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Risk predictor

Weilong Li, Michael F Murray, Monica A Giovanni
Family health history has long been known to be a powerful predictor of individual disease risk. It can be obtained prior to DNA sequencing in order to examine inheritance patterns, to be used as a proxy for genetic information, or as a tool to guide decision-making on the utility of diagnostic genetic testing. Increasingly, it is also being obtained retrospectively from sequenced individuals to examine familial disease penetrance and to identify at-risk relatives for cascade testing. The collection of adequate family history information to screen patients for disease risk and guide decision-making is a time-consuming process that is difficult to accomplish exclusively through discussion between patients and their providers...
October 18, 2018: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
Takao Watanabe, Yoshio Tokumoto, Kouji Joko, Kojiro Michitaka, Norio Horiike, Yoshinori Tanaka, Fujimasa Tada, Yoshiyasu Kisaka, Seiji Nakanishi, Kazuhiko Yamauchi, Atsushi Yukimoto, Masashi Hirooka, Masanori Abe, Yoichi Hiasa
AIM: The predictors for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment were investigated. METHODS: A total of 1174 patients with chronic HCV infection were treated with DAA therapy (sofosbuvir and ledipasvir [n=615], sofosbuvir and ribavirin [n=380], and daclatasvir and asunaprevir [n=179]) and achieved sustained virological response (SVR). The HCC development rate and the factors that might contribute to the development of HCC after the end of DAA treatment were analyzed...
October 18, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Albina Nowak, Rebekka S Giger, Pierre-Alexandre Krayenbuehl
Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is the most common genetic disease in Caucasians which is characterized by an increased intestinal iron absorption, resulting into a progressive accumulation of iron in organs including liver, heart, and pancreas, leading to their progressive dysfunction. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a long-term complication of HH, which contributes to increased mortality.We evaluated the risk factors of HCC in a prospective cohort of Swiss hemochromatosis patients with a long-term follow-up...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Fabio Fabbian, Alfredo De Giorgi, Benedetta Boari, Elisa Misurati, Massimo Gallerani, Rosaria Cappadona, Rosario Cultrera, Roberto Manfredini, Maria A Rodrìguez Borrego, Pablo J Lopez-Soto
Infectious diseases (ID) are frequently cause of internal medicine wards (IMW) admission. We aimed to evaluate risk factors for in-hospital mortality (IHM) in IMW patients with ID, and to test the usefulness of a comorbidity score (CS).This study included ID hospital admissions between January 2013, and December 2016, recorded in the database of the local hospital. ICD-9-CM codes were selected to identify infections, development of sepsis, and to calculate a CS.We analyzed 12,173 records, (age 64.8 ± 25...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
P M Charpentier, A K Srivastava, H Zheng, J D Ostrander, R E Hughes
BACKGROUND: The length of stay (LOS) in the hospital for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been declining over recent decades. The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with an LOS for TKA that includes only 1 midnight have an increased odds of 90-day readmission compared with those with a 2-midnight LOS. We also sought to identify any predictors of 90-day hospital readmission among those readmitted during our period of analysis. METHODS: A retrospective review of the Michigan Arthroplasty Registry Collaborative Quality Initiative (MARCQI) database was performed to identify patients with a 1-midnight or 2-midnight LOS for TKA during a 5-year period...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Joseph D Lamplot, Anchal Bansal, Joseph T Nguyen, Robert H Brophy
BACKGROUND: The risk of subsequent joint replacement following an index joint replacement for osteoarthritis and the association of this risk with demographic and patient-specific factors are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how demographic and other patient-specific factors are associated with the risk of subsequent joint replacement in the contralateral or a different joint following an index joint replacement for osteoarthritis. METHODS: The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Database (SID) of New York was used to identify the first (primary) total hip arthroplasty (THA), total knee arthroplasty (TKA), or total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and the risk of subsequent joint replacement in the contralateral or a different joint over 5 to 8 years...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Mohamad J Halawi, Mark P Cote, Hardeep Singh, Michael B O'Sullivan, Lawrence Savoy, Jay R Lieberman, Vincent J Williams
BACKGROUND: Depression and poor mental health are known to be negative predictors of patient-reported outcomes after total joint arthroplasty. Although previous studies have examined these risk factors in isolation to each other, they are, in reality, closely related, and yet each represents a different aspect of one's psychological well-being. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between depression and patient-reported outcomes, taking into account patients' baseline mental health...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Amanda Nicole Fletcher, Richard M Schwend, Mitchell Solano, Christopher Wester, Dale E Jarka
BACKGROUND: Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children 0 to 18 years of age in the U.S. An estimated 9,400 to 17,000 pediatric lawn-mower injuries occur each year. The aims of this study were to better define the epidemiology of lawn-mower injuries and to identify predictors of severe lawn-mower injuries to optimize public education and injury prevention. METHODS: All patients 0 to 18 years of age who presented to Children's Mercy Hospital (CMH), Kansas City, Missouri, during the period of 1995 to 2015 after sustaining a lawn-mower injury were identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) codes...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Guilherme Pinheiro Machado, Gustavo N Araujo, Christian K Carpes, Mateus C Lech, Stefani Mariani, Felipe H Valle, Luiz C C Bergoli, Rodrigo V Wainstein, Marco V Wainstein
BACKGROUND: Elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an indirect marker of inflammation, and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of NLR to predict procedural adverse events is patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI were divided into low and high NLR, whereas high was defined as an NLR value above 75° percentile (≥9...
