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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098095/stereospecific-%C3%AE-l-rhamnopyranosylations-using-organoboron-reagents-via-sni-type-mechanism
#1
Nobuya Nishi, Kazuhiro Sueoka, Kiyoko Iijima, Ryuichi Sawa, Daisuke Takahashi, Kazunobu Toshima
Stereospecific β-L-rhamnopyranosylations were conducted using a 1,2-anhydro-L-rhamnopyranose donor and mono-ol or diol acceptors in the presence of a glycosyl-acceptor-derived borinic or boronic ester. Reactions proceeded smoothly to provide the corresponding β-L-rhamnopyranosides (β-L-Rhap) with complete stereoselectivity in moderate to high yields without any further additives under mild conditions. Mechanistic studies of the borinic ester-mediated glycosylation using 13C kinetic isotope effect (KIE) measurements and DFT calculations were consistent with a concerted SNi mechanism with an exploded transition state...
August 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097415/high-frequency-of-haemophilus-influenzae-associated-with-respiratory-tract-infections-among-malaysian-hajj-pilgrims
#2
Nik Mohd Noor Nik Zuraina, Abdullah Sarimah, Mohamad Suharni, Habsah Hasan, Siti Suraiya
BACKGROUND: Overcrowding during the annual Hajj pilgrimage has been known to increase the risk of infectious diseases transmission. Despite the high prevalence of respiratory illness among Malaysian Hajj pilgrims, knowledge about the etiologic pathogens is yet very limited. Thus, this study aimed to determine the spectrum of bacterial respiratory pathogens among the Hajj pilgrims returning to Malaysia in year 2016. METHODS: Expectorated sputum specimens were collected from the Hajj pilgrims with symptomatic respiratory tract infections (RTIs)...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094698/antibiotic-resistance-rates-by-geographic-region-among-ocular-pathogens-collected-during-the-armor-surveillance-study
#3
Penny A Asbell, Rahul T Pandit, Christine M Sanfilippo
INTRODUCTION: The Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular micRoorganisms (ARMOR) study is an ongoing nationwide surveillance program that surveys in vitro antibiotic resistance rates and trends among ocular bacterial pathogens. We report resistance rates by geographic region for isolates collected from 2009 through 2016. METHODS: Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from ocular infections were collected at clinical centers across the US and categorized by geographic region based on state...
August 9, 2018: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093673/structure-of-the-essential-peptidoglycan-amidotransferase-murt-gatd-complex-from-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#4
Cécile Morlot, Daniel Straume, Katharina Peters, Olav A Hegnar, Nolwenn Simon, Anne-Marie Villard, Carlos Contreras-Martel, Francisco Leisico, Eefjan Breukink, Christine Gravier-Pelletier, Laurent Le Corre, Waldemar Vollmer, Nicolas Pietrancosta, Leiv Sigve Håvarstein, André Zapun
The universality of peptidoglycan in bacteria underlies the broad spectrum of many successful antibiotics. However, in our times of widespread resistance, the diversity of peptidoglycan modifications offers a variety of new antibacterials targets. In some Gram-positive species such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the second residue of the peptidoglycan precursor, D-glutamate, is amidated into iso-D-glutamine by the essential amidotransferase MurT/GatD complex...
August 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093657/pi3k%C3%AE-hyper-activation-promotes-development-of-b-cells-that-exacerbate-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection-in-an-antibody-independent-manner
#5
Anne-Katrien Stark, Anita Chandra, Krishnendu Chakraborty, Rafeah Alam, Valentina Carbonaro, Jonathan Clark, Srividya Sriskantharajah, Glyn Bradley, Alex G Richter, Edward Banham-Hall, Menna R Clatworthy, Sergey Nejentsev, J Nicole Hamblin, Edith M Hessel, Alison M Condliffe, Klaus Okkenhaug
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia and a leading cause of death world-wide. Antibody-mediated immune responses can confer protection against repeated exposure to S. pneumoniae, yet vaccines offer only partial protection. Patients with Activated PI3Kδ Syndrome (APDS) are highly susceptible to S. pneumoniae. We generated a conditional knock-in mouse model of this disease and identify a CD19+ B220- B cell subset that is induced by PI3Kδ signaling, resides in the lungs, and is correlated with increased susceptibility to S...
