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Arterial Elastance

Cem Ozisler, Hatice Kaplanoglu
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, and inflammation is highly associated with atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and arterial stiffness measurements are commonly used to detect subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to non-invasively demonstrate the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with pSS through these measurements, using ultrasound (US) radiofrequency (RF) data technology...
October 17, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Xunjie Yu, Raphaël Turcotte, Francesca Seta, Yanhang Zhang
Microstructural deformation of elastic lamellae plays important roles in maintaining arterial tissue homeostasis and regulating vascular smooth muscle cell fate. Our study unravels the underlying microstructural origin that enables elastic lamellar layers to evenly distribute the stresses through the arterial wall caused by intraluminal distending pressure, a fundamental requirement for tissue and cellular function. A new experimental approach was developed to quantify the spatial organization and unfolding of elastic lamellar layers under pressurization in mouse carotid arteries by coupling physiological extension-inflation and multiphoton imaging...
October 17, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Yulia N Grigorova, Wen Wei, Natalia Petrashevskaya, Valentina Zernetkina, Ondrej Juhasz, Rachel Fenner, Christian Gilbert, Edward G Lakatta, Joseph I Shapiro, Alexei Y Bagrov, Olga V Fedorova
High salt (HS) intake stimulates the production of marinobufagenin (MBG), an endogenous steroidal Na/K-ATPase ligand, which activates profibrotic signaling. HS is accompanied by a blood pressure (BP) increase in salt-sensitive hypertension, but not in normotensive animals. Here, we investigated whether HS stimulates MBG production and activates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) profibrotic signaling in young normotensive rats, and whether these changes can be reversed by reducing salt to a normal salt (NS) level...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Helen Triantafyllidi, Dimitris Benas, Stefanos Vlachos, Dimitris Vlastos, George Pavlidis, Antonios Schoinas, Mary Varoudi, Dionysia Birmpa, Paraskevi Moutsatsou, John Lekakis, Ignatios Ikonomidis
Endothelial dysfunction indicates target organ damage in hypertensive patients. The integrity of endothelial glycocalyx (EG) plays a vital role in vascular permeability, inflammation and elasticity, and finally to cardiovascular disease. The authors aimed to investigate the role of increased HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, which usually are considered protective against cardiovascular disease, in EG integrity in older hypertensive patients. The authors studied 120 treated hypertensive patients older than 50 years were divided regarding HDL-C tertiles in group HDLH (HDL-C ≥ 71 mg/dL, upper HDL-C tertile) and group HDLL (HDL-C < 71 mg/dL, two lower HDL-C tertiles)...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Sae-Il Murtada, Jay D Humphrey
Vasoconstriction and vasodilation play important roles in the circulatory system and can be regulated through different pathways that depend on myriad biomolecules. These different pathways reflect the various functions of smooth muscle cell (SMC) contractility within the different regions of the arterial tree and how they contribute to both the mechanics and the mechanobiology. Here, we review the primary regulatory pathways involved in SMC contractility and highlight their regional differences in elastic, muscular, and resistance arteries...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Marius Catalin Staiculescu, Austin Cocciolone, Jesse Procknow, Jungsil Kim, Jessica E Wagenseil
Elastic fibers provide reversible elasticity to the large arteries and are assembled during development when hemodynamic forces are increasing. Mutations in elastic fiber genes are associated with cardiovascular disease. Mice lacking expression of the elastic fiber genes elastin (Eln-/- ), fibulin-4 (Efemp2-/- ), or lysyl oxidase (Lox-/- ) die at birth with severe cardiovascular malformations. All three genetic knockout models have elastic fiber defects, aortic wall thickening, and arterial tortuosity. However, Eln-/- mice develop arterial stenoses, while Efemp2-/- and Lox-/- mice develop ascending aortic aneurysms...
October 12, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Sang-Eun Lee, Jinyong Lee, Tae-Hyun Yoo, In-Jeong Cho, Hyuk-Jae Chang
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffening is a major contributing factor in the development of cardiovascular disease in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, there is no gold standard for evaluating arterial stiffness. This study aimed to evaluate the newly developed speckle-tracking carotid strain imaging method in assessing arterial stiffness in patients with ESRD. METHODS: In total, 85 patients with normal renal function (controls) and 36 with ESRD were enrolled in this single-center study...
