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Kouichi Nakagawa, Satoko Minakawa, Daisuke Sawamura
We investigated melanin radicals in paraffin-embedded malignant melanoma (MM) using a surface-type dielectric resonator for X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and analyzed the radical species. The surface-type resonator's performance was examined using 5 - 10 μL of 0.1 mM 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL) aqueous solution in a 1.0-mm (i.d.) glass capillary as well as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) powder. The surface-type detection has approximately two times poorer S/N ratio than commercial insertion-type detection...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Naisu Yang, Lin Mu, Bohao Zhao, Manman Wang, Shuaishuai Hu, Bin Zhao, Yang Chen, Xinsheng Wu
Solute carrier family 7 member 11 ( SLC7A11 ) is a cystine/glutamate exchanger, also known as xCT, has been found to play an important role in pheomelanin synthesis. Adjusting the cystine content of cells to influence pheomelanin synthesis affects the proportion of total melanin, changing mammalian coat colour. In our previous study, we used RNA-seq to show that SLC7A11 was involved in coat colour regulation in Rex rabbits. However, the precise role of SLC7A11 in rabbit coat colour formation has not been investigated...
June 2018: Journal of Genetics
Faisal Almathen, Haitham Elbir, Hussain Bahbahani, Joram Mwacharo, Olivier Hanotte
Pigmentation in mammals is primarily determined by the distribution of eumelanin and pheomelanin, the ratio of which is mostly controlled by the activity of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and agouti signalling protein (ASIP) genes. Using 91 animals from ten Arabian camel populations, that included the four predominant coat color phenotypes observed in the dromedary (light brown, dark brown, black and white), we investigated the effects of the MC1R and ASIP sequence variants and identified candidate polymorphisms associated with coat color variation...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Shanshan Yang, Bo Liu, Kaiyuan Ji, Ruiwen Fan, Changsheng Dong
Mammalian pigmentation requires the production of melanin by melanocytes and its transfer to neighboring keratinocytes. These complex processes are regulated by several molecular pathways. Melanophilin ( MLPH) and WNT family member 1 ( WNT1), known to be involved in melanin transfer and melanin production, respectively, were predicted to be targets of microRNA-5110 using bioinformatics. In the current study, we investigated the effects of microRNA-5110 on pigmentation in alpaca ( Vicugna pacos) melanocytes...
May 7, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Noriko Goto, Mariko Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Nagai, Taro Masaki, Shosuke Ito, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Chikako Nishigori
4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol (rhododendrol, RD), a skin whitening agent, was reported to cause skin depigmentation in some users, which is attributed to its cytotoxicity to melanocyte. It was reported that cytotoxicity to melanocyte is possibly mediated by oxidative stress in a tyrosinase activity-dependent manner. We examined the effect of UV radiation (UVR) on RD-induced melanocyte cytotoxicity as an additional aggravating factor. UVR enhanced RD-induced cytotoxicity in normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEMs) via the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
April 6, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
María Castejón-Griñán, Cecilia Herraiz, Conchi Olivares, Celia Jiménez-Cervantes, Jose Carlos García-Borrón
The melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R), a well-established melanoma susceptibility gene, regulates the amount and type of melanin pigments formed within epidermal melanocytes. MC1R variants associated with increased melanoma risk promote the production of photosensitizing pheomelanins as opposed to photoprotective eumelanins. Wild-type (WT) MC1R activates DNA repair and antioxidant defenses in a cAMP-dependent fashion. Since melanoma-associated MC1R variants are hypomorphic in cAMP signaling, these non-pigmentary actions are thought to be defective in MC1R-variant human melanoma cells and epidermal melanocytes, consistent with a higher mutation load in MC1R-variant melanomas...
April 6, 2018: Oncogene
Conor L Evans
The natural pigments known as melanins are thought to play a role in the etiology and progression of melanoma, but many of their roles are currently not well understood. While quantification of melanins have, up until now, have been performed in bulk tissue ex vivo, new imaging technologies have unlocked the means to visualize and quantify melanins at the sub-cellular scale. The nonlinear imaging methods known as pump-probe, coherent Raman, and sum-frequency absorption microscopies provide subcellular resolution imaging of melanins, enabling label-free, longitudinal quantification of both eumelanin and pheomelanin in situ and in vivo...
