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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516629/routine-diagnostic-tests-for-periprosthetic-joint-infection-demonstrate-a-high-false-negative-rate-and-are-influenced-by-the-infecting-organism
#1
Michael M Kheir, Timothy L Tan, Noam Shohat, Carol Foltz, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as the first-line testing for evaluation of suspected periprosthetic joint infection, in addition to synovial white blood-cell (WBC) count and polymorphonuclear percentage. However, the sensitivity and other diagnostic measures of these tests using a standardized definition of periprosthetic joint infection and the influence of organisms on these inflammatory markers remain inadequately investigated...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516594/etiology-of-childhood-otorrhea-in-luanda-angola-and-a-review-of-otitis-media-in-african-children
#2
Mariia Karppinen, Luis Bernardino, Elizabete Dos Anjos, Anu Pätäri-Sampo, Anne Pitkäranta, Heikki Peltola, Tuula Pelkonen
BACKGROUND: In resource-poor settings, otorrhea causes a significant burden of disease in children. Etiologic studies and structured data on otorrhea and chronic otitis media among African children remain scarce. METHODS: Here, we reviewed 678 bacteriologically analyzed otorrhea samples from Luanda Children's Hospital from children ≤15 years of age between 2008 and 2015. We then compared these to data from other studies among African children through a literature review of 20 papers published over two decades...
December 3, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516460/leucothrix-arctica-sp-nov-isolated-from-arctic-seawater
#3
Kiwoon Baek, Ahyoung Choi, Yung Mi Lee, Hong Kum Lee, Jang-Cheon Cho
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from a coastal seawater sample from the Arctic Circle and designated strain IMCC9719T . On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, it was shown that strain IMCC9719T belonged to the genus Leucothrix and was closely related to the type strains of Leucothrix pacifica (97.6 % similarity) and Leucothrix mucor (95.1 %), while the strain shared <90.6 % sequence similarity with other bacterial species...
December 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516459/hyphobacterium-indicum-sp-nov-isolated-from-deep-seawater-and-emended-description-of-the-genus-hyphobacterium
#4
Chu-Jin Ruan, Xiao-Wei Zheng, Jian Wang, Lei Song, Ya-Xin Zhu, Wen-Bin Du, Zu-Jun Lu, Ying Huang, Li Huang, Xin Dai
A novel aerobic, Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated strain 2ED5T , was isolated from a deep seawater sample in the north-west Indian Ocean. Cells of the strain were oval- to rod-shaped, and motile by a polar flagellum or sessile by a prostheca. The strain formed creamy white colonies on 2216E marine agar plates. It grew at 10-40 °C (optimum 28 °C) and pH 5.0-8.0 (optimum pH 6.0-7.0). The strain required 1-6 % (w/v) NaCl for growth and grew optimally in the presence of 2-3 % NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain 2ED5T was affiliated with the genus Hyphobacterium in the family Hyphomonadaceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria, sharing 95...
December 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515635/synthesis-sar-and-in-vitro-therapeutic-potentials-of-thiazolidine-2-4-diones
#5
Sucheta, Sumit Tahlan, Prabhakar Kumar Verma
BACKGROUND: Thiazolidinedione is a pentacyclic moiety having five membered unsaturated ring system composed with carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur molecules at 1 and 3 position of the thiazole ring and widely found throughout nature in various form. They favourably alter concentration of the hormones secreted by adipocytes, particularly adiponectin. They also increase total body fat and have mixed effects on circulating lipids. Thiazolidinedione nucleus is present in numerous biological moieties and has different pharmacological activities likes, e...
December 4, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515632/susceptibility-of-99m-tc-ciprofloxacin-for-common-infection-causing-bacterial-strains-isolated-from-clinical-samples-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#6
Syed Ali Raza Naqvi, Samina Roohi, Hassina Sabir, Sohail Anjum Shahzad, Aysha Aziz, Rashid Rasheed
99m Tc-ciprofloxacin scintigraphy is useful in the detection of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections and also for differentiating the infection from aseptic inflammation. However, due to growing bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the 99m Tc-ciprofloxacin no longer can be effective in broad-spectrum infection imaging as it is gradually losing specificity. In this study, we are presenting our findings regarding the in vitro and in vivo susceptibility of 99m Tc-ciprofloxacin for multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aurous, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains which were isolated from clinical samples...
