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Pheomelanin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386436/a-novel-locus-on-chromosome-1-underlies-the-evolution-of-a-melanic-plumage-polymorphism-in-a-wild-songbird
#1
Yann X C Bourgeois, Boris Delahaie, Mathieu Gautier, Emeline Lhuillier, Pierre-Jean G Malé, Joris A M Bertrand, Josselin Cornuault, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Olivier Bouchez, Claire Mould, Jade Bruxaux, Hélène Holota, Borja Milá, Christophe Thébaud
Understanding the mechanisms responsible for phenotypic diversification within and among species ultimately rests with linking naturally occurring mutations to functionally and ecologically significant traits. Colour polymorphisms are of great interest in this context because discrete colour patterns within a population are often controlled by just a few genes in a common environment. We investigated how and why phenotypic diversity arose and persists in the Zosterops borbonicus white-eye of Reunion (Mascarene archipelago), a colour polymorphic songbird in which all highland populations contain individuals belonging to either a brown or a grey plumage morph...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378380/re-evaluation-of-insect-melanogenesis-research-views-from-the-dark-side
#2
REVIEW
Miranda M A Whitten, Christopher J Coates
Melanins (eumelanin and pheomelanin) are synthesised in insects for several purposes including cuticle sclerotisation and color patterning, clot formation, organogenesis and innate immunity. Traditional views of insect immunity detail the storage of pro-phenoloxidases inside specialized blood cells (hemocytes) and their release upon recognition of foreign bodies. Activated phenoloxidases convert monophenols into reactive quinones in a two-step enzymatic reaction, and until recently, the mechanism of tyrosine hydroxylation remained a mystery...
April 4, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271633/pheomelanogenesis-is-promoted-at-a-weakly-acidic-ph
#3
Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Ayano Nagao, Miu Watanabe, Kenta Nakao, Shosuke Ito
The diversity of pigmentation in the skin, hair and eyes of humans has been largely attributed to the diversity of pH in melanosomes with an acidic pH being proposed to suppress melanin production, especially eumelanogenesis. We previously showed that an acidic pH greatly suppresses the late stage of eumelanogenesis after the dopachrome stage. The oxidation of tyrosine by tyrosinase in the presence of cysteine forms cysteinyldopa isomers, which are further oxidized to give rise to pheomelanin via benzothiazine intermediates...
March 8, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240252/novel-quantitative-pigmentation-phenotyping-enhances-genetic-association-epistasis-and-prediction-of-human-eye-colour
#4
Andreas Wollstein, Susan Walsh, Fan Liu, Usha Chakravarthy, Mati Rahu, Johan H Seland, Gisèle Soubrane, Laura Tomazzoli, Fotis Topouzis, Johannes R Vingerling, Jesus Vioque, Stefan Böhringer, Astrid E Fletcher, Manfred Kayser
Success of genetic association and the prediction of phenotypic traits from DNA are known to depend on the accuracy of phenotype characterization, amongst other parameters. To overcome limitations in the characterization of human iris pigmentation, we introduce a fully automated approach that specifies the areal proportions proposed to represent differing pigmentation types, such as pheomelanin, eumelanin, and non-pigmented areas within the iris. We demonstrate the utility of this approach using high-resolution digital eye imagery and genotype data from 12 selected SNPs from over 3000 European samples of seven populations that are part of the EUREYE study...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132436/the-potent-pro-oxidant-activity-of-rhododendrol-eumelanin-induces-cysteine-depletion-in-b16-melanoma-cells
#5
Shosuke Ito, Masae Okura, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Toshiharu Yamashita
RS-4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol (rhododendrol, RD), a skin-whitening agent, is known to induce leukoderma in some people. To explore the mechanism underlying this effect, we previously showed that the oxidation of RD with mushroom or human tyrosinase produces cytotoxic quinone oxidation products. We then examined the metabolism of RD in B16F1 melanoma cells in vitro and detected RD-pheomelanin and RD-quinone bound to non-protein and protein thiols. In this study, we examined the changes in glutathione (GSH) and cysteine in B16 cells exposed to RD for up to 24 h...
