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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30545401/a-comparative-study-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-does-a-common-dysbiosis-exist
#1
Jessica D Forbes, Chih-Yu Chen, Natalie C Knox, Ruth-Ann Marrie, Hani El-Gabalawy, Teresa de Kievit, Michelle Alfa, Charles N Bernstein, Gary Van Domselaar
BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) represents a substantial health concern. It is widely recognized that IMID patients are at a higher risk for developing secondary inflammation-related conditions. While an ambiguous etiology is common to all IMIDs, in recent years, considerable knowledge has emerged regarding the plausible role of the gut microbiome in IMIDs. This study used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to compare the gut microbiota of patients with Crohn's disease (CD; N = 20), ulcerative colitis (UC; N = 19), multiple sclerosis (MS; N = 19), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA; N = 21) versus healthy controls (HC; N = 23)...
December 13, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541348/intermittent-blockade-of-ogfr-and-treatment-of-autoimmune-disorders
#2
Ian S Zagon, Patricia J McLaughlin
This mini-review presents information on the intermittent blockade of the opioid growth factor (OGF)-OGF receptor (OGFr) axis by low-dose naltrexone (LDN), and the role of enkephalin (i.e. OGF) in autoimmune disorders, specifically multiple sclerosis, Crohn's, and fibromyalgia. Clinical reports on subjects taking LDN have documented reduced fatigue, few side-effects, and improved overall health. Preclinical studies on mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis, revealed that immunization for EAE reduces serum OGF...
December 12, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30504122/effect-of-dietary-additives-on-intestinal-permeability-in-both-drosophila-and-a-human-cell-co-culture
#3
Matthew T Pereira, Mridu Malik, Jillian A Nostro, Gretchen J Mahler, Laura Palanker Musselman
Increased intestinal barrier permeability has been correlated with aging and disease, including type 2 diabetes, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis and irritable bowel syndrome. The prevalence of these ailments has risen together with an increase in industrial food processing and food additive consumption. Additives, including sugar, metal oxide nanoparticles, surfactants and sodium chloride, have all been suggested to increase intestinal permeability. We used two complementary model systems to examine the effects of food additives on gut barrier function: a Drosophila in vivo model and an in vitro human cell co-culture model...
November 28, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407269/familial-association-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-autoimmune-diseases-in-the-population-of-sweden
#4
Xinjun Li, Cecilia Sjöstedt, Jan Sundquist, Bengt Zöller, Kristina Sundquist
AIMS: In the era of genome-wide association studies, familial risks are used to estimate disease heritability and success in gene identification. We wanted to estimate associations of 42 autoimmune diseases with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) between individuals and family members. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: The availability of a Multigeneration Register in Sweden provides reliable access to family data that covers the last century. An open cohort design of the diseases in individual and family members was obtained through linkage to the Hospital Discharge Register...
November 6, 2018: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30352197/reclassifying-idiopathic-uveitis-lessons-from-a-tertiary-uveitis-center
#5
Rene Y Choi, Erick Rivera-Grana, James T Rosenbaum
PURPOSE: Idiopathic uveitis is frequently the most common diagnosis in series from uveitis clinics. We sought to determine the percentage of patients initially diagnosed as idiopathic, non-infectious uveitis referred to a tertiary uveitis center who were subsequently found to have an identifiable cause of uveitis. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: We performed a computerized database analysis of 179 consecutive patients who were referred to our practice with the diagnosis of idiopathic, non-infectious uveitis between 2008 and 2016...
October 20, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272298/co-existence-of-endometriosis-with-13-non-gynecological-co-morbidities-mutation-analysis-by-whole-exome-sequencing
#6
Charoula Matalliotaki, Michail Matalliotakis, Maria I Zervou, Alexandra Trivli, Ioannis Matalliotakis, George Mavromatidis, Demetrios A Spandidos, Hans M Albertsen, Rakesh Chettier, Kenneth Ward, George N Goulielmos
Endometriosis is an enigmatic condition with an unknown etiology and poorly understood pathogenesis and women with endometriosis represent a high-risk population group for a large category of chronic conditions. The study focused on a 67-year-old woman who presented with a 40-year history of familial endometriosis associated with various non-gynecological co-morbidities, thus representing a unique case from a cohort of 1,000 patients with endometriosis. Her family history included infertile members suffering from endometriosis...
