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Gut Melatonin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30459766/latitude-vitamin-d-melatonin-and-gut-microbiota-act-in-concert-to-initiate-multiple-sclerosis-a-new-mechanistic-pathway
#1
REVIEW
Majid Ghareghani, Russel J Reiter, Kazem Zibara, Naser Farhadi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). While the etiology of MS is still largely unknown, scientists believe that the interaction of several endogenous and exogenous factors may be involved in this disease. Epidemiologists have seen an increased prevalence of MS in countries at high latitudes, where the sunlight is limited and where the populations have vitamin D deficiency and high melatonin levels. Although the functions and synthesis of vitamin D and melatonin are contrary to each other, both are involved in the immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444453/aging-melatonin-biosynthesis-and-circadian-clockworks-in-the-gastrointestinal-system-of-the-laboratory-mouse
#2
Jiffin Kuriacko Paulose, Charles Vincent Cassone, Vincent M Cassone
The gastrointestinal (GI) system is vital in its capacities for nutrient and water uptake, immune function, metabolism and detoxification, and stem-cell derived regeneration. Of significance to human health are a myriad of gastrointestinal disorders associated with aging that integrate with the circadian clock. Here we present data from three groups of mice: young (3 months old), middle-aged (12 months old), and old-aged (24 months old). Small intestine and colon samples taken every 4 hours under light:dark (LD) conditions were assayed for gene expression related to molecular circadian rhythmicity, transcription, cell-signaling, and immune function...
November 16, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299401/the-relationship-between-daytime-salivary-melatonin-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-young-adults-seeking-psychiatric-care
#3
Fanny Söderquist, Isak Sundberg, Mia Ramklint, Rebecka Widerström, Per M Hellström, Janet L Cunningham
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not completely understood, although we do know that patients with IBS have a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity (mainly depression and anxiety disorders). Melatonin, produced in the gastrointestinal tract, influences gut motility. Psychiatric conditions are associated with circadian disturbances in peripheral melatonin levels. This study aimed to investigate associations between daytime salivary melatonin and gastrointestinal symptoms in young adult psychiatric patients...
October 6, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30231628/leaky-brain-in-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders-drivers-and-consequences
#4
Gerwyn Morris, Brisa S Fernandes, Basant K Puri, Adam J Walker, Andre F Carvalho, Michael Berk
BACKGROUND: The blood-brain barrier acts as a highly regulated interface; its dysfunction may exacerbate, and perhaps initiate, neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. METHODS: In this narrative review, focussing on redox, inflammatory and mitochondrial pathways and their effects on the blood-brain barrier, a model is proposed detailing mechanisms which might explain how increases in blood-brain barrier permeability occur and can be maintained with increasing inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress being the initial drivers...
October 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230594/melatonin-reprogramming-of-gut-microbiota-improves-lipid-dysmetabolism-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#5
Jie Yin, Yuying Li, Hui Han, Shuai Chen, Jing Gao, Gang Liu, Xin Wu, Jinping Deng, Qifang Yu, Xingguo Huang, Rejun Fang, Tiejun Li, Russel J Reiter, Dong Zhang, Congrui Zhu, Guoqiang Zhu, Wenkai Ren, Yulong Yin
Melatonin has been shown to improve lipid metabolism and gut microbiota communities in animals and humans; however, it remains to know whether melatonin prevents obesity through gut microbiota. Here, we found that high-fat diet promoted the lipid accumulation and intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in mice, while oral melatonin supplementation alleviated the lipid accumulation and reversed gut microbiota dysbiosis, including the diversity of intestinal microbiota, relative abundances of Bacteroides and Alistipes, and functional profiling of microbial communities, such as energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, and carbohydrate metabolism...