December 5, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515393/purification-and-characterization-of-glutathione-binding-protein-gsib-from-escherichia-coli
#7
Zhongshan Wang, Xiaokun Xia, Meixian Zhang, Jiawei Fang, Yanqiang Li, Meng Zhang
Objectives: To purify and characterize the glutathione binding protein GsiB of glutathione importer (GSI) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) . Results: The coding sequence of GsiB was cloned from E. coli MG1655 and expressed in BL21(DE3). GsiB protein was expressed and purified to homogeneity using Ni-affinity and gel filtration chromatography. SDS-PAGE of purified GsiB showed a single protein band of molecular mass 56 kDa, while native gel showed two bands around 56 kDa and 110 kDa...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515224/isolation-of-helicobacter-pylori-from-gastric-biopsy-of-dyspeptic-patients-in-ghana-and-in-vitro-preliminary-assessment-of-the-effect-of-dissotis-rotundifolia-extract-on-its-growth
#8
Michael Buenor Adinortey, Charles Ansah, Cynthia Ayefoumi Adinortey, Ansumana Sandy Bockarie, Martin Tangnaa Morna, Damian H Amewowor
Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is a gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach. Infection with this microaerophilic bacterium causes gastric and duodenal ulcer. This study sought to isolate H. pylori , from gastric biopsy samples of dyspeptic patients in Ghana using a 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) dye incorporated medium method. This TTC dye method was further used in an antimicrobial susceptibility assay involving Dissotis rotundifolia extract (DRE). H. pylori were successfully isolated from gastric biopsy of dyspeptic patients...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515145/colistin-induces-s-aureus-susceptibility-to-bacitracin
#9
Wei Si, Liangliang Wang, Valentine Usongo, Xin Zhao
Bacitracin has been used in topical preparations with polymyxin B for bacterial infections. Colistin belongs to the polymyxin group of antibiotics and is effective against most Gram-negative bacilli. This study investigated whether colistin could affect the susceptibility of S. aureus to bacitracin. S. aureus isolates were first incubated with colistin and the susceptibility of S. aureus to bacitracin was increased. The effect of the combination of colistin and bacitracin on S. aureus was then confirmed by the checkerboard assay and the time-kill kinetics...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515098/a-review-on-the-synthesis-and-bioactivity-aspects-of-beauvericin-a-fusarium-mycotoxin
#10
REVIEW
Qinghua Wu, Jiri Patocka, Eugenie Nepovimova, Kamil Kuca
Beauvericin (BEA) is an emerging Fusarium mycotoxin that contaminates food and feeds globally. BEA biosynthesis is rapidly catalyzed by BEA synthetase through a nonribosomal, thiol-templated mechanism. This mycotoxin has cytotoxicity and is capable of increasing oxidative stress to induce cell apoptosis. Recently, large evidence further shows that this mycotoxin has a variety of biological activities and is being considered a potential candidate for medicinal and pesticide research. It is noteworthy that BEA is a potential anticancer agent since it can increase the intracellular Ca2+ levels and induce the cancer cell death through oxidative stress and apoptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514785/microbiota-and-pathogen-proteases-modulate-type-iii-secretion-activity-in-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli
#11
Elizabeth A Cameron, Meredith M Curtis, Aman Kumar, Gary M Dunny, Vanessa Sperandio
Enteric pathogens have complex interactions with the gut microbiota. Most of what is known about them has focused on microbiota-derived metabolites or small molecules that serve as nutrients and/or signals to aid in growth or transcriptionally regulate virulence gene expression. A common virulence strategy is to express a type III secretion system (T3SS), which is a molecular syringe deployed by many Gram-negative pathogens to hijack host cell function. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) requires its T3SS to colonize the intestinal tract and cause disease...
December 4, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514355/-candidatus-neoehrlichia-mikurensis-in-ixodes-ricinus-ticks-collected-near-the-arctic-circle-in-norway
#12
Clarinda Larsson, Dag Hvidsten, Snorre Stuen, Anna J Henningsson, Peter Wilhelmsson
BACKGROUND: "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" is a gram-negative bacterium belonging to the family Anaplasmataceae that, in Europe, is transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks. "Candidatus N. mikurensis" can cause a severe systemic inflammatory syndrome, neoehrlichiosis, mostly in persons with other underlying diseases. To date, "Ca. N. mikurensis" has been found in ticks in different countries in Asia and Europe, but never as far north as at the Arctic Circle...
December 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514001/inorganic-salts-and-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-mechanistic-conundrums
#13
REVIEW
Michael R Hamblin, Heidi Abrahamse
We have recently discovered that the photodynamic action of many different photosensitizers (PSs) can be dramatically potentiated by addition of a solution containing a range of different inorganic salts. Most of these studies have centered around antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation that kills Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in suspension. Addition of non-toxic water-soluble salts during illumination can kill up to six additional logs of bacterial cells (one million-fold improvement). The PSs investigated range from those that undergo mainly Type I photochemical mechanisms (electron transfer to produce superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals), such as phenothiazinium dyes, fullerenes, and titanium dioxide, to those that are mainly Type II (energy transfer to produce singlet oxygen), such as porphyrins, and Rose Bengal...
