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obesity and cancer

Dustin H. Marks, Adam Friedman
Cannabinoids have demonstrated utility in the management of cancer, obesity, and neurologic disease. More recently, their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified for the treatment of several dermatologic conditions. This review thus assesses the therapeutic potential of phytocannabinoids, endoocannabinoids, and chemically synthetic cannabinoids in the management of cutaneous disease. The PubMed® and Scopus® databases were subsequently reviewed in December 2017 using MeSH and keywords, such as cannabinoid, THC, dermatitis, pruritus, and skin cancer...
November 2018: Skin Therapy Letter
Peter Austin Morton Ntenda, Jane Flora Kazambwe
Background: Overweight and obesity are well-known risk factors for non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, some cancers and musculoskeletal disorders. In Malawi, the proportion of women who are overweight/obese has doubled, from 10% in 1992 to 21% in 2015-16. Therefore we aimed to explore the individual- and community-level factors associated with overweight and obesity among non-pregnant women of child-bearing age. Methods: Secondary analysis of the 2015-16 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey was conducted...
December 4, 2018: International Health
James K R Stevenson, Yao Qiao, Kelvin K W Chan, Jaclyn Beca, Wanrudee Isaranuwatchai, Helen Guo, Deborah Schwartz, Jessica Arias, Scott Gavura, Wei Fang Dai, C Tom Kouroukis, Matthew C Cheung
The association between obesity and survival in non-Hodgkin lymphoma is unclear. Using the Ontario Cancer Registry we conducted a retrospective analysis of incident cases of aggressive-histology B-cell lymphoma treated with a rituximab-containing regimen with curative intent between 2008-2016. 6246 patients were included. On multivariable analysis the rate of all-cause mortality was lower for the overweight body mass index (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2 ) (HR 0.85; 95%CI 0.77-0.95) and obese BMI (≥30 kg/m2 ) (HR 0...
December 5, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Ashleigh M Saenz, Stacie Stapleton, Raquel G Hernandez, Greg A Hale, Neil A Goldenberg, Skai Schwartz, Ernest K Amankwah
High body mass index (BMI) is associated with relapse of certain adult cancers, but limited knowledge exists on its association with pediatric leukemia relapse. We evaluated the association between overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) at pediatric leukemia diagnosis and relapse or mortality. A meta-analysis combining our findings with those of previous studies was also performed. The study included 181 pediatric leukemia patients. Sporadic missing data were multiply imputed, and hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard...
2018: Journal of Obesity
Tetsuo Nakajima, Yasuharu Ninomiya, Mitsuru Nenoi
Radiation has a wide variety of effects on the liver. Fibrosis is a concern in medical fields as one of the acute effects of high-dose irradiation, such as with cancer radiotherapies. Cancer is also an important concern following exposure to radiation. The liver has an active metabolism and reacts to radiations. In addition, effects are modulated by many environmental factors, such as high-calorie foods or alcohol beverages. Adaptations to other environmental conditions could also influence the effects of radiation...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Lesław Bernard Lahuta, Magdalena Ligor, Waldemar Placek, Ryszard Józef Górecki, Bogusław Buszewski
INTRODUCTION: Myo -inositol and its derivatives cyclitols play an important role in the processes of cell regulation, signal transduction, osmoregulation, and ion channel physiology, and are a component of the cell membrane. Free cyclitols present in food or released during the degradation of galactosyl cyclitols by bacteria (in digestive tract) show some physiological benefits. AIM: The aim of this paper is to present and analyze the documented data about curative and healing properties of cyclitols...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Russell Emmons, Guanying Xu, Diego Hernandez-Saavedra, Adam Kriska, Yuan-Xiang Pan, Hong Chen, Michael De Lisio
Obesity-induced inflammation associated with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). The role of diet and exercise in modulating increased CRC risk in obesity, and the potential role of altered hematopoiesis as a contributor to these effects remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine how weight loss induced during CRC induction with or without exercise alter CRC initiation and their relationship to altered hematopoiesis. Mice consumed either a control (CON) or high fat diet to induce obesity...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
S Zewari, L Hadi, F van den Elshout, R Dekhuijzen, Y Heijdra, P Vos
COPD and obesity often coexist and there is a complex interaction between them. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in a secondary care COPD population. Furthermore, the presence of comorbidities in obese (COPDOB ) and non-obese COPD (COPDNO ) individuals was studied. In 1654 COPD patients (aged ≥18 years) who visited a pulmonologist between January 2015 and December 2015, patient characteristics, pulmonary function tests and comorbidities were obtained from the medical records. Subjects were categorized according their BMI as underweight (<18...