December 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271402/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-based-therapy-in-systemic-sclerosis-rational-and-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Juliette Peltzer, Marc Aletti, Nadira Frescaline, Elodie Busson, Jean-Jacques Lataillade, Christophe Martinaud
Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a rare chronic disease, related to autoimmune connective tissue diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Sjögren's Syndrome. Although its clinical heterogeneity, main features of the disease are: extensive tissue fibrosis with increase matrix deposition in skin and internal organ, microvascular alterations and activation of the immune system with autoantibodies against various cellular antigens. In the diffuse cutaneous scleroderma subtype, the disease is rapidly progressive with a poor prognosis, leading to failure of almost any internal organ, especially lung which is the leading cause of death...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30248938/low-dose-naltrexone-ldn-review-of-therapeutic-utilization
#8
REVIEW
Karlo Toljan, Bruce Vrooman
Naltrexone and naloxone are classical opioid antagonists. In substantially lower than standard doses, they exert different pharmacodynamics. Low-dose naltrexone (LDN), considered in a daily dose of 1 to 5 mg, has been shown to reduce glial inflammatory response by modulating Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in addition to systemically upregulating endogenous opioid signaling by transient opioid-receptor blockade. Clinical reports of LDN have demonstrated possible benefits in diseases such as fibromyalgia, Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, complex-regional pain syndrome, Hailey-Hailey disease, and cancer...
September 21, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217207/spatial-analyzes-of-hla-data-in-rio-grande-do-sul-south-brazil-genetic-structure-and-possible-correlation-with-autoimmune-diseases
#9
Juliano André Boquett, Marcelo Zagonel-Oliveira, Luis Fernando Jobim, Mariana Jobim, Luiz Gonzaga, Maurício Roberto Veronez, Nelson Jurandi Rosa Fagundes, Lavínia Schüler-Faccini
BACKGROUND: HLA genes are the most polymorphic of the human genome and have distinct allelic frequencies in populations of different geographical regions of the world, serving as genetic markers in ancestry studies. In addition, specific HLA alleles may be associated with various autoimmune and infectious diseases. The bone marrow donor registry in Brazil is the third largest in the world, and it counts with genetic typing of HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1. Since 1991 Brazil has maintained the DATASUS database, a system fed with epidemiological and health data from compulsory registration throughout the country...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217121/involvement-of-midkine-in-autoimmune-and-autoinflammatory-diseases
#10
Ahmet Şükrü Aynacıoğlu, Ayhan Bilir, Mehmet Yakup Tuna
Midkine (MK) is a heparin-binding growth factor that markedly expressed during embryogenesis but downregulated to inconsiderable levels in healthy adults. However, MK is upregulated during tissue repair and in many pathologic conditions, mostly malignancies and inflammatory diseases. MK promotes a number of functions in target cells such as migration, proliferation, survival, growth, reproduction and repair, angiogenesis, and gene expression. It acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and contributes to chronic inflammation via promoting chemotaxis and tissue infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages...
October 25, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213699/the-role-of-dietary-sodium-in-autoimmune-diseases-the-salty-truth
#11
REVIEW
Kassem Sharif, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Autoimmune diseases are a group of heterogeneous condition that occur secondary to the intrinsic loss of tolerance to self- antigens. In genetically susceptible individuals, the complex interplay of environmental factors and epigenetic deregulations have been proposed to drive disease etiopathogenesis. Various environmental variables have been identified including viral infections, exposure to pollutants, stress and dietary factors. Sodium, a major constituent of salt is essential for mammalian physiology. However, high salt intake may play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases...
November 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30127786/lymphocyte-autophagy-in-homeostasis-activation-and-inflammatory-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Florent Arbogast, Frédéric Gros
Autophagy is a catabolic mechanism, allowing the degradation of cytoplasmic content via lysosomal activity. Several forms of autophagy are described in mammals. Macroautophagy leads to integration of cytoplasmic portions into vesicles named autophagosomes that ultimately fuse with lysosomes. Chaperone-mediated autophagy is in contrast the direct translocation of protein in lysosomes. Macroautophagy is central to lymphocyte homeostasis. Although its role is controversial in lymphocyte development and in naive cell survival, it seems particularly involved in the maintenance of certain lymphocyte subtypes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102396/sp140-regulates-the-expression-of-immune-related-genes-associated-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-other-autoimmune-diseases-by-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibition
#13
Mohamad Karaky, María Fedetz, Victor Potenciano, Eduardo Andrés-León, Anna Esteve Codina, Cristina Barrionuevo, Antonio Alcina, Fuencisla Matesanz
SP140 locus has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as other autoimmune diseases by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The causal variant of these associations (rs28445040-T) alters the splicing of the SP140 gene transcripts reducing the protein expression. We aimed to understand why the reduction of SP140 expression produced by the risk variant can increase the susceptibility to MS. To this end, we determined by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis the differentially expressed genes after SP140 silencing in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs)...