February 27, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Shosuke Ito, Kazumasa Wakamatsu
RS -4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol (rhododendrol (RD))-a skin-whitening ingredient-was reported to induce leukoderma in some consumers. We have examined the biochemical basis of the RD-induced leukoderma by elucidating the metabolic fate of RD in the course of tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation. We found that the oxidation of racemic RD by mushroom tyrosinase rapidly produces RD-quinone, which gives rise to secondary quinone products. Subsequently, we confirmed that human tyrosinase is able to oxidize both enantiomers of RD...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tolga N V Karsili, Barbara Marchetti, Spiridoula Matsika
4-Hydroxybenzothiazole (4-HBT) is a molecular constituent of pheomelanin-a polymeric skin centered pigment which acts as a natural photoprotector against harmful solar-UV radiation. Its molecular structure is therefore required to sustain a degree of photostability upon electronic excitation with UV irradiation. Despite its function as a protector against UV, pheomelanin is known to be less photostable than that of its close derivative eumelanin-a dark skin centered pigment. The 4-HBT subunit has long being attributed as a key contributor to the lack of photostability of pheomelanin-a hypothesis which we aim to test in this paper...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Peter Frost, Karel Kleisner, Jaroslav Flegr
Red hair is associated in women with pain sensitivity. This medical condition, and perhaps others, seems facilitated by the combination of being red-haired and female. We tested this hypothesis by questioning a large sample of Czech and Slovak respondents about the natural redness and darkness of their hair, their natural eye color, their physical and mental health (24 categories), and other personal attributes (height, weight, number of children, lifelong number of sexual partners, frequency of smoking). Red-haired women did worse than other women in ten health categories and better in only three, being particularly prone to colorectal, cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancer...
2017: PloS One
Dainan Cao, Shiping Gong, Jiangbo Yang, Weiye Li, Yan Ge, Yufeng Wei
Animal coloration primarily depends on the presence of pigments and the mixing ratio of eumelanin and pheomelanin. The color of red-eared slider's carapace varies with age, from an olive green to a yellow green, and then to a yellow brown in juveniles, generally. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether this color change is related to the difference in melanin expression. Melanin deposition levels were examined in the carapace, skin, eye and muscle of the three color-types using hematoxylin and eosin staining...
March 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Kouichi Nakagawa, Satoko Minakawa, Daisuke Sawamura, Hideyuki Hara
Continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW EPR) and X-band (9 GHz) EPR imaging (EPRI) were used to nondestructively investigate the possible differentiation between malignant melanoma (MM) and nevus pigmentosus (NP) melanin radicals in paraffin-embedded specimens. The EPR spectra of both samples were analyzed using linewidth, spectral pattern, and X-band EPRI. The CW-EPR spectra of the MM showed an additional signal overlap. Eumelanin- and pheomelanin-related radicals were observed in the MM specimens...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Shoichi Sasamori, Andrew S Wiewel, Vicki A Thomson, Motoko Kobayashi, Katsushi Nakata, Hitoshi Suzuki
The occurrence of black fur, or melanism, in many mammalian species is known to be linked to DNA sequence variation in the agouti signaling protein (Asip) gene, which is a major determinant of eumelanin and pheomelanin pigments in coat color. We investigated 38 agouti (i.e., banded wildtype) and four melanistic Rattus rattus species complex (RrC) lineage II specimens from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, for genetic variation in three exons and associated flanking regions in the Asip gene. On Okinawa, a predicted loss-of-function mutation caused by a cysteine to serine amino acid change at p...
