Read by QxMD icon Read

Streptococcus pneumonia

Jean-Baptiste LeMeur, Brigitte Lefebvre, Jean-François Proulx, Philippe De Wals
OBJECTIVE: In 2002, a mass immunization campaign using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) was carried out in Nunavik to control an outbreak caused by a virulent clone of serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae. At the same time, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced for routine immunization of infants, replaced by the 10-valent vaccine (PCV10) in 2009, and the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) in 2011. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in relation to pneumococcal vaccine use...
October 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Guliz Erdem, Anirudh K Singh, Anthony J Brusnahan, Amber N Moore, William J Barson, Amy Leber, Jorge E Vidal, Serkan Atici, Samantha J King
Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization is a precursor to pneumococcal disease. Although children with a tracheostomy have an increased risk of pneumococcal pneumonia, the pneumococci colonizing their lower airways remain largely uncharacterized. We sought to compare lower respiratory tract isolates colonizing tracheostomy patients and a convenience sample of isolates from individuals intubated for acute conditions. We collected pneumococcal isolates from the lower respiratory tract of 27 patients with a tracheostomy and 42 patients intubated for acute conditions...
2018: PloS One
Penny A Asbell, Heleen H DeCory
The Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) surveillance study evaluates in vitro antibiotic resistance among Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenzae isolates from ocular infections. Here we report resistance rates and trends among conjunctival-sourced ocular isolates collected across the US from 2009 through 2016. A total of 1198 conjunctival isolates (483 S. aureus, 305 CoNS, 208 H...
2018: PloS One
Kimiko Ubukata, Misako Takata, Miyuki Morozumi, Naoko Chiba, Takeaki Wajima, Shigeo Hanada, Michi Shouji, Megumi Sakuma, Satoshi Iwata
To clarify year-to-year changes in capsular serotypes, resistance genotypes, and multilocus sequence types of Streptococcus pneumoniae, we compared isolates collected from patients with invasive pneumococcal disease before and after introductions of 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7 and PVC13, respectively). From April 2010 through March 2017, we collected 2,856 isolates from children and adults throughout Japan. Proportions of PCV13 serotypes among children decreased from 89.0% in fiscal year 2010 to 12...
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Adriana Miller, Dorota Dudek, Sławomir Potocki, Hanna Czapor-Irzabek, Henryk Kozłowski, Magdalena Rowińska-Żyrek
Polyhistidine triad proteins, which participate in Zn2+ uptake in Streptococcus pneumoniae, contain multiple copies of the HxxHxH (histidine triad motif) sequence. We focus on three such motifs from one of the most common and well-conserved polyhistidine triad proteins, PhtA, in order to understand their bioinorganic chemistry; particular focus is given to (i) understanding which of the PhtA triads binds Zn2+ with the highest affinity (and why) and (ii) explaining whether Ni2+ (also crucial for bacterial survival and virulence) could potentially outcompete Zn2+ at its native binding site...
October 18, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Jianfeng Wang, Meng Song, Juan Pan, Xue Shen, Wentao Liu, Xueke Zhang, Hongen Li, Xuming Deng
Biofilm formation mediated by sortase A (srtA) is important for bacterial colonisation and resistance to antibiotics. Thus, the inhibitor of SrtA may represent a promising agent for bacterial infection. The structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 srtA has been characterised by crystallisation. Site-directed mutagenesis was used for the determination of the key residues for the activity of S. pneumoniae D39 srtA. An effective srtA inhibitor, quercetin, and its mechanism was further identified using srtA activity inhibition assay and molecular modelling...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Ifrah Sohail, Sumit Ghosh, Santhosh Mukundan, Susan Zelewski, M Nadeem Khan
Streptococcus pneumoniae ( Spn ) is a colonizer of the human nasopharynx (NP), causing a variety of infections in humans including otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. The NP is an immune permissive site which allows for the persistence of commensal bacteria. Acute or chronic respiratory airway inflammation constitutes a significant risk factor for the manifestation of Spn infections. The inflammatory conditions caused by an upper respiratory viral infection or respiratory conditions such as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders (COPDs) are implicated in the dysregulation of airway inflammation and tissue damage, which compromise the respiratory barrier integrity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Khalil Farhat, Gwennaëlle Bodart, Chantal Charlet-Renard, Christophe J Desmet, Michel Moutschen, Yves Beguin, Frédéric Baron, Pierrette Melin, Pascale Quatresooz, Anne-Simone Parent, Daniel Desmecht, Jean-Claude Sirard, Roberto Salvatori, Henri Martens, Vincent G Geenen
