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obesity and cancer

Amir Awwad, Renan E Ibrahem Adam, Chandni Patel, James D Thomas
Introduction: Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SLE) is an abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated fat. The association of chronic steroid therapy is described as well as obesity and Cushing's syndrome. SLE has a range of neurological presentations such as back pain, myelopathy, and cauda equina syndrome. Surgical decompression is known to improve symptomatic cases and prevent further deterioration. Case presentation: An elderly male patient with background history of high-risk metastatic prostate cancer and long-term treatment with steroids and hormonal therapy presented with acute on chronic back pain and neurological symptoms...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
K C Zhang, L Chen
It has been thirty years since the three-dimensional (3D) laparoscopy was put into clinical use. The advantages of 3D laparoscopy are depth perception, high cost-efficacy, tactile feedback, education for basic procedures in laparoscopy and accurate operation. Currently, high-level of evidence for 3D laparoscopy in gastric cancer is still lacking. The advantage of 3D laparoscopy could be maximized in complicated procedures, like hilar lymphadenectomy and totally laparoscopic reconstruction in gastrectomy. In order to acquire optimal depth perception, optimal standing position and stereoacuity check should be emphasized for surgeons in 3D laparoscopic surgery...
August 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Limei Wu, Surya Amarachintha, Jian Xu, Frank Oley, Wei Du
The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment (niche) plays important roles in supporting normal/abnormal haematopoiesis. We investigated the interaction between leukaemic mesenchymal niche and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) using the model of Fanconi anaemia (FA), a genetic disorder characterized by BM failure and leukaemia. Healthy donor HSPCs co-cultured on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from FA patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) exhibited higher human engraftment and myeloid expansion in Non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficiency IL-2γ-/- /SGM3 recipients...
August 14, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
Xiaolan Deng, Rui Su, Savanna Stanford, Jianjun Chen
Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been linked to increased body mass and obesity in humans by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) since 2007. Although some recent studies suggest that the obesity-related SNPs in FTO influence obesity susceptibility likely through altering the expression of the adjacent genes such as IRX3 and RPGRIP1L , rather than FTO itself, a solid link between the SNP risk genotype and the increased FTO expression in both human blood cells and fibroblasts has been reported...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jessie L Burns, Manabu T Nakamura, David W L Ma
Dietary fatty acids are associated with the development of many chronic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and several cancers. This review explores the literature surrounding the combined and individual roles of n-6 PUFAs linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) as they relate to immune and inflammatory response, cardiovascular health, liver health, and cancer. The evidence suggests that a pro-inflammatory view of LA and AA may be over simplified. Overall, this review highlights gaps in our understanding of the biological roles of LA, AA and their complex relationship with n-3 PUFA and the need for future studies that examine the roles of individual fatty acids, rather than groups...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
William F Morano, Mohammad F Shaikh, Elizabeth M Gleeson, Alvaro Galvez, Marian Khalili, John Lieb, Elizabeth P Renza-Stingone, Wilbur B Bowne
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer which may be treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and represents an increasing morbidity. Post-RYGB anatomy poses considerable challenges for reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), a growing problem encountered by surgeons. We characterize specific strategies used for post-PD reconstruction in the RYGB patient. METHODS: PubMed search was performed using MeSH terms "Gastric Bypass" and "Pancreaticoduodenectomy" between 2000 and 2018...
August 13, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Mi Rim Lee, Ji Eun Kim, Jun Young Choi, Jin Ju Park, Hye Ryeong Kim, Bo Ram Song, Ji Won Park, Mi Ju Kang, Young Whan Choi, Kyung Mi Kim, Dae Youn Hwang
Conflicting results for morusin activity during adipogenic differentiation are reported in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and cancer cells. To elucidate the influence of morusin on fat metabolism, their anti-obesity effects and molecular mechanism were investigated in 3T3-L1 cells and primary adipocytes. Morusin at a dose of less than 20 µM does not induce any significant change in the viability of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes stimulated with 0.5 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, 1 µM dexamethasone, 10 µg/mL insulin in DMEM containing 10% FBS (MDI)-significantly reduces in a dose-dependent manner after morusin treatment...