August 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092287/allergic-airway-sensitization-impairs-anti-bacterial-igg-antibody-responses-during-bacterial-respiratory-infections
#6
Arthur H Totten, Li Xiao, Danlin Luo, David Briles, Joanetha Y Hale, Donna M Crabb, Trenton R Schoeb, Ammar Saadoon Alishlash, Ken B Waites, T Prescott Atkinson
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mpn), an atypical human pathogen, has been associated with asthma initiation and exacerbation. Asthmatics have been reported to have higher carriage rates of Mpn compared to non-asthmatics, and are at greater risk for invasive respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: To study whether prior allergen sensitization affects the host response to chronic bacterial infection. METHODS: BALB/cJ and IL-4Rα-/- mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA), and then infected with Mpn or Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn)...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091102/identification-of-bacterial-and-fungal-pathogens-in-patients-with-post-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-leakage
#7
Saad Althuwaini, Fahad Bamehriz, Omar Alobaid, Mazin Barry, Ali Somily, Abdullah Aldohayan
BACKGROUND: Post-laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) leak leads to serious complications, and death may occur. The microbial pattern should be established in order to plan empirical antimicrobial therapy. The intra-abdominal leaks post-LSG were cultured and reviewed. METHODS: Microbial cultures collected from all post-sleeve leakage cases managed at the King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) from May 2011 until April 2016 were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 31 patients with positive leak post-LSG were included...
August 8, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089645/development-and-validation-of-13-plex-luminex-based-assay-for-measuring-human-serum-antibodies-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae-capsular-polysaccharides
#8
Danka Pavliakova, Peter C Giardina, Soraya Moghazeh, Shite Sebastian, Maya Koster, Viliam Pavliak, Andrew McKeen, Roger French, Kathrin U Jansen, Michael Pride
A Luminex-based direct immunoassay (dLIA) platform has been developed to replace the standardized pneumococcal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay platform. The multiplex dLIA simultaneously measures the concentration of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies specific for pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PnPS) serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, and 23F. The assay uses poly-l-lysine (PLL)-conjugated PnPS, chemically coupled to spectrally distinct Luminex microspheres. Assay validation experiments were performed using residual human serum samples obtained from 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (13vPnC) clinical studies...
August 8, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089608/cloud-computing-for-infectious-disease-surveillance-and-control-development-and-evaluation-of-a-hospital-automated-laboratory-reporting-system
#9
Mei-Hua Wang, Han-Kun Chen, Min-Huei Hsu, Hui-Chi Wang, Yu-Ting Yeh
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of several serious infectious diseases have occurred in recent years. In response, to mitigate public health risks, countries worldwide have dedicated efforts to establish an information system for effective disease monitoring, risk assessment, and early warning management for international disease outbreaks. A cloud computing framework can effectively provide the required hardware resources and information access and exchange to conveniently connect information related to infectious diseases and develop a cross-system surveillance and control system for infectious diseases...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088841/effect-of-a-probiotic-preparation-on-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-critically-ill-patients-admitted-to-the-intensive-care-unit-a-prospective-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Ata Mahmoodpoor, Hadi Hamishehkar, Roghaieh Asghari, Ramin Abri, Kamran Shadvar, Sarvin Sanaie
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) occurs as a life-threatening complication in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. Probiotic administration may modify the gut microbiota; however, whether this modification could decrease VAP occurrence is not known. METHODS: In this study, 100 adult critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for >48 hours were randomly assigned to either the probiotic or the control group. The patients in the probiotic group received 2 capsules of probiotic preparation containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus spp...
August 8, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087665/boldine-derived-alkaloids-inhibit-the-activity-of-dna-topoisomerase-i-and-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
María T García, David Carreño, José M Tirado-Vélez, María J Ferrándiz, Liliana Rodrigues, Begoña Gracia, Mónica Amblar, José A Ainsa, Adela G de la Campa
The spread of multidrug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires the discovery of new drugs directed to new targets. In this study, we investigated the activity of two boldine-derived alkaloids, seconeolitsine (SCN) and N -methyl-seconeolitsine ( N -SCN), against M. tuberculosis . These compounds have been shown to target DNA topoisomerase I enzyme and inhibit growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae . Both SCN and N -SCN inhibited M. tuberculosis growth at 1.95-15.6 μM, depending on the strain...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087661/dynamic-modeling-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-competence-provides-regulatory-mechanistic-insights-into-its-tight-temporal-regulation
#12
Mathias Weyder, Marc Prudhomme, Mathieu Bergé, Patrice Polard, Gwennaele Fichant
In the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae , the gene regulatory circuit leading to the transient state of competence for natural transformation is based on production of an auto-inducer that activates a positive feedback loop. About 100 genes are activated in two successive waves linked by a central alternative sigma factor ComX. This mechanism appears to be fundamental to the biological fitness of S. pneumoniae . We have developed a knowledge-based model of the competence cycle that describes average cell behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086190/relationship-among-clinical-periodontal-microbiologic-parameters-and-lung-function-in-participants-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#13
Lisi Tan, Xiaolin Tang, Chunling Pan, Hongyan Wang, Yaping Pan
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship among clinical periodontal, microbiologic parameters and lung function in participants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (COPD). METHODS: A total of 160 participants were recruited, including 80 participants with COPD (COPD group) and 80 participants without COPD (control group). All participants completed questionnaires and underwent clinical periodontal and lung function examinations...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085107/the-2017-garrod-lecture-genes-guts-and-globalization
#14
Peter M Hawkey
The widespread use of antibacterial drugs over the last 70 years has brought immense benefits to human health at the price of increasing drug inefficacy. Antibacterial agents have a strong selective effect in both favouring resistant strains and allowing particular species and families of bacteria to prosper, especially in the healthcare setting. Whilst important Gram-positive bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae caused concern over the last 20 years because of the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains, Enterobacteriaceae have become the biggest challenge...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084702/a-6-year-safety-surveillance-of-10-valent-pneumococcal-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-protein-d-conjugate-vaccine-phid-cv-in-south-korea
#15
Soon Min Lee, Jang Hoon Lee, Eun Song Song, Sung Jin Kim, Joon Hyung Kim, Rupert W Jakes, Raghavendra Devadiga, Moon Sung Park
In 2010, Korea introduced 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for children aged 6 weeks to 5 years against invasive disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 1, 4, 5, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F and cross-reactive 19A. The aim of this 6-year real-world study of 646 healthy Korean children from 16 centers vaccinated in routine practice is to monitor vaccine safety, as per Ministry of Food and Drug Safety regulations. Around 50% had a past or existing medical condition, 19.3% an existing condition and 7...
