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Susan M Wcislak, William S King, Benjamin R Waller, Natasha Goins, Paxton V Dickson
BACKGROUND: Multifocal pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma presenting at an early age is commonly associated with a hereditary syndrome. CASE REPORT: A 29-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of multifocal pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. Interestingly, her family history did not include pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, and comprehensive genetic testing for the well-documented pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma susceptibility genes was negative. Of note, this patient had a history of a complex cardiac defect resulting in cyanotic congenital heart disease and had never undergone operative repair...
October 16, 2018: Surgery
Chance M Witt, Sean Dalton, Samuel O'Neil, Charles A Ritrivi, Rich Sanders, Arjun Sharma, Greg Seifert, Steve Berhow, Doug Beinborn, Allan Witz, Trevor McCaw, Christopher G Scott, Deepak Padmanabhan, Ammar M Killu, Niyada Naksuk, Samuel J Asirvatham, Paul A Friedman
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine if epicardial cooling could repeatedly terminate induced atrial fibrillation (AF) in a canine heart. BACKGROUND: Rapid termination of AF could control symptoms and prevent atrial remodeling; however, defibrillation by internal electrical cardioversion is not tolerable to most patients. Cooling of the epicardium slows atrial conduction and may provide a less painful method to quickly terminate AF. METHODS: AF was induced with atrial myocardial epinephrine injections and rapid atrial pacing in an open-chest canine...
October 2018: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
Samaah Sullivan, Heval M Kelli, Muhammad Hammadah, Matthew Topel, Kobina Wilmot, Ronnie Ramadan, Brad D Pearce, Amit Shah, Bruno B Lima, Jeong Hwan Kim, Shakia Hardy, Oleksiy Levantsevych, Malik Obideen, Belal Kaseer, Laura Ward, Michael Kutner, Allison Hankus, Yi-An Ko, Michael R Kramer, Tené T Lewis, J Douglas Bremner, Arshed Quyyumi, Viola Vaccarino
Living in neighborhoods characterized by poverty may act as a chronic stressor that results in physiological dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system. No previous study has assessed neighborhood poverty with hemodynamic, neuroendocrine, and immune reactivity to stress. We used data from 632 patients with coronary artery disease. Patients' residential addresses were geocoded and merged with poverty data from the 2010 American Community Survey at the census-tract level. A z-transformation was calculated to classify census tracts (neighborhoods) as either having 'high' or 'low' poverty...
October 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Chunghee Joo, Joo-Won Min, Giyong Noh, Jaeho Seo
INTRODUCTION: Aortic dissection is a very rare but life-threatening condition associated with a high mortality. Unexpected sudden cardiac death due to aortic rupture following laparoscopic appendectomy is very rare and may be difficult to diagnose. However, early diagnosis of aortic dissection is essential for the timely treatment and outcome of aortic dissection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old man underwent a laparoscopic appendectomy. Postoperatively, the patient complained of dyspnea and chest pain...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Youngmo Kim, Youngcheol Park, Yongbum Joo, Seon Young Kim, Jimyung Kim
INTRODUCTION: While it is suggested that platelet hyperreactivity plays a role in the arterial thrombi, its link with venous thromboembolism (VTE) is not well defined. Aggregometry using low concentrations of agonists is proposed as a reliable method to detect hyperreactivity. The aim of this study was to examine whether platelet hyperreactivity affects the development of VTE after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: Total 150 elderly patients without VTE history were enrolled...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Matthieu Masureel, Yaozhong Zou, Louis-Philippe Picard, Emma van der Westhuizen, Jacob P Mahoney, João P G L M Rodrigues, Thomas J Mildorf, Ron O Dror, David E Shaw, Michel Bouvier, Els Pardon, Jan Steyaert, Roger K Sunahara, William I Weis, Cheng Zhang, Brian K Kobilka
Salmeterol is a partial agonist for the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2 AR) and the first long-acting β2 AR agonist to be widely used clinically for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Salmeterol's safety and mechanism of action have both been controversial. To understand its unusual pharmacological action and partial agonism, we obtained the crystal structure of salmeterol-bound β2 AR in complex with an active-state-stabilizing nanobody. The structure reveals the location of the salmeterol exosite, where sequence differences between β1 AR and β2 AR explain the high receptor-subtype selectivity...