December 2017: Zoological Science
Naoki Oiso, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Shigeto Yanagihara, Akira Kawada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
F Miao, T C Lei, M Y Su, W J Yi, S Jiang, S Z Xu
Objective: To compare the decolorization efficiency of lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase on eumelanin and pheomelanin, and to investigate the effect of topical administration of LiP solution on hyperpigmented guinea pigs skin induced by 308 nm excimer light. Methods: Pheomelanin-enriched specimens were prepared from human hair and cutaneous melanoma tissue using alkaline lysis method.Synthetic eumelanin was purchased from a commercial supplier.The same amount (0.02%) of melanin was incubated with the equal enzyme activity (0...
November 21, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Shosuke Ito, Shiho Miyake, Shoji Maruyama, Itaru Suzuki, Stéphane Commo, Yukiko Nakanishi, Kazumasa Wakamatsu
We previously reported a constant ratio of the benzothiazole pheomelanin marker thiazole-2,4,5-tricarboxylic acid (TTCA) to the eumelanin marker pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) in eumelanic, black human hair. A constant level (20%-25%) of benzothiazole-type pheomelanin was recently demonstrated in human skin with varying concentrations of melanin. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the origin of pheomelanin markers in black to brown human hair by developing a method to remove protein components from hair by heating with 6 M HCl at 110°C for 16 hr...
May 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Hanine Barek, Manickam Sugumaran, Shosuke Ito, Kazumasa Wakamatsu
Melanin from several insect samples was isolated and subjected to chemical degradation and HPLC analysis for melanin markers. Quantification of different melanin markers reveals that insect melanins are significantly different from that of the mammalian epidermal melanins. The eumelanin produced in mammals is derived from the oxidative polymerization of both 5,6-dihydroxyindole and 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acids. The pheomelanin is formed by the oxidative polymerization of cysteinyldopa. Thus, dopa is the major precursor for both eumelanin and pheomelanin in mammals...
May 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Vinod Kumar Sharma, Kanika Sahni
Skin colour (specifically in relation to its melanin content and composition) has a marked influence on its interaction with ultraviolet light. Eumelanin has mainly photoprotective properties while pheomelanin has the ability to cause formation of reactive oxygen species. This difference is responsible for the difference in incidence and presentation of various idiopathic photodermatoses in dark skinned patients compared to those with lighter skin types. Certain conditions are peculiar to darker skins including pin point popular variant of polymorphous light eruption...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ken Okamura, Yuko Abe, Yuta Araki, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Mariko Seishima, Takafumi Umetsu, Atsushi Kato, Masakazu Kawaguchi, Masahiro Hayashi, Yutaka Hozumi, Tamio Suzuki
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), a bleeding tendency, and ceroid deposition. Most of the causative genes for HPS encode subunits of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex (BLOC). In this study, we identified one patient each with HPS4, HPS6, and HPS9 by whole-exome sequencing. Next, we analyzed hair samples from the three patients and representative patients with HPS1 and controls using electron microscopy and chemical methods...
March 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Chung-Hsing Chang, Che-Jung Kuo, Takamichi Ito, Yu-Ya Su, Si-Tse Jiang, Min-Hsi Chiu, Yi-Hsiung Lin, Andrea Nist, Marco Mernberger, Thorsten Stiewe, Shosuke Ito, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Yi-An Hsueh, Sheau-Yann Shieh, Irit Snir-Alkalay, Yinon Ben-Neriah
Casein kinase 1α (CK1α), a component of the β-catenin destruction complex, is a critical regulator of Wnt signaling; its ablation induces both Wnt and p53 activation. To characterize the role of CK1α (encoded by Csnk1a1 ) in skin physiology, we crossed mice harboring floxed Csnk1a1 with mice expressing K14-Cre-ERT2 to generate mice in which tamoxifen induces the deletion of Csnk1a1 exclusively in keratinocytes [single-knockout (SKO) mice]. As expected, CK1α loss was accompanied by β-catenin and p53 stabilization, with the preferential induction of p53 target genes, but phenotypically most striking was hyperpigmentation of the skin, importantly without tumorigenesis, for at least 9 mo after Csnk1a1 ablation...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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