August 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Marie-Claude Pelland-Marcotte, Jason D Pole, Ketan Kulkarni, Uma Athale, David Stammers, Christine Sabapathy, Jessica Halparin, Leonardo R Brandão, Lillian Sung
There is conflicting information about the epidemiology of thromboembolism (TE) in paediatric oncology. Objectives were to describe the incidence and risk factors of TE in children with cancer. We included all children with cancer less than 15 years of age diagnosed from 2001 to 2016, treated at one of the 12 Canadian paediatric centres outside of Ontario and entered into the Cancer in Young People-Canada database. Potential risk factors for TE were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression stratified by haematological malignancies versus solid tumours...
August 13, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Ane S Kværner, Dong Hang, Edward L Giovannucci, Walter C Willett, Andrew T Chan, Mingyang Song
Background: A major pathway through which obesity increases the risk of cardiometabolic diseases and cancer is by inducing hormonal and metabolic abnormalities, including hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. However, little is known about the influence of lifetime adiposity on the relevant biomarkers. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine associations of trajectories of body fatness with plasma biomarker concentrations of the insulin-IGF system in 2 large prospective cohorts of US men and women...
August 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jiaqing Hao, Yuwen Zhang, Xiaofang Yan, Fei Yan, Yanwen Sun, Jun Zeng, Sabine Waigel, Yanhui Yin, Mostafa M Fraig, Nejat K Egilmez, Jill Suttles, Maiying Kong, Shujun Liu, Margot P Cleary, Edward Sauter, Bing Li
It is clear that obesity increases the risk of many types of cancer, including breast cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which obesity is linked to cancer risk remain to be defined. Herein, we report that circulating adipose fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) promotes obesity-associated breast cancer development. Using clinical samples, we demonstrated that circulating A-FABP levels were significantly increased in obese patients with breast cancer in comparison with those without breast cancer...
July 31, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Seher Balaban, Lisa S Lee, Bianca Varney, Atqiya Aishah, Quanqing Gao, Robert F Shearer, Darren N Saunders, Thomas Grewal, Andrew J Hoy
Breast cancer (BrCa) metabolism is geared towards biomass synthesis and maintenance of reductive capacity. Changes in glucose and glutamine metabolism in BrCa have been widely reported, yet the contribution of fatty acids (FAs) in BrCa biology remains to be determined. We recently reported that adipocyte co-culture alters MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell metabolism and promotes proliferation and migration. Since adipocytes are FA-rich, and these FAs are transferred to BrCa cells, we sought to elucidate the FA metabolism of BrCa cells and their response to FA-rich environments...
August 12, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Mami Takahashi, Mika Hori, Rikako Ishigamori, Michihiro Mutoh, Toshio Imai, Hitoshi Nakagama
Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and aging are associated with pancreatic cancer risk, but the mechanisms of pancreatic cancer development caused by these factors are not clearly understood. Syrian golden hamsters are susceptible to N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP)-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis. Aging, BOP treatment and/or a high-fat diet cause severe and scattered fatty infiltration (FI) of the pancreas with abnormal adipokine production and promote pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) development...
August 12, 2018: Cancer Science
Emily W Gilbert, Chau T Tay, Danielle S Hiam, Helena Teede, Lisa J Moran
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies affecting reproductive-aged women with adverse reproductive, metabolic and psychological outcomes. It has a complex pathophysiology and therefore requires a multi-discipline clinical approach. However, there remains limited research synthesizing the broad clinical implications of PCOS which would assist clinicians in the management of PCOS. OBJECTIVE: To summarise and appraise methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses evaluating complications and comorbidities associated with PCOS...