November 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30011784/melatonin-in-prevention-of-the-sequence-from-reflux-esophagitis-to-barrett-s-esophagus-and-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-experimental-and-clinical-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Jolanta Majka, Mateusz Wierdak, Iwona Brzozowska, Marcin Magierowski, Aleksandra Szlachcic, Dagmara Wojcik, Slawomir Kwiecien, Katarzyna Magierowska, Jacek Zagajewski, Tomasz Brzozowski
Melatonin is a tryptophan-derived molecule with pleiotropic activities which is produced in all living organisms. This "sleep" hormone is a free radical scavenger, which activates several anti-oxidative enzymes and mechanisms. Melatonin, a highly lipophilic hormone, can reach body target cells rapidly, acting as the circadian signal to alter numerous physiological functions in the body. This indoleamine can protect the organs against a variety of damaging agents via multiple signaling. This review focused on the role played by melatonin in the mechanism of esophagoprotection, starting with its short-term protection against acute reflux esophagitis and then investigating the long-term prevention of chronic inflammation that leads to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Barrett's esophagus...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29995838/chemotaxis-of-escherichia-coli-to-major-hormones-and-polyamines-present-in-human-gut
#7
Joana G Lopes, Victor Sourjik
The microorganisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can influence the metabolism, immunity, and behavior of animal hosts. Increasing evidence suggests that communication between the host and the microbiome also occurs in the opposite direction, with hormones and other host-secreted compounds being sensed by microorganisms. Here, we addressed one key aspect of the host-microbe communication by studying chemotaxis of a model commensal bacterium, Escherichia coli, to several compounds present abundantly in the GI tract, namely catecholamines, thyroid hormones, and polyamines...
November 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939763/the-neurobiology-of-adaptation-to-seasons-relevance-and-correlations-in-bipolar-disorders
#8
Julia Maruani, George Anderson, Bruno Etain, Michel Lejoyeux, Frank Bellivier, Pierre A Geoffroy
Bipolar disorders (BDs) are severe and common psychiatric disorders. BD pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and relapses are associated with numerous circadian rhythm abnormalities. In addition, infradian fluctuations of mood, social activity, weight and sleep patterns are very frequent in BD. Disease course with a seasonal pattern (SP) occurs in approximately 25% of depressive and 15% of manic episodes, which is coupled to a more severe disease symptomatology. The pathophysiological mechanisms of seasonal effects in BD await clarification, with likely important clinical consequences...
September 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708069/indoles-gut-bacteria-metabolites-of-tryptophan-with-pharmacotherapeutic-potential
#9
REVIEW
Piotr Konopelski, Marcin Ufnal
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence proves the pivotal role of gut microbiota in mammals' homeostasis. Gut bacterial metabolites may exert local effects on the intestines, and may enter the circulation, affecting the functions of virtually all organs. Here, we review the available evidence on metabolism and biological effects of gut microbiota- derived indoles. METHODS: The PUBMED database and Google Scholar were searched to identify experimental and clinical studies investigating biological effects of gut bacteria-derived indoles...
2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572613/response-of-gastrointestinal-melatonin-antioxidants-and-digestive-enzymes-to-altered-feeding-conditions-in-carp-catla-catla
#10
Palash Kumar Pal, Saumen Kumar Maitra
The purpose of present study was to ascertain whether the response of gastrointestinal (gut) melatonin to altered feeding conditions was related to the levels of different antioxidants and digestive enzymes in the same gut tissues of a sub-tropical carp (Catla catla). Accordingly, the fish were subjected to food deprivation for 4 or 8 days and separately to re-feeding for 4 or 8 or 12 days after deprivation of food for 8 days, and their gut tissue homogenates were used to measure the levels of melatonin, both enzymatic [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST)] and non-enzymatic [reduced glutathione (GSH)] antioxidants, as well as different digestive enzymes (α-amylase, cellulase, protease, and lipase)...
