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Developmental assessment

Darcey M Allan, Christopher J Lonigan
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder consisting of inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors. Although, the multidimensionality of ADHD is widely accepted, questions remain regarding the extent to which the components of this disorder are overlapping or distinct. Further, although the same measures are generally used to assess inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive behaviors across childhood, it has been argued that the structure and measurement of inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive behaviors may be susceptible to developmental influences...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Jiri Lisy, Andrea Efremova, Michal Hrdlicka
AIMS: The aim of our study was to assess the yield of routine brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at our hospital as part of the diagnostic procedures focused on autism. METHODS: Our retrospective study involved children who had attended a diagnostic examination focused on autism and underwent brain MRIs between 1998-2015. The International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition was used to make clinical diagnoses. In 489 children (404 boys, 85 girls; mean age 8...
December 11, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Sakina H Sojar, Joshua S V Goldner, Kalpathy Krishnamoorthy, Sarah A Murphy, Peter T Masiakos, Jean E Klig
A healthy 17-year-old boy with a high-functioning pervasive developmental disorder presented to the emergency department after having a 4-minute episode of seizure-like activity in the setting of presumed viral gastroenteritis. Within an hour of emergency department arrival, he developed a forehead-sparing facial droop, right-sided ptosis, and expressive aphasia, prompting stroke team assessment and urgent neuroimaging. Laboratory results later revealed a serum sodium of 119 mmol/L. Neurologic deficits self-resolved, and a full physical examination revealed diffuse abdominal tenderness in the lower abdomen with rebound tenderness in the right-lower quadrant...
December 13, 2018: Pediatrics
Hildi Hagedorn, Marie Kenny, Adam J Gordon, Princess E Ackland, Siamak Noorbaloochi, Wei Yu, Alex H S Harris
BACKGROUND: In the US, emergency room visits and overdoses related to prescription opioids have soared and the rates of illicit opioid use, including heroin and fentanyl, are increasing. Opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, higher HIV and HCV infection rates, and criminal behavior. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT; methadone and buprenorphine) is proven to be effective in treating OUD and decreasing its negative consequences. While the efficacy of OAT has been established, too few providers prescribe OAT to patients with OUD due to patient, provider, or system factors...
December 13, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Sayyed Ali Samadi, Ghasem Abdollahi-Boghrabadi, Roy McConkey
Parents of children with developmental disabilities face many challenges. Those who are less satisfied with the care-giving that their children receive may require extra support. This paper reports the development of a Parental Satisfaction with Caring for a child with Developmental Disability Index (PSCDDI), with items derived from literature reviews and pilot testing in Iran. The index was field tested with 256 parents caring for children with a diagnosis of intellectual disability, autism, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and who were attending centres in four locations across Iran...
December 11, 2018: Children
Evy Verbueken, Chloé Bars, Jonathan S Ball, Jelena Periz-Stanacev, Waleed F A Marei, Anna Tochwin, Isabelle J Gabriëls, Ellen D G Michiels, Evelyn Stinckens, Lucia Vergauwen, Dries Knapen, Chris J Van Ginneken, Steven J Van Cruchten
The zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) embryo is currently explored as an alternative for developmental toxicity testing. As maternal metabolism is lacking in this model, knowledge of the disposition of xenobiotics during zebrafish organogenesis is pivotal in order to correctly interpret the outcome of teratogenicity assays. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in zebrafish embryos and larvae until 14 d post-fertilization (dpf) by using a non-specific CYP substrate, i.e., benzyloxy-methyl-resorufin (BOMR) and a CYP1-specific substrate, i...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Vincent Strehlow, Henrike O Heyne, Danique R M Vlaskamp, Katie F M Marwick, Gabrielle Rudolf, Julitta de Bellescize, Saskia Biskup, Eva H Brilstra, Oebele F Brouwer, Petra M C Callenbach, Julia Hentschel, Edouard Hirsch, Peter C Kind, Cyril Mignot, Konrad Platzer, Patrick Rump, Paul A Skehel, David J A Wyllie, Giles E Hardingham, Conny M A van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Gaetan Lesca, Johannes R Lemke
Alterations of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunit GluN2A, encoded by GRIN2A, have been associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with prominent speech-related features, and epilepsy. We performed a comprehensive assessment of phenotypes with a standardized questionnaire in 92 previously unreported individuals with GRIN2A-related disorders. Applying the criteria of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics to all published variants yielded 156 additional cases with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in GRIN2A, resulting in a total of 248 individuals...
