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Gram Negatives

Princy Vijayababu, Gopinath Samykannu, Christian Bharathi Antonyraj, SundaraBaalaji Narayanan, Syed Ibrahim Basheer Ahamed, Perumal Perumal, Shanmughavel Piramanayagam
Typhoid fever is a severe illness in humans, caused by Salmonella typhi, a Gram-negative bacterium. Membrane proteins of S. typhi have strong potential for its use in development of subunit vaccine against typhoid. In current study, peptide-based subunit vaccine constructed from AI-2 import ATP-binding cassette transporter protein (LsrA) against S. typhi. B-cell and T-cell epitopes were identified at fold level with validated 3-D theoretical modelled structure. T-cell epitope from LsrA (LELPGSRPQ) has binds to maximum number (82...
August 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mateusz Pallach, Flaviana Di Lorenzo, Fabio Alessandro Facchini, Djamel Gully, Eric Giraud, Francesco Peri, Katarzyna A Duda, Antonio Molinaro, Alba Silipo
Acetobacter pasteurianus is an acetic acid-producing Gram-negative bacterium commonly found associated with plants and plant products and widely used in the production of fermented foods, such as kefir and vinegar. Due to the acid conditions of the bacterium living habitat, uncommon structural features composing its cell envelope are expected. In the present work we have investigated the A. pasteurianus CIP103108 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure and immunoactivity. The structure of the lipid A and of two different O-polysaccharides was assessed...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Elliot E Erskine, Cait E MacPhee, Nicola R Stanley-Wall
Biofilms are ubiquitous in the natural and man-made environment. They are defined as microbes that are encapsulated in an extracellular, self-produced, biofilm matrix. Growing evidence from the genetic and biochemical analysis of single species biofilms has linked the presence of fibrous proteins to a functional biofilm matrix. Some of these fibres have been described as functional amyloid or amyloid-like fibres. Here we provide an overview of the biophysical and biological data for a wide range of protein fibres found in the biofilm matrix of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Sherwin K B Sy, Luning Zhuang, Serubbabel Sy, Hartmut Derendorf
Avibactam is a non-β-lactam, β-lactamase inhibitor of the diazabicyclooctane class that covalently acylates its β-lactamase targets, encompassing extended spectrum of activities that cover serine β-lactamases but not metallo-β-lactamases. Ceftazidime and avibactam have complementary pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles. Both drugs have a half-life of approximately 2 h, making them suitable to be combined in a fixed-dose combination ratio of 4:1 (ceftazidime:avibactam). Renal clearance is the primary elimination pathway of both ceftazidime and avibactam, and dose adjustment is required in patients with moderate and severe renal impairment...
August 11, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Alessandra di Masi, Loris Leboffe, Valerio Del Bono, Marianna Rossi, Dario Cappiello, Erika Coppo, Anna Marchese, Annarita Casulli, Alessio Signori, Andrea Novelli, Katja Perrone, Luigi Principe, Alessandra Bandera, Luca Enrico Vender, Andrea Misin, Pierpaolo Occhilupo, Marcello Melone, Paolo Ascenzi, Andrea Gori, Roberto Luzzati, Claudio Viscoli, Stefano Di Bella
This study aimed to assess the predictors of acute kidney injury (AKI) during colistin therapy in a cohort of patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) due to colistin-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria, focusing on the role of serum albumin levels. The study consisted of two parts: (1) a multicentre retrospective clinical study to assess the predictors of AKI during colistin therapy, defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria; and (2) bioinformatic and biochemical characterization of the possible interaction between human serum albumin and colistin...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paul R Meers, Carol Liu, Rensa Chen, William Bartos, Julianne Davis, Nicole Dziedzic, Jason Orciuolo, Szymon Kutyla, Maria Jose Pozo, Deepti Mithrananda, Dominick Panzera, Shu Wang
Lysobacter enzymogenes C3 is a predatory strain of gram-negative gliding bacteria that produces antifungal antibiotics by the polyketide synthetic pathway. Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are formed as a stress response and can deliver virulence factors to host cells. The production of OMV by C3 and their role in antifungal activity are reported here. Vesicles in the range of 130-150 nm in diameter were discovered in the cell-free supernatants of C3 cultures. These OMV contain molecules characteristic of bacterial outer membranes, such as lipopolysaccharide and phospholipids...