November 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Elisabeth Jeanclos, Monique Albersen, Rúben J J Ramos, Annette Raab, Christian Wilhelm, Leif Hommers, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Nanda M Verhoeven-Duif, Antje Gohla
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is an essential cofactor in the catalysis of ~140 different enzymatic reactions. A pharmacological elevation of cellular PLP concentrations is of interest in neuropsychiatric diseases, but whole-body consequences of higher intracellular PLP levels are unknown. To address this question, we have generated mice allowing a conditional ablation of the PLP phosphatase PDXP. Ubiquitous PDXP deletion increased PLP levels in brain, skeletal muscle and red blood cells up to 3-fold compared to control mice, demonstrating that PDXP acts as a major regulator of cellular PLP concentrations in vivo...
August 16, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Ousama Rachid, Keith J Simons, Mutasem Rawas-Qalaji
In community settings, IM injection of 0.3 mg epinephrine (Epi) using an auto-injector is the drug of choice for treatment of anaphylaxis. Previously, a taste-masking (TM) formulation of fast-disintegrating sublingual tablets (FDSTs) was developed in our lab. Also, Epi was micronized (Epi-MC) successfully and reduced the previously achieved bioequivalent sublingual Epi dose to 0.3 mg IM injection by half using non-taste-masked fast-disintegrating sublingual tablets (TM-FDSTs). Our objective for this study was to evaluate the sublingual absorption of Epi-MC using TM-FDST...
October 15, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Patrick Ifesinachi Emelife, Matthew R Eng, Bethany L Menard, Andrew S Myers, Elyse M Cornett, Richard D Urman, Alan D Kaye
Regional and neuraxial anesthesia can provide a safer perioperative experience, greater satisfaction, reduced opioid consumption, and reduction of pain, while minimizing side effects. Ultrasound technology has aided clinicians in depositing local anesthetic medication in precise proximity to targeted peripheral nerves. There are a plethora of adjuvants that have been utilized to prolong local anesthetic actions and enhance effects in peripheral nerve blocks. This manuscript describes the current state of the use of adjuncts, e...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
Zhenhua Li, Wei Yuan, Jie Li, Jiebin Li, Junyuan Wu, Yongzhen Zhao, Chunsheng Li
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify whether esmolol attenuates cerebral cortex microcirculation blood flow due to epinephrine in prolonged ventricular fibrillation (VF) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and may improve neurological prognosis. METHODS: Male pigs were randomized into the esmolol+epinephrine group (group EE), the epinephrine group (group EP), and the normal saline group (group NS) (n = 8 each group). Untreated VF for 8 minutes was induced in pigs...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Bangxin Lan, Wei Liu, Ya-Chao Wang, Junhui Shi, Yang Li, Song Xu, Huaxin Sheng, Qifa Zhou, Jun Zou, Ulrike Hoffmann, Wei Yang, Junjie Yao
Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) has become a popular tool in small-animal hemodynamic studies. However, previous OR-PAM techniques variously lacked a high imaging speed and/or a large field of view, impeding the study of highly dynamic physiologic and pathophysiologic processes over a large region of interest. Here we report a high-speed OR-PAM system with an ultra-wide field of view, enabled by an innovative water-immersible hexagon-mirror scanner. By driving the hexagon-mirror scanner with a high-precision DC motor, the new OR-PAM has achieved a cross-sectional frame rate of 900 Hz over a 12-mm scanning range, which is 3900 times faster than our previous motor-scanner-based system and 10 times faster than the MEMS-scanner-based system...