December 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Alemayehu Argaw, Lieven Huybregts, Mekitie Wondafrash, Patrick Kolsteren, Tefera Belachew, Berhanu N Worku, Teklu G Abessa, Kimberley P Bouckaert
Background: The n-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential for optimal brain development. There is a lack of evidence on the effect of postnatal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation on child development in low-income countries. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of fish-oil supplementation through lactation or complementary food supplementation on the development of children aged 6-24 mo in rural Ethiopia. Methods: We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled trial of n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation for 12 mo using fish-oil capsules [maternal intervention: 215 mg DHA + 285 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)] or a fish-oil-enriched complementary food supplement (child intervention: 169 mg DHA + 331 mg EPA)...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Yu-Chun Lin, Yung-Tsung Chen, Ming-Ju Chen
Lactobacillus (L.) mali APS1 isolated from sugary kefir grains has been proven to affect energy and glucose homeostasis. However, without proper safety assessment it cannot be recommended as probiotics for human consumption. For genotoxicity, the Ames test showed no mutagenic effect of L. mali APS1 in the presence or absence of S9 mix metabolic activation. In-vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test showed that the number of Chinese hamster ovary cells with abnormal chromosomes was <5% after L. mali APS1 treatment...
2018: PloS One
Guela Sokhadze, Tania A Seabrook, William Guido
BACKGROUND: The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the mouse has become a model system for understanding thalamic circuit assembly. While the development of retinal projections to dLGN has been a topic of extensive inquiry, how and when nonretinal projections innervate this nucleus remains largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the development of a major nonretinal projection to dLGN, the ascending input arising from cholinergic neurons of the brainstem. To visualize these projections, we used a transgenic mouse line that expresses red fluorescent protein exclusively in cholinergic neurons...
December 12, 2018: Neural Development
Jenny R Saffran
Until recently, most behavioral studies of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have used standardized assessments as a means to probe etiology and to characterize phenotypes. Over the past decade, however, tasks originally developed to investigate learning processes in typical development have been brought to bear on developmental processes in children with IDD.This brief review will focus on one learning process in particular-statistical learning-and will provide an overview of what has been learned thus far from studies using statistical learning tasks with different groups of children with IDD conditions...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Kamaldeep Gill, Alan Osiovich, Anne Synnes, Jennifer A Agnew, Ruth E Grunau, Steven P Miller, Jill G Zwicker
AIM: To determine concurrent validity between the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (Bayley-III) and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd edition (PDMS-2). METHODS: Both assessments were administered to 184 preterm children at 18 months corrected age; standard scores for total score, gross motor, and fine motor were calculated for each child. Cross-tabulation and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) determined concurrent validity between the Bayley-III and the PDMS-2 motor domains...
December 12, 2018: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
Leesa A Pearce, Wade H Sinclair, Anthony S Leicht, Carl T Woods
Pearce, LA, Sinclair, WH, Leicht, AS, and Woods, CT. Physical, anthropometric, and athletic movement qualities discriminate development level in a rugby league talent pathway. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3169-3176, 2018-This study compared the physical, anthropometric, and athletic movement qualities of talent-identified rugby league (RL) players within a development pathway. From a total of 174 players, 3 developmental levels were defined: under 18 (U18; n = 52), under 20 (U20; n = 53), and state league (SL; n = 69)...
