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Developmental assessment

Naila Z Khan, Asma Begum Shilpi, Razia Sultana, Shaoli Sarker, Sultana Razia, Bipasha Roy, Abu Arif, Misbah Uddin Ahmed, Subas Chandra Saha, Helen McConachie
BACKGROUND: The 2017 political violence against the Rohingya people in the state of Rakhine resulted in a large influx of displaced populations into Bangladesh. Given harsh conditions and experiences in Myanmar, and the harrowing journey to the border, raised levels of child neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and mental health problems were expected. METHODS: A team of child development professionals, physicians, psychologists and developmental therapists, screened 622 children in a clinic within the refugee camps, using the Developmental Screening Questionnaire (DSQ; 0-<2 years), and the Ten Questions Plus (TQP) for NDDs, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; 2-16 years) for mental health problems...
October 18, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
Eric J Warm, Benjamin Kinnear, Matthew Kelleher, Dana Sall, Eric Holmboe
W. Edwards Deming, in his System of Profound Knowledge, asserts that leaders who wish to transform a system should understand four essential elements: appreciation for a system, theory of knowledge, knowledge about variation, and psychology. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) introduced the milestones program as a part of the Next Accreditation System to create developmental language for the six core competencies and facilitate programmatic assessment within graduate medical education systems...
October 16, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Mary M Flaherty, Emily Buss, Lori J Leibold
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the extent to which school-age children benefit from fundamental frequency (F0) differences between target words and competing two-talker speech, and (2) assess whether this benefit changes with age. It was predicted that while children would be more susceptible to speech-in-speech masking compared to adults, they would benefit from differences in F0 between target and masker speech. A second experiment was conducted to evaluate the relationship between frequency discrimination thresholds and the ability to benefit from target/masker differences in F0...
October 16, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Emma T Schiestl, Ashley N Gearhardt
OBJECTIVE: Assessment approaches for food addiction in younger samples have not been updated to reflect recently revised diagnostic approaches for addictive disorders. The aim of the current study is to develop a new dimensional approach to assess food addiction in adolescents that is psychometrically sound, developmentally appropriate, and reflective of the updated diagnostic criteria. METHODS: The dimensional Yale Food Addiction Scale for Children 2.0 (dYFAS-C 2...
October 17, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Rebecca L Stephens, Benjamin Langworthy, Sarah J Short, Barbara D Goldman, Jessica B Girault, Jason P Fine, J Steven Reznick, John H Gilmore
The study of executive function (EF) has become increasingly popular in multiple areas of research. A wealth of evidence has supported the value of EF in shaping notable outcomes across typical and atypical development; however, little evidence has supported the cognitive contributors to early EF development. The current study used data from a large longitudinal sample of healthy children to investigate the differential influence of verbal and nonverbal cognition on later EF. Participants were assessed at 2 years of age using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, and Mullen scores were used to calculate nonverbal and verbal developmental quotients...
2018: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
Kinga Polanska, Wojciech Hanke, Natalia Pawlas, Ewelina Wesolowska, Agnieszka Jankowska, Marta Jagodic, Darja Mazej, Jolanta Dominowska, Mariusz Grzesiak, Fiorino Mirabella, Flavia Chiarotti, Gemma Calamandrei
The impact of exposure to lead on child neurodevelopment has been well established. However, sex differences in vulnerability are still not fully explained. We aimed at evaluating the effect of a low-level lead exposure, as measured between 20 to 24 weeks of pregnancy and in cord blood, on developmental scores up to 24 months of age in 402 children from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL). Additionally, sex-dependent susceptibility to lead at this very early stage of psychomotor development was assessed...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Daniel J Spade, Edward Dere, Susan J Hall, Christoph Schorl, Richard N Freiman, Kim Boekelheide
Exposure to excess retinoic acid disrupts the development of the mammalian testicular seminiferous cord. However, the molecular events surrounding retinoic acid-driven loss of cord structure have not previously been examined. To investigate the mechanisms associated with this adverse developmental effect, fetal rat testes were isolated on gestational day 15, after testis determination and the initiation of cord development, and cultured in media containing all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA; 10-8 to 10-6 M) or vehicle for 3 days...