January 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024137/-secrets-of-the-red-headed
#6
REVIEW
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Małgorzata Kowalik, Adam Jagodziński
Only 1-2% of people is red-headed but in the Russian Udmurt Republic or United Kingdom they can be met more often. A specific variant of MC1R gene (R allele) is responsible for the red hair. The gene encodes a receptor for melanocortins. These substances stimulate melanocytes to product melanin- a dye of the skin which is transported to keratinocytes. It protects a cellular nucleus from ultraviolet radiation. Melanin has two types: eumelanin which is dark brown or even black and red/orange pheomelanin. The second one is mostly observed in red-headed which is caused by R allele...
December 22, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988976/adaptive-downregulation-of-pheomelanin-related-slc7a11-gene-expression-by-environmentally-induced-oxidative-stress
#7
Ismael Galván, Ângela Inácio, Ana Angela Romero-Haro, Carlos Alonso-Alvarez
Pheomelanin is a sulphur-containing yellow-to-reddish pigment whose synthesis consumes the main intracellular antioxidant (glutathione; GSH) and its precursor cysteine. Cysteine used for pheomelanogenesis cannot be used for antioxidant protection. We tested whether the expression of Slc7a11, the gene regulating the transport of cysteine to melanocytes for pheomelanogenesis, is environmentally influenced when cysteine/GSH are most required for antioxidant protection. We found that zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata developing pheomelanin-pigmented feathers during a 12-day exposure to the pro-oxidant diquat dibromide downregulated the expression of Slc7a11 in feather melanocytes, but not the expression of other genes that affect pheomelanogenesis by mechanisms different from cysteine transport such as MC1R and Slc45a2...
February 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904077/synthesis-characterization-and-evaluation-of-thiazolidine-derivatives-of-cysteine-for-suppressing-eumelanin-production
#8
Yusuke Amino, Yoshinobu Takino, Megumi Kaneko, Fumie Ookura, Mai Yamamoto, Tatsuki Kashiwagi, Keiji Iwasaki
In the pathway of melanin biosynthesis, cysteine (Cys) is utilized for the synthesis of pheomelanin. Accordingly, Cys is considered to suppress the formation of brown-black eumelanin. Although attempts have been made to utilize Cys and its derivatives as skin-whitening agents, their instability and odor hinders their application as a cosmetic agent. Herein, N-acetyl-2-methylthiazolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid ethyl ester (AcCP2Et) was proposed as a candidate for a stable and prolonged-release derivative of Cys to inhibit dopachrome formation after its degradation in melanocytes...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892516/in-vivo-coherent-raman-imaging-of-the-melanomagenesis-associated-pigment-pheomelanin
#9
Hequn Wang, Sam Osseiran, Vivien Igras, Alexander J Nichols, Elisabeth M Roider, Joachim Pruessner, Hensin Tsao, David E Fisher, Conor L Evans
Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer with a yearly global incidence over 232,000 patients. Individuals with fair skin and red hair exhibit the highest risk for developing melanoma, with evidence suggesting the red/blond pigment known as pheomelanin may elevate melanoma risk through both UV radiation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Although the ability to identify, characterize, and monitor pheomelanin within skin is vital for improving our understanding of the underlying biology of these lesions, no tools exist for real-time, in vivo detection of the pigment...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671997/not-another-type-of-potato-mc1r-and-the-russet-coloration-of-burmese-cats
#10
N A Gustafson, B Gandolfi, L A Lyons
The Burmese is a breed of domestic cat that originated in Southeast Asia and was further developed in the United States. Variants in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) causes common coat colour phenotypes in a variety of mammalian species but only limited colour variation in the domestic cat. Known as the extension (E) locus, melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) interacts with the agouti locus to produce the eumelanin and pheomelanin pigments. Recently, a novel reddish coloration, which is termed russet, was identified in the Burmese cat breed...
