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Index of myocardial resistance

Alexander Liu, Rohan S Wijesurendra, Joanna M Liu, John C Forfar, Keith M Channon, Michael Jerosch-Herold, Stefan K Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Rajesh K Kharbanda, Vanessa M Ferreira
BACKGROUND: In patients with angina and nonobstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD), confirming symptoms due to coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) remains challenging. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) assesses myocardial perfusion with high spatial resolution and is widely used for diagnosing obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to validate CMR for diagnosing microvascular angina in patients with NOCAD, compared with patients with obstructive CAD and correlated to the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) during invasive coronary angiography...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Alexander Liu, Rohan S Wijesurendra, Joanna M Liu, Andreas Greiser, Michael Jerosch-Herold, John C Forfar, Keith M Channon, Stefan K Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Rajesh K Kharbanda, Vanessa M Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Novel cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) stress T1 mapping can detect ischemia and myocardial blood volume changes without contrast agents and may be a more comprehensive ischemia biomarker than myocardial blood flow. OBJECTIVES: This study describes the performance of the first prospective validation of stress T1 mapping against invasive coronary measurements for detecting obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD), defined by fractional flow reserve (FFR <0...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Guo-Qiang Yuan, Song Gao, Yong-Jian Geng, Yao-Ping Tang, Min-Juan Zheng, Harnath S Shelat, Scott Collins, Han-Jing Wu, Yi-Ling Wu
Background: Our previous studies have shown that Tongxinluo (TXL), a compound Chinese medicine, can decrease myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, protect capillary endothelium function, and lessen cardiac ventricle reconstitution in animal models. The aim of this study was to illuminate whether TXL can improve hypercholesterolemia-impaired heart function by protecting artery endothelial function and increasing microvascular density (MVD) in heart. Furthermore, we will explore the underlying molecular mechanism of TXL cardiovascular protection...
March 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Melinda S Schaller, Joel L Ramirez, Warren J Gasper, Greg J Zahner, Nancy K Hills, S Marlene Grenon
OBJECTIVE: Frailty, a syndrome characterized by decreased physiologic reserves and resistance to stressors, is associated with disability, poor surgical outcomes, and mortality. We evaluated the impact of frailty on cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients with intermittent claudication. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of patients with stable intermittent claudication enrolled in the OMEGA-PAD Study between 2010-2015...
February 22, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Katsuyuki Sekii, Chizuko Yaguchi, Hiroaki Itoh
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have correlated the placental vasculature with fetal cardiac function other than umbilical artery Doppler assessment in low-risk pregnancies. We assessed the contribution of the placental vasculature to fetal echocardiographic parameters using histopathological and morphometric analyses of placental resistance arteries. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-four low-risk singleton term pregnancies were assessed, including 24 thrombosis-negative cases (no/minimal gross and histological placental abnormalities) and 10 thrombosis-positive cases (histologically identified chorionic plate/stem vessel thrombosis)...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Ricardo Ladeiras-Lopes, Henrique T Moreira, Nuno Bettencourt, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Francisco Sampaio, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Colin Wu, Kiang Liu, Alain G Bertoni, Pamela Ouyang, David A Bluemke, João A Lima
The relationship of MetS (metabolic syndrome) and insulin resistance (one of its key pathophysiological mediators) with diastolic dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis is not well understood. This study aimed to evaluate the association of MetS with diastolic function and myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM) using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in a large community-based population.This cross-sectional analysis included 1,582 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50% and no past history of cardiac events...
February 14, 2018: Diabetes
Ding Han, Ya-Guang Liu, Shoudong Pan, Yi Luo, Jia Li, Chuan Ou-Yang
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane and ketamine are commonly used to obtain sedation and facilitate intravenous anesthetic induction in children undergoing cardiac surgery who are uncooperative. We used a new and direct systemic hemodynamic monitoring technique pressure recording analytical method and compared the hemodynamic effects of sevoflurane and ketamine to facilitate intravenous anesthetic induction. METHODS: Forty-four children with ventricular septal defect (2.2 ± 1...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sarah Kitson, Neil Ryan, Michelle L MacKintosh, Richard Edmondson, James Mn Duffy, Emma J Crosbie
BACKGROUND: Diagnoses of endometrial cancer are increasing secondary to the rising prevalence of obesity. Obesity plays an important role in promoting the development of endometrial cancer, by inducing a state of unopposed oestrogen excess, insulin resistance and inflammation. It also affects treatment, increasing the risk of surgical complications and the complexity of radiotherapy planning, and may additionally impact on subsequent survival. Weight-loss interventions have been associated with improvements in breast and colorectal cancer-specific survival as well as a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease, a frequent cause of death in endometrial cancer survivors...