October 17, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Ana Paula Dassie-Leite, Mara Behlau, Suzana Nesi-França, Monica Nunes Lima, Luiz de Lacerda
PURPOSE: To evaluate the phonological characteristics of children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH). METHODS: Observational, analytical, cross-sectional, ambispective study including prepubertal children with CH (n=100; study group, SG) and controls without CH ( n=100; control group, CG). Assessments included a speech language pathology interview, the phonological evaluation of the ABFW Child Language Test, medical data, and neuropsychological tests in the first three years of life...
October 11, 2018: CoDAS
Ingrid Honeth, Barbara Laughton, Priscilla E Springer, Mark Fredric Cotton, Chrisma Pretorius
BACKGROUND: There is currently a great need in South Africa for culturally appropriate neurodevelopmental screening measures in order to facilitate early identification of neurodevelopmental problems in children. Neurodevelopmental screening has the potential to decrease the burden at health-care facilities as it is time, resource and cost effective. AIM: To assess the use of the Molteno Adapted Scale (MAS), a locally developed screening measure, to suggest an optimal cut-off score and investigate its accuracy in detecting developmental delays...
October 17, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Joanne A McVeigh, Erin K Howie, Kun Zhu, John P Walsh, Leon Straker
There is a critical need for longitudinal cohort studies to consider the association of the cumulative exposure of physical activity during childhood and adolescence and bone mass. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between organized sports trajectories (that capture distinct and potentially meaningful patterns over critical developmental periods) and bone mass at age 20 years. Participation in organized sport was recorded by parental report at ages 5, 8, 10, 14, and 17 years in 984 offspring (48% female) of a pregnancy cohort (Raine Study)...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Christen M Deveney, Margaret J Briggs-Gowan, David Pagliaccio, Christopher R Estabrook, Elvira Zobel, James L Burns, Elizabeth S Norton, Daniel S Pine, Melissa A Brotman, Ellen Leibenluft, Lauren S Wakschlag
Irritability is a prominent feature of chronic mental disorders and a developmental marker of their early emergence. The most salient feature of irritability in early childhood is temper tantrums. While temper tantrums are normative in young children, they can be clinically concerning when they are dysregulated, very frequent, and/or occur in unexpected contexts. The present study uses behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures to characterize the relationship between irritability and neural markers of response inhibition in very young children...
October 17, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Wei Fan, Xue-Jiao Li, Hong Gao, Xin Yi, Qiao-Jian Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship of femoral head coverage (FHC) with Graf's classification for diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and its role in evaluating hip stability. METHODS: A total of 4222 hips were screened ultrasonographically with Graf's and Harcke's methods. The stability of hips was analyzed using the difference between FHCs at neutral and flexion positions (FHC-D). RESULTS: (1) For the non-dislocated hips, the mean value of FHC at the neutral position was 59...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Katie L Barfoot, Gabrielle May, Daniel J Lamport, Jessie Ricketts, Patricia M Riddell, Claire M Williams
PURPOSE: Previous evidence suggests consumption of flavonoids, a sub-class of polyphenols, is associated with improved cognitive function across the lifespan. In particular, acute intervention of a flavonoid-rich wild blueberry (WBB) drink has been shown to boost executive function (EF), short-term memory and mood 2-6 h post-consumption in 7-10-year-old children. However, confirmation of the aspects of EF and memory susceptible to WBB ingestion is required, particularly during childhood, a critical period of neurological development...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Adel Shalata, Supanun Lauhasurayotin, Zvi Leibovitz, Hongbing Li, Diane Hebert, Santhosh Dhanraj, Yarin Hadid, Mohammed Mahroum, Jacob Bajar, Sandro Egenburg, Ayala Arad, Mordechai Shohat, Sami Haddad, Hassan Bakry, Houtan Moshiri, Stephen S Scherer, Shay Tzur, Yigal Dror
BACKGROUND: Dandy-Walker malformation features agenesis/hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle and enlargement of posterior fossa. Although Dandy-Walker malformation is relatively common and several genes were linked to the syndrome, the genetic cause in the majority of cases is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the mutated gene responsible for Dandy-Walker malformation, kidney disease and bone marrow failure in four patients from two unrelated families...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Emily Camilleri, Amel Dudakovic, Scott M Riester, Catalina Galeano-Garces, Christopher R Paradise, Elizabeth W Bradley, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Hee-Jeong Im, Marcel Karperien, Aaron J Krych, Jennifer J Westendorf, A Noelle Larson, Andre J van Wijnen
