier, Matthias Barz, Jonas Eckrich, Désirée Wünsch, Christof Seckert, Christian Thyssen, Oliver Schilling, Mike Hasenberg, Chengfan Pang, Dominic Docter, Shirley K Knauer, Roland H Stauber, Sebastian Strieth
Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are a global health threat. Nanoparticles are thus investigated as novel antibacterial agents for clinical practice, including wound dressings and implants. We report that nanoparticles' bactericidal activity strongly depends on their physical binding to pathogens, including multidrug-resistant primary clinical isolates, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Enterococcus faecalis. Using controllable nanoparticle models, we found that nanoparticle-pathogen complex formation was enhanced by small nanoparticle size rather than material or charge, and was prevented by 'stealth' modifications...
November 21, 2018: Biomaterials
Hiroshige Mikamo, Kazuteru Monden, Yoshiaki Miyasaka, Tetsuya Horiuchi, Go Fujimoto, Takahiro Fukuhara, Tomoko Yoshinari, Elizabeth G Rhee, Toshiyuki Shizuya
Tazobactam/ceftolozane, a novel antimicrobial therapy, is active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and most extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. We report the results of the efficacy and safety of tazobactam/ceftolozane in Japanese patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI). A multicenter, open-label, noncomparative study (MK-7625A Protocol 013, Identifier: NCT02739997) to investigate the efficacy and safety of tazobactam/ceftolozane used in combination with metronidazole in Japanese patients with cIAI was conducted...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Chandini Raina MacIntyre, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Michelle Barnes, Iman Ridda, Holly Seale, Renin Toms, Anita Heywood
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of pneumonia and secondary bacterial infections during the pandemic of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant literature in which clinical outcomes of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection were described. Published studies (between 01/01/2009 and 05/07/2012) describing cases of fatal or hospitalised A(H1N1)pdm09 and including data on bacterial testing or co-infection...
December 7, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Wei Shi, Jing Li, Fang Dong, Suyun Qian, Gang Liu, Baoping Xu, Lin Zhou, Wenjian Xu, Qinghong Meng, Qing Wang, Kunling Shen, Lijuan Ma, Kaihu Yao
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a serious threat to children worldwide. This study reported the serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance pattern and multilocus sequence types of 111 IPD strains isolated from children less than 14 years old in two tertiary pediatric centers in Beijing during years 2012-2017. Methods Serotypes were determined using Quellung reaction. Antibiotic resistance was tested using the E-test or disc diffusion method. Sequence types (STs) were assigned via multilocus sequence typing...
December 10, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Sorino Claudio, Scichilone Nicola, Pedone Claudio, Negri Stefano, Visca Dina, Spanevello Antonio
A significant interaction between kidneys and lungs has been shown in physiological and pathological conditions. The two organs can both be targets of the same systemic disease (eg., some vasculitides). Moreover, loss of normal function of either of them can induce direct and indirect dysregulation of the other one. Subjects suffering from COPD may have systemic inflammation, hypoxemia, endothelial dysfunction, increased sympathetic activation and increased aortic stiffness. As well as the exposure to nicotine, all the foresaid factors can induce a microvascular damage, albuminuria, and a worsening of renal function...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
R Clere-Jehl, H Merdji, D Derhy, J Helms
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Xiao-Yan Yang, Jing-Yu Xu, Miao Meng, Nan Li, Chun-Yuan Liu, Qing-Yu He
Drug resistance in bacteria is becoming a significant threat to global public health, and the development of novel and efficient antibacterial compounds is urgently needed. Recently, rhodium complexes have attracted attention as antimicrobial agents, yet their antibacterial mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we observed that the dirhodium (II) complex Rh2 Ac4 inhibited Streptococcus. pneumoniae growth without significant cytotoxic side-effects on host cells in vitro. We subsequently investigated the antibacterial mechanism of Rh2 Ac4 using iTRAQ-based proteomics combined with cellular and biochemical assays...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
L Zhu, W H Li, X H Wang, K Tan, Q F Fang, Q X Zhu, K K Wu, Q Z Yang, A W Lin, H L Deng, J Bi, J Liu, S Y Zhao, Y Liu, S J Jing, Y M Wang, L M Li, Q Zhao, K H Yao, X Wang, L Jia, F Wang, J K Deng, J Sun, C H Zhu, K Zhou, J Liang, X Z Nie, S C Cao, D M Wang, S J Li, X X Chen, J Li, Y Wang, L Ye, Y H Zhang, F Dong, Z Li, Y H Yang, G Liu
Objective: To explore the clinical features, the serotype distribution and drug resistance of the isolates in patient with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Methods: By retrieving the laboratory information system in 18 children's hospitals from 2012 to 2017, the children with IPD were enrolled. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) must be isolated from the sterile sites (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, hydrothorax and joint effusion etc.). The clinical characteristics, serotype, drug resistance, treatment and prognosis were reviewed and analyzed...
December 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa, Andre Nathan Costa, Fernando Lundgren, Lessandra Michelin, Mara Rúbia Figueiredo, Marcelo Holanda, Mauro Gomes, Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira, Ricardo Martins, Rodney Silva, Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio, Rosemeri Maurici da Silva, Mônica Corso Pereira
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite the vast diversity of respiratory microbiota, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most prevalent pathogen among etiologic agents. Despite the significant decrease in the mortality rates for lower respiratory tract infections in recent decades, CAP ranks third as a cause of death in Brazil. Since the latest Guidelines on CAP from the Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia (SBPT, Brazilian Thoracic Association) were published (2009), there have been major advances in the application of imaging tests, in etiologic investigation, in risk stratification at admission and prognostic score stratification, in the use of biomarkers, and in the recommendations for antibiotic therapy (and its duration) and prevention through vaccination...
September 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
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