November 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Darby G Brooke, Gunnar Cervin, Olivier Champeau, D Tim Harwood, Henrik Pavia, Andrew I Selwood, Johan Svenson, Louis A Tremblay, Patrick L Cahill
A range of natural products from marine invertebrates, bacteria and fungi have been assessed as leads for nature-inspired antifouling (AF) biocides, but little attention has been paid to microalgal-derived compounds. This study assessed the AF activity of the spirocyclic imine portimine (1), which is produced by the benthic mat-forming dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum. Portimine displayed potent AF activity in a panel of four macrofouling bioassays (EC50 0.06-62.5 ng ml-1 ), and this activity was distinct from that of the related compounds gymnodimine-A (2), 13-desmethyl spirolide C (3), and pinnatoxin-F (4)...
December 12, 2018: Biofouling
Tomasz Wojciechowski, Tymon Skadorwa, Adrian Drożdż, Bogdan Ciszek, Kazimierz Szopiński
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Körner's septum (KS) is a developmental remnant formed at the junction of mastoid and temporal squama, representing the persistence of the petrosquamosal suture. During mastoid surgery, it could be taken as a false medial wall of the antrum so that the deeper cells might not be explored. The aim of the study was to assess a Körner's septum prevalence and to analyze its topography. METHODS: The study was performed on 80 sets of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of temporal bone (41 male, 39 female, 160 temporal bones)...
December 11, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Pallop Pongsuthirak, Teraporn Vutyavanich
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of maturation, fertilization, and embryo development of in vitro -matured human oocytes derived from pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods: Immature oocytes were obtained by needle aspiration from 49 pregnant women (group 1) who underwent a cesarean section at term and 77 non-pregnant women (group 2) who underwent a gynecological operation during the same period (8 months). Healthy immature oocytes (530 in group 1 and 539 in group 2) were cultured and assessed for maturation 36 hours later...
December 2018: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
Hugo Curiel, Emily S L Curiel, Anita Li, Neil Deochand, Alan Poling
A web-based program was developed to conduct brief multiple-stimulus without replacement preference assessments for videos (e.g., movies, cartoons, music videos). The preference assessment program was used with two populations: young adults with developmental disabilities and school-age children with emotional and behavioral needs. Stimulus preference hierarchies were identified for all participants, indicating that a web-based preference assessment procedure is an efficient procedure for isolating highly preferred videos, which might be useful as reinforcers in a variety of settings...
December 31, 2018: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Pavlos Rigas, Charalambos Sigalas, Maria Nikita, Ani Kaplanian, Konstantinos Armaos, Leonidas Jordan Leontiadis, Christos Zlatanos, Aspasia Kapogiannatou, Charoula Peta, Anna Katri, Irini Skaliora
Understanding the long term impact of early life seizures (ELS) is of vital importance both for researchers and clinicians. Most experimental studies of how seizures affect the developing brain have drawn their conclusions based on changes detected at the cellular or behavioral level, rather than on intermediate levels of analysis, such as the physiology of neuronal networks. Neurons work as part of networks and network dynamics integrate the function of molecules, cells and synapses in the emergent properties of brain circuits that reflect the balance of excitation and inhibition in the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Jean Marc Guilé, Laure Boissel, Stéphanie Alaux-Cantin, Sébastien Garny de La Rivière
Using the same Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth version ( DSM-V ) criteria as in adults, borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescents is defined as a 1-year pattern of immature personality development with disturbances in at least five of the following domains: efforts to avoid abandonment, unstable interpersonal relationships, identity disturbance, impulsivity, suicidal and self-mutilating behaviors, affective instability, chronic feelings of emptiness, inappropriate intense anger, and stress-related paranoid ideation...
2018: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
Kristina M Jackson, Tim Janssen
Survival analysis is a class of models that are ideal for evaluating questions of timing of events, which makes them well-suited for modeling the development of a process such as initiation of substance use, development of addiction, or post-treatment recovery. The focus of this review paper is to demonstrate how survival models operate in a broader developmental framework and to offer guidance on selecting the appropriate model on the basis of the research question at hand. We provide a basic overview of survival models and then identify several key issues, explain how they pertain to research in the addiction field, and describe studies that utilize survival models to address questions about timing...
November 20, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
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