August 10, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ying-Chi Huang, Ping-Feng Wu, Yi-Tsung Lin, Fu-Der Wang
BACKGROUND: Acquired carbapenem resistance among non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB), such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex (ACB complex), is a serious problem in nosocomial infections. We previously reported that patients infected with the intrinsically carbapenem-resistant Elizabethkingia meningoseptica were associated with high mortality. However, little information is available regarding the clinical outcome of E. meningoseptica bacteremia when compared to that of other carbapenem-resistant NFGNB...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Philip T Cherian, Martin N Cheramie, Ravi K R Marreddy, Dinesh M Fernando, Julian G Hurdle, Richard E Lee
β-Lactams are the most important class of antibiotics, for which the emergence of resistance threatens their utility. As such, we explored the extent to which the tetramic acid motif, frequently found in naturally occurring antibiotics, can be used to generate novel β-lactam antibiotics with improved antibacterial activity. We synthesized new ampicillin - tetramic acid, cephalosporin - tetramic acid, and cephamycin - tetramic acid analogs and evaluated their activities against problematic Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens...
July 17, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
M Thwaites, D Hall, A Stoneburner, D Shinabarger, A W Serio, K M Krause, A Marra, C Pillar
Plazomicin is a next-generation aminoglycoside that was approved by the US FDA in June 2018 for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), including pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus mirabilis. Plazomicin is active against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae, where combination therapy is often used to treat infections caused by these pathogens. To determine synergy with other antibiotics, plazomicin was combined with antibiotics in checkerboard assays against MDR Enterobacteriaceae, including isolates with resistance to aminoglycosides and β-lactams; 10 Escherichia coli isolates, 8 Klebsiella spp...
July 11, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Shi-Qi An, Ji-Liang Tang
OBJECTIVE: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative bacterium commonly isolated from nosocomial infections. Analysis of the genome of the clinical S. maltophilia isolate K279a indicates that it encodes a diffusible signal factor (DSF)-dependent cell-cell signaling mechanism that is highly similar to the system previously described in phytopathogens from the genera Xanthomonas and Xylella. Our objective was to study the function of DSF signaling in the clinical strain S. maltophilia K279a using genetic and functional genomic analyses...
August 10, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Shalv Amit Parekh, Rebecca Nicole David, Kranthi K R Bannuru, Lakshminarasimhan Krishnaswamy, Avinash Baji
The scarcity of drinking water and the contamination of water sources in underdeveloped countries are serious problems that require immediate low-tech and low-cost solutions. In this study, we fabricated polyacrylonitrile (PAN) porous membranes coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and demonstrated their use for water filtration and water treatment applications. The membranes were prepared by electrospinning a PAN solution and treating in a hydroxylamine (NH₂OH) aqueous solution to form ⁻C(NH₂)N⁻OH groups that were used for functionalization (Ag⁺ ions) of the membrane...
August 8, 2018: Membranes
Ajay Jose, K R Sunaja Devi, Dephan Pinheiro, S Lakshmi Narayana
The effect of surfactant and dopant on the properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles were studied by preparing polyethylene glycol (PEG) capped ZnO and tungsten doped PEG capped ZnO nanoparticles via the electrochemical method. These nanoparticles were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy (UV-DRS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Dispersive Analysis of X Rays (EDAX). The photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye using these nanoparticles was studied under visible light...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
P Puerta-Alcalde, Cardozo C, M Suárez-Lledó, O Rodríguez-Núñez, L Morata, C Fehér, F Marco, A Del Río, J A Martínez, J Mensa, M Rovira, J Esteve, A Soriano, C Garcia-Vidal
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the current time to positivity (TTP) of blood cultures in onco-hematological patients with febrile neutropenia. We assessed the probability of having multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) bloodstream infection (BSI) 24h after cultures were taken, to use this information for antibiotic de-escalation strategies. METHODS: BSI episodes were prospectively collected (2003-2017). When a patient experienced more than one BSI, only one episode was randomly chosen...