October 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Leeseon Kim, Yeni Lim, Soo-Yeon Park, You Jin Kim, Oran Kwon, Jin Hee Lee, Jae-Ho Shin, Yoon Kyoung Yang, Ji Yeon Kim
In this study, garlic powder, tomato extract and a mixture of both were analyzed for anti-thrombotic effects using a collagen and epinephrine induced thrombosis model. Rats were randomly assigned to control, thrombosis induced control (COL/EP), garlic powder (G), tomato extract (T) and mixture of garlic powder and tomato extract (GT) groups. Test materials were administered for 7 days and thrombosis was induced by collagen and epinephrine injection. The results showed that G, T, and GT delayed activated partial thromboplastin time and reduced the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Pietro Minuz, Alessandra Meneguzzi, Laura Fumagalli, Maurizio Degan, Stefano Calabria, Roberta Ferraro, Marco Ricci, Dino Veneri, Giorgio Berton
The thromboxane (TX) A2 elicits TP-dependent different platelet responses. Low amounts activate Src kinases and the Rho-Rho kinase pathway independently of integrin αIIb β3 and ADP secretion and synergize with epinephrine to induce aggregation. Aim of the present study was to investigate the role Src kinases and the interplay with calcium signals in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the activatory pathways engaged by TXA2 in human platelets. All the experiments were performed in vitro or ex vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ana Oliveira, Raquel Martinho, Paula Serrão, Mónica Moreira-Rodrigues
Epinephrine (EPI) strengthens contextual fear memories by acting on peripheral β2 -adrenoceptors. Phenylethanolamine- N -methyltransferase-knockout (Pnmt-KO) mice are EPI-deficient mice and have reduced contextual fear learning. Our aim was to evaluate the molecular mechanisms by which peripheral EPI strengthens contextual fear memory and if a β2 -adrenoceptor antagonist can erase contextual fear memories. Pnmt-KO and wild-type (WT) mice were submitted to fear conditioning (FC) procedure after treatment with EPI, norepinephrine (NE), EPI plus ICI 118,551 (selective β2 -adrenoceptor antagonist), ICI 118,551 or vehicle (NaCl 0...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Kun Tian, Emyr Bakker, Michelle Hussain, Alice Guazzelli, Hasen Alhebshi, Parisa Meysami, Constantinos Demonacos, Jean-Marc Schwartz, Luciano Mutti, Marija Krstic-Demonacos
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an orphan disease that is difficult to treat using traditional chemotherapy, an approach which has been effective in other types of cancer. Most chemotherapeutics cause DNA damage leading to cell death. Recent discoveries have highlighted a potential role for the p53 tumor suppressor in this disease. Given the pivotal role of p53 in the DNA damage response, here we investigated the predictive power of the p53 interactome model for MPM patients' stratification...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Spyridon Karkabounas, Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Chryssa Anastasiadou, Chrysoula Gubili, Dimitrios Peschos, Telemachos Daskalou, Nikolaos Fikioris, Yannis V Simos, Evangelos Kontargiris, Xenophon Gianakopoulos, Vasilios Ragos, Maria Chatzidimitriou
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is evolving to an epidemic of the modern world. T2DM is associated with a number of pathological complications, including cardiovascular disease that is mostly promoted by the increased oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients. We performed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of an individualized oral supplementation with α-lipoic acid (ALA), carnosine, and thiamine. For that purpose, 82 obese type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups, and were either supplemented daily with 7 mg ALA/kg body weight, 6 mg carnosine/kg body weight, and 1 mg thiamine/kg body weight or placebo for 8 weeks...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Olga A Sindeeva, Olga I Gusliakova, Olga Inozemtseva, Arkady S Abdurashitov, Ekaterina P Brodovskaya, Meiyu Gai, Valery V Tuchin, Dmitry A Gorin, Gleb B Sukhorukov
This paper presents the synthesis of highly biocompatible and biodegradable poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) microchamber arrays sensitive to low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (1 MHz, 1-2W, 1 min). A reliable method was elaborated that allowed the microchambers to be uniformly filled with epinephrine hydrochloride (EH), with the possibility of varying the cargo amount. The maximum load of EH was 4.5 μg per array of 5 mm x 5 mm (about 24 pg of EH per single microchamber). A gradual, spontaneous drug release was observed to start on the first day, which is especially important in the treatment of acute patients...
October 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lianne Soller, Timothy Teoh, Ingrid Baerg, Tiffany Wong, Kyla J Hildebrand, Victoria E Cook, Catherine M Biggs, Nicole Lee, Lindsay Yaworski, Scott B Cameron, Edmond S Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Jiamin Zheng, Rupasri Mandal, David S Wishart
A robust, sensitive, high-throughput method for the detection and quantification of catecholamines in serum, including dopamine, 5-methoxytryptamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine (PEA), epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), metanephrine (MN), and normetanephrine (NMN) is described. It is based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a positive scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Key to the success of the method is the inclusion of an amine derivatization step, using phenylisothiocyanate (PITC), prior to liquid chromatographic separation of the targeted analytes on a C18 reversed-phase column...
December 11, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Itay Ricon, Tsipi Hanalis-Miller, Rita Haldar, Rebecca Jacoby, Shamgar Ben-Eliyahu
Evidence suggests that excess perioperative activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the consequent release of catecholamines (ie, epinephrine and norepinephrine) in the context of cancer surgery and inflammation may significantly facilitate prometastatic processes. This review first presents biomedical processes that make the perioperative timeframe pivotal in determining long-term cancer outcomes nonproportionally to its short duration (days to weeks). Then, it analyzes the various mechanisms via which the excess release of catecholamines can facilitate the progression of cancer metastases in this context by directly affecting the malignant tissues and by regulating, via indirect pathways, immunological and other mechanisms that affect metastatic progression in the tumor microenvironment and systemically...
October 6, 2018: Cancer
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