December 4, 2018: COPD
Mehdi Koushki, Nasrin Amiri-Dashatan, Nayebali Ahmadi, Hojjat-Allah Abbaszadeh, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani
Resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a nonflavonoid polyphenol that naturally occurs as phytoalexin. It is produced by plant sources such as grapes, apples, blueberries, plums, and peanut. This compound has critical roles in human health and is well known for its diverse biological activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nowadays, due to rising incidence of different diseases such as cancer and diabetes, efforts to find novel and effective disease-protective agents have led to the identification of plant-derived compounds such as resveratrol...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
A Ray, J Fornsaglio, S Dogan, S Hedau, D Naik, A De
Obesity has an influence on the risk and prognosis of different types of cancers of the female reproductive tract. In the uterus, a common site for neoplasms is the endometrium, the inner lining tissue. Generally, obesity has been documented to be involved in endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium. Obesity may influence the cancer risk by various mechanisms such as chronic inflammation, dysregulation of sex hormones and abnormal secretion of hormone-like cytokines or adipokines from adipose tissue. One of the important pro-inflammatory adipokines is leptin, which acts via its transmembrane receptors (Ob-R)...
March 2018: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
Sara Jalali-Farahani, Fahimeh Alsadat Shojaei, Parnian Parvin, Parisa Amiri
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has frequently been compared between both healthy and obese children and healthy and chronically ill children; however, there is glaring lack of evidence regarding comparison of HRQoL in obese children with their counterparts with chronic diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to compare HRQoL among healthy, obese and chronically ill children. METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted among 802 children (8-12 years) who were recruited via convenience sampling method...
December 4, 2018: BMC Public Health
Elizabeth A Rohan, Nina Miller, Floyd Bonner, Kristi Fultz-Butts, Mandi L Pratt-Chapman, Catherine M Alfano, Kristen Cox Santiago, Kendall Bergman, Eric Tai
PURPOSE: As of 2016, an estimated 15.5 million cancer survivors were living in the United States and the number of cancer survivors is expected to increase to 20.3 million by 2026. Numerous clinical studies have shown that comorbidities, such as obesity and diabetes, and unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as physical inactivity and heavy smoking, negatively influence overall quality of life and long-term survival of cancer survivors. Accordingly, survivorship programs seek to focus on overall wellness, including symptom management, monitoring for late effects of treatment, monitoring for recurrence, helping patients adapt healthy behaviors, and quality of life...
December 1, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Hanan Polansky, Hava Schwab
CBP and p300 are histone acetyltransferase coactivators that control the transcription of numerous genes in humans, viruses, and other organisms. Although two separate genes encode CBP and p300, they share a 61% sequence identity, and they are often mentioned together as p300/CBP. Zhou et al. showed that under hypoxic conditions, HIF1α and the tumor suppressor p53 compete for binding to the limiting p300/CBP coactivator. Jethanandani & Kramer showed that δEF1 and MYOD genes compete for the limited amount of p300/CBP in the cell...
2018: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
Sung-Joon Lee, Inge Depoortere, Hanns Hatt
Olfactory and taste receptors are expressed primarily in the nasal olfactory epithelium and gustatory taste bud cells, where they transmit real-time sensory signals to the brain. However, they are also expressed in multiple extra-nasal and extra-oral tissues, being implicated in diverse biological processes including sperm chemotaxis, muscle regeneration, bronchoconstriction and bronchodilatation, inflammation, appetite regulation and energy metabolism. Elucidation of the physiological roles of these ectopic receptors is revealing potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications in conditions including wounds, hair loss, asthma, obesity and cancers...