February 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664794/mc1r-variants-affect-the-expression-of-melanocortin-and-melanogenic-genes-and-the-association-between-melanocortin-genes-and-coloration
#11
Luis M San-Jose, Anne-Lyse Ducrest, Valérie Ducret, Céline Simon, Hannes Richter, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Alexandre Roulin
The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene influences coloration by altering the expression of genes acting downstream in the melanin synthesis. MC1R belongs to the melanocortin system, a genetic network coding for the ligands that regulate MC1R and other melanocortin receptors controlling different physiological and behavioural traits. The impact of MC1R variants on these regulatory melanocortin genes was never considered, even though MC1R mutations could alter the influence of these genes on coloration (e.g...
September 24, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563719/integration-of-next-generation-sequencing-and-epr-analysis-to-uncover-molecular-mechanism-underlying-shell-color-variation-in-scallops
#12
Xiujun Sun, Zhihong Liu, Liqing Zhou, Biao Wu, Yinghui Dong, Aiguo Yang
The Yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis displays polymorphism in shell colors, which is of great interest for the scallop industry. To identify genes involved in the shell coloration, in the present study, we investigate the transcriptome differences by Illumina digital gene expression (DGE) analysis in two extreme color phenotypes, Red and White. Illumina sequencing yields a total of 62,715,364 clean sequence reads, and more than 85% reads are mapped into our previously sequenced transcriptome. There are 25 significantly differentially expressed genes between Red and White scallops...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505632/aerobic-photoreactivity-of-synthetic-eumelanins-and-pheomelanins-generation-of-singlet-oxygen-and-superoxide-anion
#13
Grzegorz Szewczyk, Andrzej Zadlo, Michal Sarna, Shosuke Ito, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Tadeusz Sarna
In this work, we examined photoreactivity of synthetic eumelanins, formed by autooxidation of DOPA, or enzymatic oxidation of 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid and synthetic pheomelanins obtained by enzymatic oxidation of 5-S-cysteinyldopa or 1:1 mixture of DOPA and cysteine. Electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry and spin trapping were used to measure oxygen consumption and formation of superoxide anion induced by irradiation of melanin with blue light, and time-resolved near-infrared luminescence was employed to determine the photoformation of singlet oxygen between 300 and 600 nm...
November 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504027/the-role-of-melanin-pathways-in-extremotolerance-and-virulence-of-fonsecaea-revealed-by-de-novo-assembly-transcriptomics-using-illumina-paired-end-sequencing
#14
X Q Li, B L Guo, W Y Cai, J M Zhang, H Q Huang, P Zhan, L Y Xi, V A Vicente, B Stielow, J F Sun, G S de Hoog
Melanisation has been considered to be an important virulence factor of Fonsecaea monophora. However, the biosynthetic mechanisms of melanisation remain unknown. We therefore used next generation sequencing technology to investigate the transcriptome and digital gene expression data, which are valuable resources to better understand the molecular and biological mechanisms regulating melanisation in F. monophora. We performed de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling analyses of parent (CBS 122845) and albino (CBS 125194) strains using the Illumina RNA-seq system...
2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426874/non-invasive-quantification-of-melanin-in-the-stratum-corneum-a-novel-indicator-of-skin-lesions-in-pigmentation-diseases
#15
H Matsunaka, Y Yamamoto, F Furukawa
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Skin melanin content is an important indicator for ascertaining the pathology of skin pigmentation diseases, but its analysis necessitates a biopsy or other means of collecting tissue, posing a considerable burden to the patient, and making it difficult to observe how a given skin site changes over time. Here, we aimed to establish a non-invasive method for quantifying the eumelanin and pheomelanin content of the stratum corneum. METHODS: Sun-exposed and non-exposed samples from 10 healthy Japanese subjects were compared...