August 7, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084405/profile-of-respiratory-pathogens-causing-acute-respiratory-infections-in-hospitalised-children-at-rajasthan-a-4-year-s-study
#16
M Anjaneya Swamy, Bharti Malhotra, P V Janardhan Reddy, Jitendra Tiwari
Introduction: Various pathogens cause respiratory tract infections in children of <5 years of age causing severe morbidity and mortality. The profile of causative agents varies from place to place. Aims: The objectives of our study were to detect the profile and trends of respiratory pathogens causing acute respiratory tract infection in children using a custom multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and to develop a diagnostic algorithm. Materials and Methods: A total of 997 children with clinical manifestations of respiratory infections were included in the study...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083156/-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lasb-subverts-alveolar-macrophage-activity-by-interfering-with-bacterial-killing-through-downregulation-of-innate-immune-defense-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-complement-activation
#17
Fabien Bastaert, Saadé Kheir, Vinciane Saint-Criq, Bérengère Villeret, Pham My-Chan Dang, Jamel El-Benna, Jean-Claude Sirard, Romé Voulhoux, Jean-Michel Sallenave
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P.a ) is a pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality, in particular, in hospital patients undergoing ventilation and in patients with cystic fibrosis. Among the virulence factors secreted or injected into host cells, the physiopathological relevance of type II secretions system (T2SS) is less studied. Although there is extensive literature on the destructive role of LasB in vitro on secreted innate immune components and on some stromal cell receptors, studies on its direct action on myeloid cells are scant...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30082877/mechanical-ventilation-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-pneumonia-alter-mitochondrial-homeostasis
#18
Mathieu Blot, Laure-Anne Pauchard, Irène Dunn, Jennifer Donze, Stéphanie Malnuit, Chloé Rebaud, Delphine Croisier, Lionel Piroth, Jérôme Pugin, Pierre-Emmanuel Charles
Required mechanical ventilation (MV) may contribute to bacterial dissemination in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Significant variations in plasma mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been reported in sepsis according to the outcome. The impact of lung stretch during MV was addressed in a model of pneumonia. Healthy or S. pneumoniae infected rabbits were submitted to MV or kept spontaneously breathing (SB). Bacterial burden, cytokines release, mitochondrial DNA levels, integrity and transcription were assessed along with 48-hour mortality...
August 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081902/resistance-decay-in-individuals-after-antibiotic-exposure-in-primary-care-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Mina Bakhit, Tammy Hoffmann, Anna Mae Scott, Elaine Beller, John Rathbone, Chris Del Mar
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is an urgent global problem, but reversibility is poorly understood. We examined the development and decay of bacterial resistance in community patients after antibiotic use. METHODS: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL (from inception to May 2017) were searched, with forward and backward citation searches of the identified studies. We contacted authors whose data were unclear, and of abstract-only reports, for further information...
August 7, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081840/serologic-response-to-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-children-experiencing-recurrent-invasive-pneumococcal-disease
#20
Helene A S Ingels, Bjørn Kantsø, Hans-Christian Slotved
BACKGROUND: Some children are prone to recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease (rIPD) and of these, some respond insufficiently to standard pneumococcal vaccination. Little is known about how to handle these children and if they benefit from additional vaccination. Here, we present results from a nationwide study of pediatric rIPD including data on serotype-specific vaccination response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPV23) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV7/13)...
August 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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