August 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468141/impact-of-the-gut-microbiota-on-intestinal-immunity-mediated-by-tryptophan-metabolism
#11
REVIEW
Jing Gao, Kang Xu, Hongnan Liu, Gang Liu, Miaomiao Bai, Can Peng, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
The gut microbiota influences the health of the host, especially with regard to gut immune homeostasis and the intestinal immune response. In addition to serving as a nutrient enhancer, L-tryptophan (Trp) plays crucial roles in the balance between intestinal immune tolerance and gut microbiota maintenance. Recent discoveries have underscored that changes in the microbiota modulate the host immune system by modulating Trp metabolism. Moreover, Trp, endogenous Trp metabolites (kynurenines, serotonin, and melatonin), and bacterial Trp metabolites (indole, indolic acid, skatole, and tryptamine) have profound effects on gut microbial composition, microbial metabolism, the host's immune system, the host-microbiome interface, and host immune system-intestinal microbiota interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304519/effect-of-n-acetylserotonin-on-tlr-4-and-myd88-expression-during-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-in-a-rat-model
#12
Igor Sukhotnik, Yoav Ben Shahar, Salim Halabi, Nir Bitterman, Tatiana Dorfman, Yulia Pollak, Arnold Coran, Arie Bitterman
BACKGROUND:  Accumulating evidence indicates that changes in intestinal toll-like receptors (TLRs) precede histological injury in a rodent model of necrotizing enterocolitis. N-acetylserotonin (NAS) is a naturally occurring chemical intermediate in the biosynthesis of melatonin. A recent study has shown that treatment with NAS prevents gut mucosal damage and inhibits programmed cell death following intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of NAS on TLR-4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88), and TNF-α receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) expression in intestinal mucosa following intestinal IR in a rat...
January 5, 2018: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799778/how-important-is-tryptophan-in-human-health
#13
Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska, Paulina Gątarek, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Max Stanley Chartrand, Geir Bjørklund
Tryptophan (Trp) is an amino acid and an essential component of the human diet. It plays a crucial role in many metabolic functions. Clinicians can use Trp levels in the course of diagnosing various metabolic disorders and the symptoms associated with those diseases. Furthermore, supplementation with this amino acid is considered in the treatment of depression and sleep disorders, mainly due to the Trp relationship with the synthesis of serotonin (5-HT) and melatonin. It is also used in helping to resolve cognitive disorders, anxiety, or neurodegenerative diseases...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723608/breastfeeding-and-the-gut-brain-axis-is-there-a-role-for-melatonin
#14
REVIEW
George Anderson, Cathy Vaillancourt, Michael Maes, Russel J Reiter
The benefits of breastfeeding over formula feed are widely appreciated. However, for many mothers breastfeeding is not possible, highlighting the need for a significant improvement in the contents of formula feed. In this article, the overlooked role of melatonin and the melatonergic pathways in breast milk and in the regulation of wider breast milk components are reviewed. There is a growing appreciation that the benefits of breastfeeding are mediated by its effects in the infant gut, with consequences for the development of the gut-brain axis and the immune system...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522826/disruption-of-melatonin-synthesis-is-associated-with-impaired-14-3-3-and-mir-451-levels-in-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Cécile Pagan, Hany Goubran-Botros, Richard Delorme, Marion Benabou, Nathalie Lemière, Kerren Murray, Frédérique Amsellem, Jacques Callebert, Pauline Chaste, Stéphane Jamain, Fabien Fauchereau, Guillaume Huguet, Erik Maronde, Marion Leboyer, Jean-Marie Launay, Thomas Bourgeron
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by a wide genetic and clinical heterogeneity. However, some biochemical impairments, including decreased melatonin (crucial for circadian regulation) and elevated platelet N-acetylserotonin (the precursor of melatonin) have been reported as very frequent features in individuals with ASD. To address the mechanisms of these dysfunctions, we investigated melatonin synthesis in post-mortem pineal glands - the main source of melatonin (9 patients and 22 controls) - and gut samples - the main source of serotonin (11 patients and 13 controls), and in blood platelets from 239 individuals with ASD, their first-degree relatives and 278 controls...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503116/melatonin-pharmacology-functions-and-therapeutic-benefits
#16
REVIEW
Sylvie Tordjman, Sylvie Chokron, Richard Delorme, Annaëlle Charrier, Eric Bellissant, Nemat Jaafari, Claire Fougerou
BACKGROUND: Melatonin synchronizes central but also peripheral oscillators (fetal adrenal gland, pancreas, liver, kidney, heart, lung, fat, gut, etc.), allowing temporal organization of biological functions through circadian rhythms (24-hour cycles) in relation to periodic environmental changes and therefore adaptation of the individual to his/her internal and external environment. Measures of melatonin are considered the best peripheral indices of human circadian timing based on an internal 24-hour clock...