November 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Pourya Gholizadeh, Majid Mahallei, Ali Pormohammad, Mojtaba Varshochi, Khudaverdi Ganbarov, Elham Zeinalzadeh, Bahman Yousefi, Milad Bastami, Asghar Tanomand, Suhad Saad Mahmood, Mehdi Yousefi, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Recent studies have been considered to symbiotic interactions of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and human lifestyle-related disorders. The human gastrointestinal microbiota continuously stimulates the immune system against opportunistic and pathogen bacteria from infancy. Changes in gastrointestinal microbiota have been associated with numbers of human diseases such as allergic diseases, autoimmune encephalitis, atherosclerosis, colorectal cancer, obesity, diabetes etc. In this review article, we evaluate studies on the roles of human gastrointestinal microbiota and interference pathogenicity in allergic diseases, obesity, and diabetes...
November 29, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Daria M McMahon, James B Burch, James R Hébert, James W Hardin, Jiajia Zhang, Michael D Wirth, Shawn D Youngstedt, Nitin Shivappa, Steven J Jacobsen, Bette Caan, Stephen K Van Den Eeden
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between proinflammatory diet and prostate cancer risk. METHODS: Energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII) scores were computed among 40,161 participants in the California Men's Health Study. Over 9.7 ± 3.8 years of follow-up, 2707 incident prostate cancer cases were diagnosed and categorized as low-, intermediate-, or high-risk, based on disease grade and stage. Accelerated failure-time models assessed time to diagnosis of prostate cancer...
November 2, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Olubunmi Oniya, Karen Neves, Badreldeen Ahmed, Justin C Konje
BACKGROUND: Consanguinity is the close union, sexual relationship or marriage between persons who have common biological ancestors usually up to about 2nd cousins. Contrary to general opinion consanguinity is quite common and is practiced worldwide. It is an important topic as while rates of consanguineous unions in certain society have decreased over time, rates have remained stable or increased in other societies with rates as high as 80.6% in some communities. Our aim was to conduct a review looking at general aspects of consanguinity and any published reproductive outcomes in literature...
November 1, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Frank C Sweeney, Kerry S Courneya, Debu Tripathy, Nathalie Sami, Kyuwan Lee, Thomas A Buchanan, Darcy Spicer, Leslie Bernstein, Joanne E Mortimer, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MSY) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and recurrence in breast cancer survivors (BCS). MSY is 1.5 times more common in Hispanic women compared with non-Hispanic women. Although exercise mitigates MSY in BCS, to the best of the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have focused on minorities. This secondary analysis examined ethnicity as a moderator of the effects of a 16-week aerobic and resistance exercise intervention on MSY, sarcopenic obesity, and serum biomarkers in BCS...
November 30, 2018: Cancer
Manisha Majhi, Nisha Kanwar, Megha Chouksey, Ruchi Sukhla, Anuraj Nayarisseri, Sanjeev Kumar Singh
CLC commonly gives the risk symptoms to older age, obesity and lack of physical exercise, but less likely to generate in people having little genetic risk. Colorectal cancer originates in the vicinity of the colon as well as rectum. Epithelium or lamina proparia is the top layer lining of the colon or rectum of the gastrointestinal tract where the most frequent mutations take place in the Wnt signaling pathway, TGF-β signaling, EGFR, PI3K. The adjuvant therapy for the colorectal cancer consider the EGFR inhibitors, eventually many drugs had been approved and terminate the genetic alteration in EGFR...
November 29, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Niamh O'Donoghue, Shiva Shrotriya, Aynur Aktas, Barbara Hullihen, Serkan Ayvaz, Bassam Estfan, Declan Walsh
PURPOSE: Weight changes occur throughout the cancer trajectory. Most research has focused on changes during or after treatment, so clinical significance of change at diagnosis remains unclear. This study aimed to determine prevalence, predictors and prognostic significance of weight changes at diagnosis in outpatients with solid tumours presenting to a tertiary academic medical centre. METHODS: A retrospective study of the electronic medical record was conducted (n = 6477)...
November 29, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
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