Ezh2 is a histone methyltransferase that suppresses osteoblast maturation and skeletal development. We evaluated the role of Ezh2 in chondrocyte lineage differentiation and endochondral ossification.Ezh2 was genetically inactivated in the mesenchymal, osteoblastic, and chondrocytic lineages in mice using the Prrx1-Cre, Osx1-Cre, and Col2a1-Cre drivers, respectively. Wild-type and conditional knockout mice were phenotypically assessed by gross morphology, histology, and micro-CT imaging. Ezh2-deficient chondrocytes in micromass culture models were evaluated using RNA-sequencing, histologic evaluation, and western blotting...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Samuel J Eckrich, Mark D Rapport, Catrina A Calub, Lauren M Friedman
The written expression difficulties experienced by children with ADHD are widely recognized; however, scant empirical evidence exists concerning the cognitive mechanisms and processes underlying these deficiencies. The current study investigated the independent and potentially interactive contributions of two developmentally antecedent cognitive processes - viz., working memory (WM) and oral expression - hypothesized to influence written expression ability in boys. Thirty-three boys with ADHD-Combined Presentation and 27 neurotypical (NT) boys 8-12 years of age were administered standardized measures of oral and written expression, and multiple counterbalanced tasks to assess WM central executive (CE) processes, WM phonological short-term memory (PH STM), and WM visuospatial short-term memory (VS STM)...
October 17, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Thiago Junqueira R Rezende, Alberto Rolim M Martinez, Ingrid Faber, Karen Girotto, Melina P Martins, Fabrício D de Lima, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Fernando Cendes, Marcondes C França
INTRODUCTION: Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most common autosomal-recessive ataxia worldwide; it is characterized by early onset, sensory abnormalities and slowly progressive ataxia. Besides that, all MRI-based studies have focused in the evaluation of adult patients. Therefore, we designed a cross sectional multimodal MRI-based study to investigate the anatomical substrates involved in the early stages of FRDA. METHODS: We enrolled 37 patients (12 children) and 38 controls...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Frances Rice, Lucy Riglin, Ajay K Thapar, Jon Heron, Richard Anney, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar
Importance: Depression often first manifests in adolescence. Thereafter, individual trajectories vary substantially, but it is not known what shapes depression trajectories in youth. Adult studies suggest that genetic risk for schizophrenia, a psychiatric disorder with a neurodevelopmental component, may contribute to an earlier onset of depression. Objective: To test the hypothesis that there are distinct trajectories of depressive symptoms and that genetic liability for neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]), as well as for major depressive disorder (MDD), contribute to early-onset depression...
October 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Xuan Chen, Biao Xuan, Da Xu, Qiuyue Wang, Mimi Cheng, Jin Yi
The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of crocin supplementation during oocyte maturation on the antioxidant defense and anti-apoptotic ability and subsequent developmental competence of porcine oocytes. Oocytes were cultured in media containing 0, 300, 400, or 500 ug/mL of crocin. Upon maturation, the maturation rates, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) levels, mRNA expression of genes (SOD, CAT, GPx, Bcl-2, BAX and Caspase3), expression of cleaved caspase-3 and subsequent embryo cleavage rates were measured...
October 16, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Adam Gauley, Scott A Boden
Modifications of inflorescence architecture have been crucial for the successful domestication of wheat and barley, which are central members of the Triticeae tribe that provide essential grains for the human diet. Investigation of the genes and alleles that underpin domestication-related traits has provided valuable insights into the molecular regulation of inflorescence development of the Triticeae, and further investigation of modified forms of architecture are proving to be equally fruitful. The identified genes are involved in diverse biological processes, including transcriptional regulation, hormone biosynthesis and metabolism, post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation, which alter inflorescence architecture by modifying the development and fertility of lateral organs, called spikelets and florets...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
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