September 2018: Journal of cardiovascular imaging
A Korneva, L Zilberberg, D B Rifkin, J D Humphrey, C Bellini
Fibrillin-1 is an elastin-associated glycoprotein that contributes to the long-term fatigue resistance of elastic fibers as well as to the bioavailability of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) in arteries. Altered TGFβ bioavailability and/or signaling have been implicated in aneurysm development in Marfan syndrome (MFS), a multi-system condition resulting from mutations to the gene that encodes fibrillin-1. We recently showed that the absence of the latent transforming growth factor-beta binding protein-3 (LTBP-3) in fibrillin-1-deficient mice attenuates the fragmentation of elastic fibers and focal dilatations that are characteristic of aortic root aneurysms in MFS mice, at least to 12 weeks of age...
October 10, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Nicola Gaibazzi
There is a need to reassess the most appropriate indications for stress echocardiography in the current era, in patients with suspect or known coronary artery disease (CAD), and also the most helpful additional parameters that can be easily calculated in clinical practice to increase the known suboptimal sensitivity for obstructive CAD of this test. The current review tries to clarify what is and what should be the proper role for functional testing in general, but specifically regarding modern stress echocardiography in the current practice, for suspected CAD and/or atypical chest pain...
July 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Echography
S Magder
Measurement of arterial pressure is one of the most basic elements of patient management. Arterial pressure is determined by the volume ejected by the heart into the arteries, the elastance of the walls of the arteries, and the rate at which the blood flows out of the arteries. This review will discuss the three forces that determine the pressure in a vessel: elastic, kinetic, and gravitational energy. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of the distribution of arterial resistances, the elastance of the walls of the large vessels, and critical closing pressures in small arteries and arterioles...
October 11, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Kazuhiko Morikawa, Shinsuke Takenaga, Koichi Masuda, Asami Kano, Takao Igarashi, Hiroya Ojiri, Kaoru Ueda, Mamoru Ishiyama, Nei Fukasawa
BACKGROUND: A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor that occurs mostly in pleural sites, and an SFT occurring in the ischiorectal fossa is extremely rare. Because of the rarity, there are few reports detailing an SFT in the ischiorectal fossa. CASE PRESENTATION: A pararectal tumor was incidentally found in a 42-year-old man during a routine medical examination. The patient had no symptoms and no previous medical history. In the physical examination, a smooth-margined and hard elastic mass was felt, and in a digital rectal examination, the rectal mucosa appeared normal...
October 3, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
M Umar Qureshi, Mitchel J Colebank, L Mihaela Paun, Laura Ellwein Fix, Naomi Chesler, Mansoor A Haider, Nicholas A Hill, Dirk Husmeier, Mette S Olufsen
This study uses a one-dimensional fluid dynamics arterial network model to infer changes in hemodynamic quantities associated with pulmonary hypertension in mice. Data for this study include blood flow and pressure measurements from the main pulmonary artery for 7 control mice with normal pulmonary function and 5 mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Arterial dimensions for a 21-vessel network are extracted from micro-CT images of lungs from a representative control and hypertensive mouse. Each vessel is represented by its length and radius...
October 3, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Atsushi Sakaoka, Junko Souba, Serge D Rousselle, Takato Matsuda, Armando Tellez, Hitomi Hagiwara, Kasuke Nagano, Masako Tasaki
Nitinol stents are widely used for the treatment of peripheral arterial diseases in lower extremity arteries and have shown different clinical outcomes depending on implanted arterial segments. We aimed to compare histopathological responses to nitinol stents in femoral artery (FA) with those in femoropopliteal artery (FPA), which is markedly bended during knee flexion. A single nitinol stent was implanted in FA and FPA of 21 domestic swine. The stented vessels were angiographically assessed and then harvested for histopathology at 1 and 3 months after implantation...
October 3, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
Aili Qu, Dongmei Wang, Xiangsen Zeng, Qiu'gen Wang
BACKGROUND: The surrogate design and clinical diagnostic suggest that the pelvic dynamic response should be the basis of bone fracture mechanism study under side impact. Pelvic response indicators are the impact force, compression (C), viscous criterion (VC), bone stress, and bone strain. However, no evaluation of these indicators has been conducted. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pelvic response indicators under side impact. METHODS: A sitting pelvic finite element (FE) complex model comprising bone, artery, ligaments, and soft tissue was constructed...