April 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433458/linking-the-biological-underpinnings-of-depression-role-of-mitochondria-interactions-with-melatonin-inflammation-sirtuins-tryptophan-catabolites-dna-repair-and-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-with-consequences-for-classification-and-cognition
#17
REVIEW
George Anderson
The pathophysiological underpinnings of neuroprogressive processes in recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are reviewed. A wide array of biochemical processes underlie MDD presentations and their shift to a recurrent, neuroprogressive course, including: increased immune-inflammation, tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), mitochondrial dysfunction, aryl hydrocarbonn receptor activation, and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), as well as decreased sirtuins and melatonergic pathway activity. These biochemical changes may have their roots in central, systemic and/or peripheral sites, including in the gut, as well as in developmental processes, such as prenatal stressors and breastfeeding consequences...
January 3, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403142/melatonin-protects-rats-from-radiotherapy-induced-small-intestine-toxicity
#18
Beatriz Fernández-Gil, Ahmed E Abdel Moneim, Francisco Ortiz, Ying-Qiang Shen, Viviana Soto-Mercado, Miguel Mendivil-Perez, Ana Guerra-Librero, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo, María M Molina-Navarro, José M García-Verdugo, Ramy K A Sayed, Javier Florido, Juan D Luna, Luis Carlos López, Germaine Escames
Radiotherapy-induced gut toxicity is among the most prevalent dose-limiting toxicities following radiotherapy. Prevention of radiation enteropathy requires protection of the small intestine. However, despite the prevalence and burden of this pathology, there are currently no effective treatments for radiotherapy-induced gut toxicity, and this pathology remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the changes induced in the rat small intestine after external irradiation of the tongue, and to explore the potential radio-protective effects of melatonin gel...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315773/the-time-enzyme-in-melatonin-biosynthesis-in-fish-day-night-expressions-of-three-aralkylamine-n-acetyltransferase-genes-in-three-spined-stickleback
#19
REVIEW
Ewa Kulczykowska, Agnieszka Kleszczyńska, Magdalena Gozdowska, Ewa Sokołowska
In vertebrates, aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT; EC 2.3.1.87) is a time-keeping enzyme in melatonin (Mel) biosynthesis. Uniquely in fish, there are several AANAT isozymes belonging to two AANAT subfamilies, AANAT1 and AANAT2, which are encoded by distinct genes. The different substrate preferences, kinetics and spatial expression patterns of isozymes indicate that they may have different functions. In the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), there are three genes encoding three AANAT isozymes...
June 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199741/melatonin-prevents-obesity-through-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#20
Pengfei Xu, Jialin Wang, Fan Hong, Sheng Wang, Xi Jin, Tingting Xue, Li Jia, Yonggong Zhai
Excess weight and obesity are severe public health threats worldwide. Recent evidence demonstrates that gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to obesity and its comorbidities. The body weight-reducing and energy balancing effects of melatonin have been reported in several studies, but to date, no investigations toward examining whether the beneficial effects of melatonin are associated with gut microbiota have been carried out. In this study, we show that melatonin reduces body weight, liver steatosis, and low-grade inflammation as well as improving insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
May 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
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