The precise impact of the somatotrope axis upon the immune system is still highly debated. We have previously shown that mice with generalized ablation of growth hormone (GH) releasing hormone (GHRH) gene ( Ghrh -/- ) have normal thymus and T-cell development, but present a marked spleen atrophy and B-cell lymphopenia. Therefore, in this paper we have investigated vaccinal and anti-infectious responses of Ghrh -/- mice against S. pneumoniae , a pathogen carrying T-independent antigens. Ghrh -/- mice were unable to trigger production of specific IgM after vaccination with either native pneumococcal polysaccharides (PPS, PPV23) or protein-PPS conjugate (PCV13)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Daiana A Capdevila, Fidel Huerta, Katherine A Edmonds, My Tra Le, Hongwei Wu, David P Giedroc
MarR (multiple antibiotic resistance repressor) family proteins are bacterial repressors that regulate transcription in response to a wide range of chemical signals. Although specific features of MarR family function have been described, the role of atomic motions in MarRs remains unexplored thus limiting insights into the evolution of allostery in this ubiquitous family of repressors. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that internal dynamics play a crucial functional role in MarR proteins. Streptococcus pneumoniae AdcR (adhesin-competence repressor) regulates ZnII homeostasis and ZnII functions as an allosteric activator of DNA binding...
October 17, 2018: ELife
Sine Fjeldhøj, Rikke Pilmann Laursen, Anni Larnkjær, Christian Mølgaard, Kurt Fuursted, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Hans-Christian Slotved
This study examined the carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy Danish children aged 8-19 months and assessed the effect of the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis on the pneumococcal carriage during daycare enrolment. Potential risk factors of pneumococcal carriage were analysed and the carriage study was compared with registered invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) data. This study is a part of the ProbiComp study, which was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, including 290 children allocated to probiotics or placebo for 6 months and recruited during two autumn seasons (2014/2015)...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shilpi Chandra, James Gray, William B Kiosses, Archana Khurana, Kaori Hitomi, Catherine M Crosby, Ashu Chawla, Zheng Fu, Meng Zhao, Natacha Veerapen, Stewart K Richardson, Steven A Porcelli, Gurdyal Besra, Amy R Howell, Sonia Sharma, Bjoern Peters, Mitchell Kronenberg
Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are activated by lipid antigens presented by CD1d, but the pathway leading to lipid antigen presentation remains incompletely characterized. Here we show a whole-genome siRNA screen to elucidate the CD1d presentation pathway. A majority of gene knockdowns that diminish antigen presentation reduced formation of glycolipid-CD1d complexes on the cell surface, including members of the HOPS and ESCRT complexes, genes affecting cytoskeletal rearrangement, and ABC family transporters...
October 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Kashif S Haleem, Youssif M Ali, Hasan Yesilkaya, Thomas Kohler, Sven Hammerschmidt, Peter W Andrew, Wilhelm J Schwaeble, Nicholas J Lynch
Complement is a critical component of antimicrobial immunity. Various complement regulatory proteins prevent host cells from being attacked. Many pathogens have acquired the ability to sequester complement regulators from host plasma to evade complement attack. Here we describe how Streptococcus pneumoniae adopts a strategy to prevent the formation of the C3 convertase, C4bC2a, by the rapid conversion of surface bound C4b and iC4b into C4dg, which remains bound to the bacterial surface but no longer forms a convertase complex...
October 15, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Jun Zhi Er, Ricky Abdi Gunawan Koean, Jeak Ling Ding
The transcription factor, T-bet, regulates type 1 inflammatory responses against a range of infections. Here, we demonstrate a previously unaddressed role of T-bet, to influenza virus and bacterial superinfection. Interestingly, we found that T-bet deficiency did not adversely affect the efficacy of viral clearance or recovery compared to wild-type hosts. Instead, increased infiltration of neutrophils and production of Th17 cytokines (IL-17 and IL-22), in lungs of influenza virus-infected T-bet-/- mice, were correlated with survival advantage against subsequent infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae Neutralization of IL-17, but not IL-22, in T-bet-/- mice increased pulmonary bacterial load, concomitant with decreased neutrophil infiltration and reduced survival of T-bet-/- mice...
