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crohn disease multiple sclerosis

Charoula Matalliotaki, Michail Matalliotakis, Maria I Zervou, Alexandra Trivli, Ioannis Matalliotakis, George Mavromatidis, Demetrios A Spandidos, Hans M Albertsen, Rakesh Chettier, Kenneth Ward, George N Goulielmos
Endometriosis is an enigmatic condition with an unknown etiology and poorly understood pathogenesis and women with endometriosis represent a high-risk population group for a large category of chronic conditions. The study focused on a 67-year-old woman who presented with a 40-year history of familial endometriosis associated with various non-gynecological co-morbidities, thus representing a unique case from a cohort of 1,000 patients with endometriosis. Her family history included infertile members suffering from endometriosis...
October 1, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Juliette Peltzer, Marc Aletti, Nadira Frescaline, Elodie Busson, Jean-Jacques Lataillade, Christophe Martinaud
Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a rare chronic disease, related to autoimmune connective tissue diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Sjögren's Syndrome. Although its clinical heterogeneity, main features of the disease are: extensive tissue fibrosis with increase matrix deposition in skin and internal organ, microvascular alterations and activation of the immune system with autoantibodies against various cellular antigens. In the diffuse cutaneous scleroderma subtype, the disease is rapidly progressive with a poor prognosis, leading to failure of almost any internal organ, especially lung which is the leading cause of death...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Karlo Toljan, Bruce Vrooman
Naltrexone and naloxone are classical opioid antagonists. In substantially lower than standard doses, they exert different pharmacodynamics. Low-dose naltrexone (LDN), considered in a daily dose of 1 to 5 mg, has been shown to reduce glial inflammatory response by modulating Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in addition to systemically upregulating endogenous opioid signaling by transient opioid-receptor blockade. Clinical reports of LDN have demonstrated possible benefits in diseases such as fibromyalgia, Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, complex-regional pain syndrome, Hailey-Hailey disease, and cancer...
September 21, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Juliano André Boquett, Marcelo Zagonel-Oliveira, Luis Fernando Jobim, Mariana Jobim, Luiz Gonzaga, Maurício Roberto Veronez, Nelson Jurandi Rosa Fagundes, Lavínia Schüler-Faccini
BACKGROUND: HLA genes are the most polymorphic of the human genome and have distinct allelic frequencies in populations of different geographical regions of the world, serving as genetic markers in ancestry studies. In addition, specific HLA alleles may be associated with various autoimmune and infectious diseases. The bone marrow donor registry in Brazil is the third largest in the world, and it counts with genetic typing of HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1. Since 1991 Brazil has maintained the DATASUS database, a system fed with epidemiological and health data from compulsory registration throughout the country...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Ahmet Şükrü Aynacıoğlu, Ayhan Bilir, Mehmet Yakup Tuna
Midkine (MK) is a heparin-binding growth factor that markedly expressed during embryogenesis but downregulated to inconsiderable levels in healthy adults. However, MK is upregulated during tissue repair and in many pathologic conditions, mostly malignancies and inflammatory diseases. MK promotes a number of functions in target cells such as migration, proliferation, survival, growth, reproduction and repair, angiogenesis and gene expression. It acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and contributes to chronic inflammation via promoting chemotaxis and tissue infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages...
September 14, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
Kassem Sharif, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Autoimmune diseases are a group of heterogeneous condition that occur secondary to the intrinsic loss of tolerance to self- antigens. In genetically susceptible individuals, the complex interplay of environmental factors and epigenetic deregulations have been proposed to drive disease etiopathogenesis. Various environmental variables have been identified including viral infections, exposure to pollutants, stress and dietary factors. Sodium, a major constituent of salt is essential for mammalian physiology. However, high salt intake may play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases...
September 11, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Florent Arbogast, Frédéric Gros
Autophagy is a catabolic mechanism, allowing the degradation of cytoplasmic content via lysosomal activity. Several forms of autophagy are described in mammals. Macroautophagy leads to integration of cytoplasmic portions into vesicles named autophagosomes that ultimately fuse with lysosomes. Chaperone-mediated autophagy is in contrast the direct translocation of protein in lysosomes. Macroautophagy is central to lymphocyte homeostasis. Although its role is controversial in lymphocyte development and in naive cell survival, it seems particularly involved in the maintenance of certain lymphocyte subtypes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mohamad Karaky, María Fedetz, Victor Potenciano, Eduardo Andrés-León, Anna Esteve Codina, Cristina Barrionuevo, Antonio Alcina, Fuencisla Matesanz
SP140 locus has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as other autoimmune diseases by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The causal variant of these associations (rs28445040-T) alters the splicing of the SP140 gene transcripts reducing the protein expression. We aimed to understand why the reduction of SP140 expression produced by the risk variant can increase the susceptibility to MS. To this end, we determined by RNA-seq analysis the differentially expressed genes after SP140 silencing in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs)...
August 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Angela Richard-Eaglin, Benjamin A Smallheer
Autoimmune disorders are a category of diseases in which the immune system attacks healthy cells as a result of a dysfunction of the acquired immune system. Clinical presentation and diagnosis are disease specific and often correspond with the degree of inflammation, as well as the systems involved. Treatment varies based on the specific disease, its stage of presentation, and patient symptoms. The primary goal of treatment is to decrease inflammation, minimize symptoms, and lessen the potential for relapse...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
Sang Hyun Kim, Ho Hyun Jung, Chong Kil Lee
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role not only in the initiation of primary immune responses, but also in the development and maintenance of immune tolerance. Numerous protocols have been developed to generate tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs) ex vivo, and the therapeutic efficacy of ex vivo-generated tolDCs has been demonstrated in autoimmune disease animal models. Based on successes in small animal models, several clinical trials have been completed or are on-going in patients with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and Crohn's disease...