July 18, 2016: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356601/from-tyrosine-to-melanin-signaling-pathways-and-factors-regulating-melanogenesis
#16
Zuzanna Rzepka, Ewa Buszman, Artur Beberok, Dorota Wrześniok
Melanins are natural pigments of skin, hair and eyes and can be classified into two main types: brown to black eumelanin and yellow to reddish-brown pheomelanin. Biosynthesis of melanins takes place in melanosomes, which are specialized cytoplasmic organelles of melanocytes - dendritic cells located in the basal layer of the epidermis, uveal tract of the eye, hair follicles, as well as in the inner ear, central nervous system and heart. Melanogenesis is a multistep process and begins with the conversion of amino acid L-tyrosine to DOPAquinone...
June 30, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27224206/pheomelanin-in-the-secondary-sexual-characters-of-male-parasitoid-wasps-hymenoptera-pteromalidae
#17
Alberto Jorge García, Carlo Polidori, José Luis Nieves-Aldrey
The occurrence and distribution of eumelanin and pheomelanin, the most prevalent biological pigments, has been rarely investigated in insects. Particularly yellowish to brownish body parts, which in many vertebrates are associated with pheomelanin, are visible in many insects but their chemical nature was rarely examined to a similar detail. Here, by using Dispersive Raman spectroscopy analysis, we found both eumelanin and pheomelanin in different body parts of male parasitoid wasps of three species of the genus Mesopolobus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), which are known to have species-specific spots and coloured stripes on the legs and/or antennae which are displayed to females during courtship...
July 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27196900/-fifty-shades-of-black-and-red-or-how-carboxyl-groups-fine-tune-eumelanin-and-pheomelanin-properties
#18
REVIEW
Raffaella Micillo, Lucia Panzella, Kenzo Koike, Giuseppe Monfrecola, Alessandra Napolitano, Marco d'Ischia
Recent advances in the chemistry of melanins have begun to disclose a number of important structure-property-function relationships of crucial relevance to the biological role of human pigments, including skin (photo) protection and UV-susceptibility. Even slight variations in the monomer composition of black eumelanins and red pheomelanins have been shown to determine significant differences in light absorption, antioxidant, paramagnetic and redox behavior, particle morphology, surface properties, metal chelation and resistance to photo-oxidative wear-and-tear...
May 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173400/artificial-pheomelanin-nanoparticles-and-their-photo-sensitization-properties
#19
Jung Pyo, Kuk-Youn Ju, Jin-Kyu Lee
Pheomelanin-type nanoparticles (PMNPs) were synthesized through a simple oxidative polymerization of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) in the presence of cysteine by KMnO4. The synthesized PMNPs had a diameter of approximately 100nm, exhibited high dispersion stability in neutral water and various culture media and possessed similar morphology to naturally occurring pheomelanins. The efficiency of photoinduced generation of hydroxyl radicals from PMNPs was determined and related in vitro cell experiments that were carried out, with data being compared to those from eumelanin-type nanoparticles (EMNPs) and natural sepia melanin nanoparticles...
July 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27128906/the-glutathione-derivative-gsh-monoethyl-ester-may-effectively-whiten-skin-but-gsh-does-not
#20
Bo Young Chung, So Ra Choi, Ik Jun Moon, Chun Wook Park, Young-Hoon Kim, Sung Eun Chang
Glutathione in its reduced form (GSH) is an antioxidant and also is involved in pheomelanin formation. Thus, it has been long believed that GSH has a skin whitening effect. However, its actual or direct effect is unproven. We evaluated the anti-melanogenic effects of GSH and its derivatives in vitro. We examined change of melanogenesis and its related proteins by GSH itself and its derivatives, including GSH monoethyl ester (GSH-MEE), GSH diethyl ester (GSH-DEE) and GSH monoisopropyl ester (GSH-MIPE) in Melan-A cells, Mel-Ab cells, and B16F10 cells...
April 27, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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