October 16, 2018: Coronary Artery Disease
José H Marco, Maria Pilar Tormo-Irun, Alba Galán-Escalante, Carmen Gonzalez-García
Studies carried out in nonclinical samples have found an association between cyberbullying victimization and eating disorder (ED) psychopathology (negative emotions, low self-esteem, unhealthy eating behaviors, and body dissatisfaction); however, these previous studies were carried out with participants without an ED diagnosis. To extend the knowledge in this area of research, we aim to confirm these associations in two different samples: on the one hand, a sample composed of participants with ED diagnoses and, on the other hand, a sample composed of participants at high risk of ED...
October 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Hsing-Fei Lu, Wang-Huei Sheng, Shih-Cheng Liao, Nien-Tzu Chang, Pei-Ying Wu, Ya-Ling Yang, Fei-Hsiu Hsiao
AIMS: This study examined the changes and the predictors of suicide ideation/suicide attempt and the moderating effects of psychosocial factors on the suicide ideation/suicide attempts among HIV-positive patients at 6-12 months post-diagnosis. BACKGROUND: Suicide behaviors are prevalent among newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients, but the changes in suicide behaviors after diagnosis and the role of psychosocial factors in these behaviors are not well studied. DESIGN: This study used a prospective longitudinal design...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Xiao-Jiang Yang, Hong-Xun Sang, Bo Bai, Xiang-Yu Ma, Chao Xu, Wei Lei, Yang Zhang
BACKGROUND The incidence of hip fracture is steadily increasing. We aimed to establish a creative approach to precisely estimate the risk of hip fracture by exploring the relationship between hip fracture and bone mineral density (BMD)/femur geometry. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixteen samples of cadaveric female proximal femora were randomly selected. Experiments were performed experimental measurement of the femoral neck BMD and geometric parameters (including neck length, neck diameter, head diameter, and neck-shaft angle)...
October 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Ibrahim Abubakar, Ajit Lalvani, Jo Southern, Alice Sitch, Charlotte Jackson, Oluchukwu Onyimadu, Marc Lipman, Jonathan J Deeks, Chris Griffiths, Graham Bothamley, Onn Min Kon, Andrew Hayward, Joanne Lord, Francis Drobniewski
BACKGROUND: Despite a recent decline in the annual incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the UK, rates remain higher than in most Western European countries. The detection and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) is an essential component of the UK TB control programme. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prognostic value and cost-effectiveness of the current two interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) compared with the standard tuberculin skin test (TST) for predicting active TB among untreated individuals at increased risk of TB: (1) contacts of active TB cases and (2) new entrants to the UK from high-TB-burden countries...
October 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Mohammad Hossein Soltani, Mohsen Jamshir, Sepideh Taghavi, Reza Golpira, Mohsen Nasiri, Ahmad Amin, Nargeuss Abbaszade Marzbali, Nasim Naderi
AIMS: Echocardiography is known as the most useful diagnostic test in the assessment of patients with heart failure (HF), and the prognostic significance of echocardiographic findings in HF is well known. In this report, we aim to present the prognostic significance of a limited set of echocardiographic parameters obtained within 24 h of admission of patients enrolled in the Rajaie Acute Systolic Heart Failure registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 230 patients with the diagnosis of acute systolic HF (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%) were enrolled into the study...