February 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Zoe Kooreman, Geneviève Giraldeau, Gherardo Finocchiaro, Yukari Kobayashi, Matthew Wheeler, Marco Perez, Kegan Moneghetti, David Oxborough, Keith P George, Jonathan Myers, Euan Ashley, François Haddad
BACKGROUND: There is limited data regarding ventricular remodeling in college female athletes, especially when appropriate scaling of cardiac dimensions to lean body mass (LBM) is considered. Moreover, it is not well established whether cardiac remodeling in female athletes is a balanced process with proportional increase in left ventricular (LV) mass and volume or the right and LV size. METHODS: During the preparticipation competitive screening, 72 female college athletes volunteered to undergo dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan for quantification of LBM and comprehensive 2D echocardiography including assessment of longitudinal myocardial strain...
January 23, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Yahui Zhang, Xiaobing Fan, Lin Qi, Lisheng Xu, Chenglin Du
BACKGROUND: Long-term exercise training may have negative effects on cardiovascular functions. Measurement and calculation of central hemodynamic parameters can comprehensively evaluate the cardiovascular functions. This study aims to compare the central hemodynamics between young basketball athletes and matched controls. METHODS: Total 19 young long-term trained male basketball athletes and 17 matched male recreationally active controls participated. The central hemodynamic parameters such as central blood pressure, pulse pressure, heart rate (HR), augmentation index normalised to 75 bpm (AIx@HR75), augmentation index (AIx), ejection duration (ED), sub-endocardial viability ratio (SEVR) were measured, and total peripheral resistance (TPR), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were calculated...
December 28, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
William F Fearon, Yuhei Kobayashi
Traditionally, invasive coronary physiological assessment has focused on the epicardial coronary artery. More recently, appreciation of the importance of the coronary microvasculature in determining patient outcomes has grown. Several invasive modalities for interrogating microvascular function have been proposed. Angiographic techniques have been limited by their qualitative and subjective nature. Doppler wire-derived coronary flow reserve has been applied in research studies, but its clinical role has been limited by its lack of reproducibility, its lack of a clear normal value, and the fact that it is not specific for the microvasculature but interrogates the entire coronary circulation...
December 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Michael Scharf, Derya Oezdemir, Axel Schmid, Wolfgang Kemmler, Simon von Stengel, Matthias S May, Michael Uder, Michael M Lell
OBJECTIVE: Although musculoskeletal effects in resistance training are well described, little is known about structural and functional cardiac adaption in formerly untrained subjects. We prospectively evaluated whether short term high intensity (resistance) training (HI(R)T) induces detectable morphologic cardiac changes in previously untrained men in a randomized controlled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 untrained middle-aged men were randomly assigned to a HI(R)T-group (n = 40; 43...