December 1, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099999/immunosuppressive-autoimmune-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Angela Richard-Eaglin, Benjamin A Smallheer
Autoimmune disorders are a category of diseases in which the immune system attacks healthy cells as a result of a dysfunction of the acquired immune system. Clinical presentation and diagnosis are disease specific and often correspond with the degree of inflammation, as well as the systems involved. Treatment varies based on the specific disease, its stage of presentation, and patient symptoms. The primary goal of treatment is to decrease inflammation, minimize symptoms, and lessen the potential for relapse...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091313/generation-characteristics-and-clinical-trials-of-ex-vivo-generated-tolerogenic-dendritic-cells
#15
REVIEW
Sang Hyun Kim, Ho Hyun Jung, Chong Kil Lee
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role not only in the initiation of primary immune responses, but also in the development and maintenance of immune tolerance. Numerous protocols have been developed to generate tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs) ex vivo, and the therapeutic efficacy of ex vivo-generated tolDCs has been demonstrated in autoimmune disease animal models. Based on successes in small animal models, several clinical trials have been completed or are on-going in patients with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and Crohn's disease...
September 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072560/autologous-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-ahsct-for-severe-resistant-autoimmune-and-inflammatory-diseases-a-guide-for-the-generalist
#16
John A Snowden, Basil Sharrack, Mohammed Akil, David G Kiely, Alan Lobo, Majid Kazmi, Paolo A Muraro, James O Lindsay
Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) is commonly used for the treatment of haematological cancers, but is increasingly used in the treatment of patients severely affected by autoimmune diseases (ADs). In fact, ADs have become the fastest growing indication for aHSCT. A wide range of diseases have been treated, but the field has focused on three areas: multiple sclerosis, diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis and Crohn's disease, where there are populations of patients for whom disease control remains unsatisfactory despite the advent of biological and targeted small molecule therapies...
August 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065768/construction-and-characterization-of-human-embryonic-kidney-hek-293t-cell-overexpressing-truncated-%C3%AE-4-integrin
#17
Azam Fatahi, Ilnaz Rahimmanesh, Mina Mirian, Fattah Rohani, Maryam Boshtam, Azam Gheibi, Laleh Shariati, Hossein Khanahmad, Shirin Kouhpayeh
Blockade of α4 integrin by antibodies could be an appropriate treatment strategy in multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease. Considering disadvantages of antibodies, other elements (e.g. aptamers) have been proposed for antibodies replacement. Isolation of aptamers through cell-SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) method requires positive and negative expressing α4 integrin cell lines. For a better isolation, we intended to construct a negative cell line lacking of specific ligand binding site of α4 integrin...
August 2018: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29995817/clinical-adverse-effects-of-natalizumab-protocol-for-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trails
#18
REVIEW
Hao Li, Fang-Hong Shi, Shi-Ying Huang, Shun-Guo Zhang, Zhi-Chun Gu, Ji-Fu Wei
BACKGROUND: Natalizumab (NAT), a humanized monoclonal antibody, which binds in both α4β1 integrins and α4β7 integrins, is approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and Crohn's disease (CD). An uncommon but serious adverse event from NAT treatment is known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). However, clinical comprehensive safety evidence of NAT is limited. METHODS: We will search Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, and ClinicalTrials...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976222/assessing-patients-acceptance-of-their-medication-to-reveal-unmet-needs-results-from-a-large-multi-diseases-study-using-a-patient-online-community
#19
Jérémy Lambert, Michael Chekroun, Hélène Gilet, Catherine Acquadro, Benoit Arnould
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic conditions are required to take long-term treatments for their disease itself or to prevent any potential health risks. Measuring patient acceptance of their medication should help to better understand and predict patients' behavior toward treatment. This study aimed to describe the level of patient acceptance toward various long-term treatments in real life using an online patient community. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study conducted through the French Carenity platform...
July 6, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911021/-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-a-possible-causative-agent-in-human-morbidity-and-risk-to-public-health-safety
#20
REVIEW
Mary Garvey
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is a bacterial parasite and the causative agent of paratuberculosis, a disease predominately found in cattle and sheep. Infection with this microorganism results in substantial farming economic losses and animal morbidity. The link between infection with this pathogen and human disease has been theorised for many years with Crohn's disease being one of many suspected resultant conditions. Mycobacterium avium may be spread from animal to human hosts by water and foodborne transmission routes, where the foodborne route of exposure represents a significant risk for susceptible populations, namely children and the immune-compromised...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
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