2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Aaron M Zakrzewski, Athena Y Huang, Rebecca Zubajlo, Brian W Anthony
OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to create a blood pressure measurement device, which may provide a way to easily acquire frequent measurements. Common techniques to measure blood pressure include an arterial catheter, an oscillometric pressure cuff, or an auscultatory pressure cuff. METHODS: The approach takes as input ultrasound images of an artery and contact force between the ultrasound array and subject. A subject may perform the self-measurements. Image and force data is analyzed for its quality and used to provide guidance or reject poor measurements...
November 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Bendix Ketelsen, Mazlum Yesilmen, Hendrik Schlicke, Heshmat Noei, Chun-Hao Su, Ying-Chih Liao, Tobias Vossmeyer
In this study we developed a novel and efficient process for the fabrication of resistive strain gauges for healthcare related applications. First, 1,9-nonanedithiol (9DT) cross-linked gold nanoparticle (GNP) films were prepared via layer-by-layer (LbL) spin-coating and subsequently transferred onto flexible polyimide (PI) foil by contact printing. Four point bending tests revealed linear response characteristics with gauge factors of ~14 for 4 nm sized GNPs and ~26 for 7 nm sized GNPs. This dependency of strain sensitivity is attributed to the perturbation of charge carrier tunneling between neighboring GNPs, which becomes more efficient with increasing particle size...
October 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Francesca Collino, Francesca Rapetti, Francesco Vasques, Giorgia Maiolo, Tommaso Tonetti, Federica Romitti, Julia Niewenhuys, Tim Behnemann, Luigi Camporota, Günter Hahn, Verena Reupke, Karin Holke, Peter Herrmann, Eleonora Duscio, Francesco Cipulli, Onnen Moerer, John J Marini, Michael Quintel, Luciano Gattinoni
WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: BACKGROUND:: Positive end-expiratory pressure is usually considered protective against ventilation-induced lung injury by reducing atelectrauma and improving lung homogeneity. However, positive end-expiratory pressure, together with tidal volume, gas flow, and respiratory rate, contributes to the mechanical power required to ventilate the lung. This study aimed at investigating the effects of increasing mechanical power by selectively modifying its positive end-expiratory pressure component...
October 2, 2018: Anesthesiology
Ampadu-Okyere Jackson, Mugwaneza Annick Regine, Chakrabarti Subrata, Shiyin Long
Atherosclerosis (AS) manifested by lipid accumulation, extracellular matrix protein deposition, and calcification in the intima and media of the large to medium size arteries promoting arterial stiffness and reduction of elasticity. It has been accepted that AS leads to increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent studies indicated that genetic abnormalities play an important role in the development of AS. Specific genetic mutation and histone modification have been found to induce AS formation. Furthermore, specific RNAs such as microRNAs and circular RNAs have been identified to play a crucial role in the progression of AS...
December 2018: IJC Heart & Vasculature
Mark H Murdock, Jordan T Chang, Samuel K Luketich, Drake Pedersen, George S Hussey, Antonio D'Amore, Stephen F Badylak
OBJECTIVES: The present study compared physical, mechanical, and biologic characteristics of 4 clinically available surgical sealants for cardiovascular repair. METHODS: BioGlue (Cryolife Inc, Kennesaw, Ga), PreveLeak (Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, St Louis, Mo), Tridyne VS (BD, Franklin Lakes, NJ), and Coseal (Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Westlake Village, Calif) were compared for the following properties: hydrated swelling, cytocompatibility, burst strength, biaxial stretching (elasticity), and in vitro degradation...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Ioannis D Gavardinas, Athanasios Athanasoulas, Konstantinos Spanos, Athanasios D Giannoukas, Antonios E Giannakopoulos
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is one of the approaches available for the treatment of carotid artery disease, with carotid patch angioplasty the pertinent technique mostly preferred by vascular surgeons. This technique entails an arteriotomy succeeded by closure with a textile, polymer or biological tissue patch. In this work, we propose microbuckling and microindentation as novel methodologies for acquiring the mechanical properties of patches used in carotid artery repair. Regarding microbuckling, the patch is loaded by a sensitive dynamometer at one end and its motion is recorded, at three different levels of axial deformation: δ/ℓ = 0...
December 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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