August 7, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Zhan Gao, Baozhen Qu, Lan Yao, Zengyu Ma, Pengfei Cui, Shicui Zhang
Midkine (MK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are the only two members of heparin-binding growth factor family. MK/PTN homologues found from Drosophila to humans are shown to have antibacterial activities and their antibacterial domains are conserved during evolution. However, little is known about MK/PTN homologue in the basal chordate amphioxus, and overall, information regarding MK/PTN homologues is rather limited in invertebrates. In this study, we identified a single MK/PTN homologue in Branchiostoma japonicum, termed BjMiple, which has a novel domain structure of PTN-PTNr1-PTNr2, and represents the ancestral form of vertebrate MK/PTN family proteins...
August 7, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Arpit Bhargava, Vikram Pareek, Subhasree Roy Choudhury, Jitendra Panwar, Surajit Karmakar
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium is a notorious pathogen causing chronic infections. Its ability to form antibiotic resistant biofilm has raised the need for the development of alternative treatment approaches. An ideal alternate can be silver nanoparticles known for their strong yet tuneable bactericidal activity. However, their use in the commercial in vivo medicine could not see the light of the day because of the unwanted toxicity of silver in the host cells at higher concentrations...
August 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Heather Green, Andrew M Jones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review examines the current literature around 'emerging' Gram-negative bacteria other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF), paying particular focus on the recent literature for those that are more frequently encountered: Pandoraea, Achromobacter, Ralstonia and Stenotrophomonas species. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent literature is evolving our understanding of the clinical consequences of infection with an 'emerging' Gram-negative bacteria in CF...
August 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Hamed Hasssanzadeh, Mohammad Alizadeh, Mahmoud Rezazad Bari
Despite the unique properties, application of garlic essential oil (GEO) is too limited in food and drugs, due to its low water solubility, very high volatility and unpleasant odour. In this work, a nanoemulsion containing GEO was formulated to cover and protect the volatile compounds of GEO. The encapsulation efficiency of formulated nanoemulsions was measured by gas chromatography and obtained encapsulation efficiency ranged from 91 to 77% for nanoemulsions containing 5-25% GEO, respectively. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method for antioxidant activity measurement showed that free radical scavenging capacity of nanoemulsions intensified during storage time...
August 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Qian Liu, Maripat Xamxidin, Cong Sun, Hong Cheng, Fan-Xu Meng, Yue-Hong Wu, Chun-Sheng Wang, Xue-Wei Xu
A Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated NH169-3T , was isolated from a surface seawater sample of the South China Sea and subjected to a taxonomic polyphasic investigation. Strain NH169-3T was strictly aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped. The colony was 1.0-2.0 mm in diameter after the growth on marine agar at 30 °C for 72 h. The centre of the colony was smooth, circular, convex and brown with a transparent periphery. Strain NH169-3T was able to grow at temperatures between 4-40 °C (optimum, 37 °C), pH 5...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Stanislava Králová, Pavel Švec, Hans-Jürgen Busse, Eva Staňková, Peter Váczi, Ivo Sedláček
A group of rod-shaped, aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, gliding bacteria producing flexirubin-type pigment was isolated from environmental samples collected in Antarctica in 2009-2014. Phylogenetic analysis of the almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed two separated branches belonging to the genus Flavobacterium. Group I (n=8), represented by strain CCM 8826T , shared the highest sequence similarity to Flavobacterium collinsii 983-08T (98.8 %) and Flavobacterium saccharophilum DSM 1811T (98.4 %), and group II (n=4) represented by strain CCM 8827T shared the highest similarity to Flavobacterium aquidurense WB 1...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Jessica Nina Büttner, Marianne Schneider, Jaqueline Csokai, Elisabeth Müller, Johanna Corinna Eule
OBJECTIVES: To describe the bacterial and fungal microbiota of the conjunctiva and factors influencing these microbiota of healthy cats. To evaluate the antimicrobial resistance profile and discuss the use of appropriate antimicrobial drugs. ANIMALS STUDIED: One hundred and twenty healthy cats PROCEDURES: Conjunctival samples with dry or premoistened swabs were obtained from both eyes and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi. In vitro bacterial, susceptibility testing was performed...
August 10, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
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