2017: PloS One
Loïc Djaïleb, Laurent Riou, Nicolas Piliero, Adrien Carabelli, Estelle Vautrin, Alexis Broisat, Julien Leenhardt, Jacques Machecourt, Daniel Fagret, Gerald Vanzetto, Gilles Barone-Rochette, Catherine Ghezzi
Coronary microvascular dysfunction has recently emerged as a major independent prognostic factor and can be invasively assessed by coronary flow reserve (CFR) and the index of microvascular resistance (IMR). The incremental prognostic value of myocardial ischemia from SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) over clinical characteristics, cardiac risk factors, and stress test data for the prediction of hard cardiac events (myocardial infarction and cardiac death) has been well demonstrated over the last two decades regardless of the absence or presence of epicardial CAD...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Mayank Agarwal, Shraddha Singh, Priyanka Sharma, Rahul Saini
BACKGROUND: Muscle-derived interleukin-6 (IL-6) not only enhances glucose and fat metabolism but also has an anti-inflammatory effect that can prevent the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome. Dynamic resistance exercise comprises a muscle shortening and a lengthening phase known as concentric and eccentric contraction respectively. We compared an acute bout of concentric exercise (CE) with eccentric exercise (EE) for the serum IL-6 concentration, myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Shaman Rajindrajith, Arunasalam Pathmeswaran, Chamilka Jayasinghe, Dulani Kottahachchi, Anuradhani Kasturiratne, Shamila T de Silva, Madunil A Niriella, Anuradha S Dassanayake, Arjuna P de Silva, H Janaka de Silva
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common problem across the world. We aimed to determine the prevalence of NAFLD and its associations in Sri Lankan adolescents living in an urban Sri Lankan community. METHOD: The study population consisted of the birth cohort of the year 2000, residing in the Ragama Medical Officer of Health area. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data [anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and total body fat distribution] of these adolescents were collected by trained data collectors...
November 29, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
Mei Liu, Chunxia Qin, Xiaotian Xia, Mengting Li, Yichun Wang, Lijun Wang, Xiaoke Shang, Xiaoli Lan
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to use myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) as a semi-quantitative method to assess the clinical severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 24 patients with PAH related to CHD (PAH-CHD) who received interventional or medical treatment were included. All patients underwent physical examination, cardiac function evaluation, biochemical test, echocardiography, right heart catheterization (RHC), and MPI with99m Tc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (99m Tc-MIBI) pre and 6 months post treatments...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Yong-Ho Lee, Kwang Joon Kim, Myung Eun Yoo, Gyuri Kim, Hye-Jin Yoon, Kwanhyeong Jo, Jong-Chan Youn, Mijin Yun, Jun Yong Park, Chi Young Shim, Byung-Wan Lee, Seok-Min Kang, Jong-Won Ha, Bong-Soo Cha, Eun Seok Kang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Among categories of NAFLD, hepatic fibrosis is most likely to affect mortality. Myocardial function and its energy metabolism are tightly linked, which might be altered by an insulin resistant condition such as NAFLD. We investigated whether hepatic steatosis and fibrosis were associated with myocardial dysfunction relative to myocardial glucose uptake. METHODS: A total of 308 patients (190 without NAFLD, 118 with NAFLD) were studied in a tertiary care hospital...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
Edoardo Verna, Stefano Provasoli, Sergio Ghiringhelli, Fabrizio Morandi, Jorge Salerno-Uriarte
BACKGROUND: The exact etiology and pathophysiologic mechanisms of tako-tsubo syndrome (TTS) remain controversial. OBJECTIVE: To further evaluate the abnormal coronary vasoreactivity and its possible anatomical substrate in TTS. METHODS: We studied 47 patients (46 women; age 67±12years) who underwent diagnostic cardiac catheterization and evaluation of coronary vasoreactivity by sequential acetylcholine (Ach), nitroglycerine and adenosine testing with angiographic and intracoronary pressure-Doppler flow monitoring...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Nikhil Narang, Diego Medvedofsky, Kathryn Dryer, Sanjiv J Shah, Charles J Davidson, Amit R Patel, John E A Blair
We report the case of a 55-year-old woman with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), who presented with hypertensive urgency and pulmonary oedema. The patient was medically optimized and underwent cardiac catheterization revealing pulmonary hypertension, elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, normal cardiac index, and non-obstructive coronary disease. Invasive evaluation of coronary flow revealed blunted coronary flow reserve and increased index of microvascular resistance. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated reduced global myocardial perfusion and diffuse interstitial fibrosis...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
A Ilic, D J Ilic, S Tadic, M Stefanovic, A Stojsic-Milosavljevic, K Pavlovic, A Redzek, L Velicki
BACKGROUND: An association between gestational hypertension (GH) and changes of maternal cardiac function was previously reported. AIM: The study assessed the effect of non-dipping pattern of blood pressure (BP) in GH on haemodynamic function and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHODS: This study included 126 women (91 with GH and 35 normotensive controls). Based on the BP values measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), all hypertensive women were classified in dipper (46 women) or in non-dipper group (45 women)...
October 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
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