October 18, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Mohsen Alhashemi, Julio F Fiore, Nadia Safa, Mohammed Al Mahroos, Juan Mata, Nicolò Pecorelli, Gabriele Baldini, Nandini Dendukuri, Barry L Stein, A Sender Liberman, Patrick Charlebois, Franco Carli, Liane S Feldman
BACKGROUND: Prolonged postoperative ileus (PPOI) is common after colorectal surgery but has not been widely studied in the context of enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) that include interventions aimed to accelerate gastrointestinal recovery. The aim of this study is to estimate the incidence and predictors of PPOI in the context of an ERP for colorectal surgery. METHODS: We analyzed data from an institutional colorectal surgery ERP registry. Incidence of PPOI was estimated according to a definition adapted from Vather (intolerance of solid food and absence of flatus or bowel movement for ≥ 4 days) and compared to other definitions in the literature...
October 17, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Shraddha Sapkota, Tao Huan, Tran Tran, Jiamin Zheng, Richard Camicioli, Liang Li, Roger A Dixon
Background : Among the neurodegenerative diseases of aging, sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent and perhaps the most feared. With virtually no success at finding pharmaceutical therapeutics for altering progressive AD after diagnosis, research attention is increasingly directed at discovering biological and other markers that detect AD risk in the long asymptomatic phase. Both early detection and precision preclinical intervention require systematic investigation of multiple modalities and combinations of AD-related biomarkers and risk factors...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Joanna Plewko, Katarzyna Chyl, Łukasz Bola, Magdalena Łuniewska, Agnieszka Dębska, Anna Banaszkiewicz, Marek Wypych, Artur Marchewka, Nienke van Atteveldt, Katarzyna Jednoróg
In alphabetic scripts, learning letter-sound (LS) association (i.e., letter knowledge) is a strong predictor of later reading skills. LS integration is related to left superior temporal cortex (STC) activity and its disruption was previously observed in dyslexia (DYS). Whether disruption in LS association is a cause of reading impairment or a consequence of decreased exposure to print remains unclear. Using fMRI, we compared activation for letters, speech sounds and LS association in emerging readers with (FHD+, N = 50) and without (FHD-, N = 35) familial history of DYS, out of whom 17 developed DYS 2 years later...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Massimo Rugge, Robert M Genta, Matteo Fassan, Elisa Valentini, Irene Coati, Stefano Guzzinati, Edoardo Savarino, Manuel Zorzi, Fabio Farinati, Peter Malfertheiner
OBJECTIVES: Gastritis OLGA-staging ranks the risk for gastric cancer (GC) in progressive stages (0-IV). This long-term follow-up study quantifies the GC risk associated with each OLGA stage. METHODS: Consecutive patients (7436) underwent esophagogastroscopy (T-0), with mapped gastric biopsies, OLGA staging, and H. pylori status assessment. Patients with neoplastic lesion (invasive or non-invasive) at the index endoscopy (and/or within 12 months) were excluded. All patients were followed-up (T-1) by combining different sources of clinical/pathological information (Regional Registries of: (i) esophagogastroduodenoscopies; (ii) pathology reports; (iii) cancer, (iv) mortality)...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Sylvie Scharl, Christiane Barthel, Jean-Benoit Rossel, Luc Biedermann, Benjamin Misselwitz, Alain M Schoepfer, Alex Straumann, Stephan R Vavricka, Gerhard Rogler, Michael Scharl, Thomas Greuter
BACKGROUND: Malignancy may occur as long-term complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) due to different risk factors. We assessed prevalence and incidence of malignancy, and predictive factors in the Swiss IBD Cohort Study (SIBDCS). METHODS: All IBD patients in the SIBDCS were analyzed from a cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective. Patients with malignancies were compared to controls. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated based on age-specific and sex-specific background rates...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Liang Wang
Serial cervical length (CL) measurement in mid-trimester is recommended in post-conization pregnancy to estimate the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). A short mid-trimester cervix (CL < 25 mm) has been considered as a strong predictor for SPTB. However, the low incidence of short cervix limits the utility of mid-trimester CL measurement in prediction of SPTB. A great proportion of women who develop SPTB don't have a short mid-trimester cervix. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the additional value of serial CL measurement in predicting SPTB in addition to detecting short cervix alone...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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