October 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
Ji Eun Lee, Sung Jin Jo, Kang Gyun Park, Hyun Soo Suk, Sung Il Ha, Jeong Seob Shin, Yeon-Joon Park
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the two in-house sample preparation methods (saponin method (SAP) and [saponin + Sputazyme] method (SSPZ)) for direct identification of microorganisms using MALDI-TOF MS from positive blood culture bottles. Also, we evaluated the [saponin + Sputazyme] method for direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) using Vitek 2 system. METHODS: For direct identification, 163 prospective, monomicrobial positive blood culture bottles and 25 contrived blood culture bottles spiked with 25 infrequently isolated bacterial strains were included...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Min Jung Kwun, Marco R Oggioni, Megan De Ste Croix, Stephen D Bentley, Nicholas J Croucher
Phase-variation of Type I restriction-modification systems can rapidly alter the sequence motifs they target, diversifying both the epigenetic patterns and endonuclease activity within clonally descended populations. Here, we characterize the Streptococcus pneumoniae SpnIV phase-variable Type I RMS, encoded by the translocating variable restriction (tvr) locus, to identify its target motifs, mechanism and regulation of phase variation, and effects on exchange of sequence through transformation. The specificity-determining hsdS genes were shuffled through a recombinase-mediated excision-reintegration mechanism involving circular intermediate molecules, guided by two types of direct repeat...
October 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Carla Condò, Immacolata Anacarso, Carla Sabia, Ramona Iseppi, Igor Anfelli, Luca Forti, Simona de Niederhäusern, Moreno Bondi, Patrizia Messi
The antibacterial activity of Pimpinella anisum L., Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Cuminum cyminum L. essential oils (EOs) against some common pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 14990, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 1915, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 10005, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231) and their biofilms was studied...
October 13, 2018: Natural Product Research
Helio S Sader, Robert K Flamm, Jennifer M Streit, Cecilia G Carvalhaes, Rodrigo E Mendes
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the potency and spectrum of ceftaroline and comparator agents tested against contemporary bacteria isolated from patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) in Europe (EUR), Asia-Pacific (APAC), and Latin America (LATAM). METHODS: A total of 4,321 bacterial isolates were consecutively collected by the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program in 2015-2017 from 65 medical centres located in western EUR (W-EUR; 21 centres in 10 nations), eastern EUR and the Mediterranean region (E-EUR; 15 centres in 11 nations), APAC (18 centres in 9 nations), and LATAM (11 centres in 9 nations)...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Mauro Montuori, Letizia Santurro, Luca Gianotti, Luca Fattori
INTRODUCTION: Current use of antimicrobial therapy is prophylactic, empirical and broad spectrum. But, the age-old practice of obtaining cultures still remain. The aim of this study was to evaluate bacterial etiology and adequacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis to help determine the utility of intraoperative cultures in guiding clinical decision-making. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively constructed database of all patients who underwent appendectomy from September 2013 to November 2016 was performed...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Anna N Tevyashova, Alexander M Korolev, Elena P Mirchink, Elena B Isakova, Ilya A Osterman
Novel benzoxaborole derivatives of azithromycin in which benzoxaborole residue is attached to the 4″-hydroxy-group of azithromycin have been synthesized. Antibacterial activity of synthesized derivatives in comparison with azithromycin was tested on a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. All the investigated compounds demonstrated broad spectrum of antibacterial activity being in general more active against Gram-positive strains. New benzoxaborole derivatives of azithromycin demonstrated high activity against Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 and Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 6919 strains...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
Fatemeh Eslami, Hamid Reza Ghasemi Basir, Abbas Moradi, Shokoufe Heidari Farah
Background: The prevalence of bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with acute and chronic dacryocystitis and the pattern of antibiotic susceptibility tests are varied in each region. Moreover, the management of dacryocystitis is only based on clinical observations without microbiological evaluation. The present study aimed to identify epidemiologic and etiologic factors of dacryocystitis in our geographical area. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional and analytical study was carried out in the ophthalmology department of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences (northwest of Iran) during 2016-2017...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"