August 12, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Daniel F Hicks, Richard Bakst, John Doucette, Benjamin H Kann, Brett Miles, Eric Genden, Krzysztof Misiukiewicz, Marshall Posner, Vishal Gupta
OBJECTIVES: The prognostic role of obesity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is not well defined. This study aims to determine its effect on disease-specific outcomes such as recurrence-free survival (RFS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) in addition to overall survival (OS). METHODS: For patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC undergoing radiation therapy (RT) at a single institution, body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis was categorized as normal (18...
August 2018: Oral Oncology
Ruth Elisa Eyl, Lena Koch-Gallenkamp, Lina Jansen, Viola Walter, Prudence Carr, Michael Hoffmeister, Jenny Chang-Claude, Hermann Brenner, Volker Arndt
PURPOSE: Since physical activity (PA) has been shown to be associated with better prognosis and quality of life (QOL) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, this study focuses on the barriers of PA among CRC survivors. METHODS: This study is based on a population-based study from Germany of 1343 women and men, diagnosed with CRC between 2003 and 2008 and being alive five years later. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore associations between baseline as well as five-year follow-up (5YFU) characteristics and physical inactivity (PIA) at 5YFU...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Young Dong Yu, Seok-Soo Byun, Sang Eun Lee, Sung Kyu Hong
Obesity, often represented by higher body mass index (BMI), is not yet fully understood as a potential risk factor for poor clinical outcomes of prostate cancer (PCa) after radical prostatectomy (RP). This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between BMI and biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival in RP patients. This study retrospectively reviewed a total of 2.997 PCa patients who underwent RP between 2006 and 2017. The patients were stratified into three BMI groups according to the WHO recommendations for Asian men: normal weight (<23 kg/m2 ), overweight (≥23 to <27...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marzia Bianchi, Melania Manco
Prolyl isomerases (Peptidylprolyl isomerase, PPIases) are enzymes that catalyze the isomerization between the cis / trans Pro conformations. Three subclasses belong to the class: FKBP (FK506 binding protein family), Cyclophilin and Parvulin family (Pin1 and Par14). Among Prolyl isomerases, Pin1 presents as distinctive feature, the ability of binding to the motif pSer/pThr-Pro that is phosphorylated by kinases. Modulation of Pin1 is implicated in cellular processes such as mitosis, differentiation and metabolism: The enzyme is dysregulated in many diverse pathological conditions, i...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nam Hee Kim, Yoon Suk Jung, Jung Ho Park, Dong Il Park, Chong Il Sohn
BACKGROUND: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are risk factors for colorectal neoplasia (CRN). However, the association between metabolically healthy obese (MHO) or metabolically unhealthy non-obese (MUNO) status and the risk of CRN remains unclear. AIMS: We aimed to elucidate the association between MHO or MUNO status and the risk of CRN. METHODS: A total of 139,023 asymptomatic subjects who underwent a primary screening colonoscopy were categorized into 4 groups according to obesity and metabolic status: metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO), MHO, MUNO, and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO)...
August 9, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Mihaela Filip, Valentina Tzaneva, Dan L Dumitrascu
Background and aim: Fecal transplantation or fecal material transplantation (FMT) became a hot topic in gastroenterology in recent years. Therefore it is important to disseminate the up-to-date information on FMT. The aim of the paper is to review the knowledge on FMT and its clinical applications. Methods: An extensive review of the literature was carried out. Titles from Pubmed were searched and analyzed. A narrative review has been written with emphasis on indications of FMT in different conditions...
July 2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
Amy Coopes, Claire E Henry, Estelle Llamosas, Caroline Elizabeth Ford
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological malignancy in developed nations, and its prevalence is rising as women defer or decide not to have children and as obesity rises, both key risk factors. Despite this, treatment options remain limited, particularly for advanced or refractory disease. New genomic analyses have revealed distinct mutational profiles with therapeutic and prognostic potential. Wnt signalling, which is pivotal in embryogenesis, healing and homeostasis, is of importance in the endometrium and has been linked to carcinogenesis...
August 9, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
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