September 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
John A Snowden, Basil Sharrack, Mohammed Akil, David G Kiely, Alan Lobo, Majid Kazmi, Paolo A Muraro, James O Lindsay
Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) is commonly used for the treatment of haematological cancers, but is increasingly used in the treatment of patients severely affected by autoimmune diseases (ADs). In fact, ADs have become the fastest growing indication for aHSCT. A wide range of diseases have been treated, but the field has focused on three areas: multiple sclerosis, diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis and Crohn's disease, where there are populations of patients for whom disease control remains unsatisfactory despite the advent of biological and targeted small molecule therapies...
August 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Azam Fatahi, Ilnaz Rahimmanesh, Mina Mirian, Fattah Rohani, Maryam Boshtam, Azam Gheibi, Laleh Shariati, Hossein Khanahmad, Shirin Kouhpayeh
Blockade of α4 integrin by antibodies could be an appropriate treatment strategy in multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease. Considering disadvantages of antibodies, other elements (e.g. aptamers) have been proposed for antibodies replacement. Isolation of aptamers through cell-SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) method requires positive and negative expressing α4 integrin cell lines. For a better isolation, we intended to construct a negative cell line lacking of specific ligand binding site of α4 integrin...
August 2018: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Hao Li, Fang-Hong Shi, Shi-Ying Huang, Shun-Guo Zhang, Zhi-Chun Gu, Ji-Fu Wei
BACKGROUND: Natalizumab (NAT), a humanized monoclonal antibody, which binds in both α4β1 integrins and α4β7 integrins, is approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and Crohn's disease (CD). An uncommon but serious adverse event from NAT treatment is known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). However, clinical comprehensive safety evidence of NAT is limited. METHODS: We will search Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, and ClinicalTrials...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jérémy Lambert, Michael Chekroun, Hélène Gilet, Catherine Acquadro, Benoit Arnould
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic conditions are required to take long-term treatments for their disease itself or to prevent any potential health risks. Measuring patient acceptance of their medication should help to better understand and predict patients' behavior toward treatment. This study aimed to describe the level of patient acceptance toward various long-term treatments in real life using an online patient community. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study conducted through the French Carenity platform...
July 6, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Mary Garvey
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is a bacterial parasite and the causative agent of paratuberculosis, a disease predominately found in cattle and sheep. Infection with this microorganism results in substantial farming economic losses and animal morbidity. The link between infection with this pathogen and human disease has been theorised for many years with Crohn's disease being one of many suspected resultant conditions. Mycobacterium avium may be spread from animal to human hosts by water and foodborne transmission routes, where the foodborne route of exposure represents a significant risk for susceptible populations, namely children and the immune-compromised...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
Georgia Melagraki, Georgios Leonis, Evangelos Ntougkos, Vagelis Rinotas, Christos Papaneophytou, Thomas Mavromoustakos, George Kontopidis, Eleni Douni, George Kollias, Antreas Afantitis
The overexpression of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) is directly related to the development of several autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, refractory asthma, and multiple sclerosis. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa- B Ligand (RANKL) belongs to the TNF family and is the primary mediator of osteoclast-induced bone resorption through interaction with its receptor RANK. The function of RANKL is physiologically inhibited by the action of osteoprotegerin (OPG), which is a decoy receptor that binds to RANKL and prevents the process of osteoclastogenesis...
2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Paul L Wood, Erdal Erol, Glen F Hoffsis, Margaret Steinman, Jeroen DeBuck
Objectives: Bovine paratuberculosis is a devastating infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis that ultimately results in death from malnutrition. While the infection is characterized by a long (2-4 years) subclinical phase with immune activation, ultimately host defense mechanisms fail and the bacteria spread from the small intestine to other organs. Since both the gastrointestinal tract and liver are essential for the biosynthesis of structural glycerophospholipids, we investigated the circulating levels of these lipids in field infections and experimentally infected cattle...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
Eric Toussirot, Matthieu Béreau, Charline Vauchy, Philippe Saas
Immune mediated diseases (IMDs) are complex chronic inflammatory diseases involving genetic and environmental factors. Salt intake has been proposed as a diet factor that can influence the immune response. Indeed, experimental data report the influence of sodium chloride on the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into IL-17 secreting T helper (Th) cells (Th17 cells), by a mechanism involving the serum glucocorticoid kinase-1 (SGK1) that promotes the expression of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R). The IL-23/IL-23R is critical for pathogenic inflammatory Th17 cell differentiation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Li Hao, Shi Fang-Hong, Huang Shi-Ying, Zhang Shun-Guo, Chen Min-Ling
Natalizumab (Tysabri®, Biogen-Idec Inc., NAT), a humanized anti-α4 integrin monoclonal antibody, binds in both α4β1 (Very Late Antigen 4, VLA-4) and α4β7 (lymphocytes Peyer's patch adhesion molecule 1, LPAM-1) integrins, is approved for the treatment of Multiple sclerosis (MS) and Crohn's disease (CD). NAT has been well tolerated in pivotal trials. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an uncommon but serious complications resulting from NAT treatment. It is not confirmed that higher NAT concentration increases the risk of PML...
April 27, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Jennie G Pouget
Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder of complex etiology. Immune processes have long been proposed to contribute to the development of schizophrenia, and accumulating evidence supports immune involvement in at least a subset of cases. In recent years, large-scale genetic studies have provided new insights into the role of the immune system in this disease. Here, we provide an overview of the immunogenetic architecture of schizophrenia based on findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). First, we review individual immune loci identified in secondary analyses of GWAS, which implicate over 30 genes expressed in both immune and brain cells...
August 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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