December 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513802/the-modes-of-action-of-martx-toxin-effector-domains
#14
REVIEW
Byoung Sik Kim
Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens directly deliver numerous effector proteins from the bacterium to the host cell, thereby altering the target cell physiology. The already well-characterized effector delivery systems are type III, type IV, and type VI secretion systems. Multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins are another effector delivery platform employed by some genera of Gram-negative bacteria. These single polypeptide exotoxins possess up to five effector domains in a modular fashion in their central regions...
December 2, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513780/epigallocatechin-gallate-remodelling-of-hfq-amyloid-like-region-affects-escherichia-coli-survival
#15
David Partouche, Florian Turbant, Omar El Hamoui, Camille Campidelli, Marianne Bombled, Sylvain Trépout, Frank Wien, Véronique Arluison
Hfq is a pleiotropic regulator that has key roles in the control of genetic expression. The protein noticeably regulates translation efficiency and RNA decay in Gram-negative bacteria, due to the Hfq-mediated interaction between small regulatory noncoding RNA and mRNA. This property is of primary importance for bacterial adaptation and virulence. We have previously shown that the Hfq E. coli protein, and more precisely its C-terminal region (CTR), self-assembles into an amyloid-like structure. In the present work, we demonstrate that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major green tea polyphenol compound, targets the Hfq amyloid region and can be used as a potential antibacterial agent...
December 1, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513653/effect-of-photodynamic-antibacterial-chemotherapy-combined-with-antibiotics-on-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria
#16
Yana Ilizirov, Andrei Formanovsky, Irina Mikhura, Yossi Paitan, Faina Nakonechny, Marina Nisnevitch
The well-known and rapidly growing phenomenon of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is caused by uncontrolled, excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics. One of alternatives to antibiotics is Photodynamic Antibacterial Chemotherapy (PACT). In the present study, the effect of PACT using a photosensitizer Rose Bengal alone and in combination with antibiotics including methicillin and derivatives of sulfanilamide synthesized by us was tested against antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates of Gram-positive S...
November 30, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513104/experimental-studies-addressing-the-longevity-of-bacillus-subtilis-spores-the-first-data-from-a-500-year-experiment
#17
Nikea Ulrich, Katja Nagler, Michael Laue, Charles S Cockell, Peter Setlow, Ralf Moeller
The ability to form endospores allows certain Gram-positive bacteria (e.g. Bacillus subtilis) to challenge the limits of microbial resistance and survival. Thus, B. subtilis is able to tolerate many environmental extremes by transitioning into a dormant state as spores, allowing survival under otherwise unfavorable conditions. Despite thorough study of spore resistance to external stresses, precisely how long B. subtilis spores can lie dormant while remaining viable, a period that potentially far exceeds the human lifespan; is not known although convincing examples of long term spore survival have been recorded...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30512240/impact-of-tetracationic-calix-4-arene-conformation-from-conic-structure-to-expanded-bolaform-on-their-antibacterial-and-antimycobacterial-activities
#18
Maxime Mourer, Raphaël Emmanuel Duval, Patricia Constant, Mamadou Daffé, Jean-Bernard Regouf de Vains
The four possible conformers of a new tetra-guanidino calix[4]arene thought to interact deleteriously with bacterial membrane were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against various reference Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria: E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. faecalis as well as M. tuberculosis. Their cytotoxicity was also evaluated in order to estimate their potential use. It appears that the transition from the cone conformation to partial cone and alternate analogues results in a significant gain of activity...
December 4, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511914/trinickia-diaoshuihuensis-sp-nov-a-plant-growth-promoting-bacterium-isolated-from-soil
#19
Yansong Fu, Rui Yan, Dongli Liu, Shanwen Jiang, Lin Cui, Xiaowei Guo, Xiangjing Wang, Ji Zhang, Wensheng Xiang
A novel Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped plant growth promoting bacterium, NEAU-SY24T , was isolated from soil in Diaoshuihu, Heilongjiang, China. The isolate grew at temperatures 10-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C), pH 5-8 (optimum, pH 6) and in the presence of up to 1 % (w/v) NaCl, although NaCl was not required for growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain NEAU-SY24T belonged to the genus Trinickia and was closely related to Trinickia dabaoshanensis NRRL B-59553T (99...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511766/plazomicin-a-next-generation-aminoglycoside
#20
Kristy M Shaeer, Monika T Zmarlicka, Elias B Chahine, Nicholas Piccicacco, Jonathan C Cho
Plazomicin is a novel aminoglycoside antibiotic that binds to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, thus inhibiting protein synthesis via a concentration-dependent manner. Plazomicin displays a broad spectrum of activity against aerobic gram-negative bacteria, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and organisms with aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. In a large phase III clinical trial, plazomicin was shown to be noninferior to meropenem in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) with respect to the coprimary efficacy endpoints of the microbiologically modified intent-to-treat composite cure rate at day 5 (plazomicin 88% [n=168/191] vs meropenem 91...
December 4, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
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